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FROM 

OTLEY TO LANGSTROTHDALE 
BY HARRY SPEIGHT 

SCALt * MILES TO AN INCH 







,-A 



UPPER 
WHARFEDALE. 



BEING A COMPLETE ACCOUNT OF THE 

HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES AND SCENERY 

OF THE PICTURESQUE 

VALLEY OF THE WHARFE, 

FROM OTLEY TO LANGSTROTHDALE. 



HARRY SPEIGHT, 



AUTHOR OK " ROMANTIC RICIIMOXDSIIIHE "; " NIDUKRDAI.K AND THE GARDEN OF THE NIDD ' 
" CRAVES AND NOKTH-WEST YORKSHIRE HIOHLANDB," ETC. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



LONDON : 

ELLIOT STOCK, 62, PATERNOSTER ROW, E.G. 
1900. 

Entered at Stationers' Hall, 




ULVERSTON : 

W. HOLMES, OTTO PRINTING WORKS, LIGHTBURNE ROAD. 
1900. 






PREFACE. 




HE present treatise on Upper Wharfedale is offered 
in continuation of the series of my -published volumes 
on the history, antiquities and scenery of the 
Yorkshire Dales. The work, I must own, makes 
no pretence to literary excellence, nor is absolute 
accuracy in all details guaranteed, yet I humbly claim it to be the 
fullest and I hope the most reliable survey of the district embraced 
now extant. While much of a general and descriptive character 
has been written on this exceedingly popular and picturesque valley, 
it must be noted that with the exception of such records as are 
contained in the History of Craven by Dr. Whitaker, first published 
in 1805, no attempt has hitherto been made to deal succinctly and 
adequately with the varied concerns of its extensive parishes in what 
may be considered the spirit of modern topographical enquiry. Dr. 
Whitaker, followed by his able editor, Mr. A. W. Morant, F.S.A., 
will always be honored for the great value of his original researches, 
which however principally concern manorial history and the titles 
and lineage of the great lords who had either by inheritance or 
purchase a possessory right in the soil. His work, moreover, 
embracing the whole of the ancient and extensive Deanery of 
Craven is a bulky and costly volume. 

In the present effort to describe a more limited area of this 
picturesque part of Yorkshire, I have supplemented and corrected 
where I have been able the historical records of Dr. Whitaker. At 
the same time I have endeavoured to make the work interesting 
by the introduction of a variety of other topics, such as geological 
descriptions, notes on natural history (a very rich field), folk-lore and 
old customs (which surviving in retired country places may often be 
traced to their Anglo-Saxon or even remote Celtic origins) as also 
traditions, legends, and anecdotes of persons and things ; subjects 
in fact that possess a fascination to the general reader. The whole 
work is also brought down to date. 



Originally it was my intention to have embraced in one volume 
a survey of the whole of the Wharfe valley from the parish of 
Cawood to the source of the river in the solitudes of Langstrothdale. 
But such a scheme would have necessitated the omission of a great 
deal of valuable original material, inasmuch as the records, together 
with the varied interest attaching to such parishes as Tadcaster , 
Wetherby, and Thorp Arch, not to mention other places within the 
attractive region of the Lower Wharfe, are quite sufficient to make a 
portly volume in themselves. In order therefore to do adequate 
justice to the whole subject I proposed in the Prospectus issued in 
connection with this present work to deal with the valley in two 
volumes, the first to embrace UPPER WHARFEDALE and the second 
(not less interesting) LOWER WHARFEDALE ; and care has been taken 
by this arrangement not to interfere with the collaboration and 
completeness of the whole. 

Resident as I have always been in the vicinity of Wharfedale, 
the charmingly-picturesque valley has been familiar to me from early 
boyhood, and its abounding attractions have always possessed to me 
more than ordinary delight. Thousands of happy hours I have spent 
in the valley and I have walked thousands of miles throughout its 
length and breadth, observing and noting every visible feature and 
object of interest, while my maternal ancestors, as will be seen from 
the pedigree on pages 338-9, have lived in the ancient parishes of 
Skipton and Burnsall, and probably within sound of the bells of 
Bolton Abbey, for more than five hundred years. Folk of no State 
distinction they ever were, but humble commoners as the Fates made 
them, racy of the soil from which they sprang, ready ever to serve 
their country and their God ; men who under the banner of the 
"Shepherd Lord" shared England's hopes and glory on the memorable 
Field of Flodden, or who taking up arms as their consciences dictated 
for King or for Parliament joined in the strife that led to the fateful 
day of Marston Moor. 

In the preparation of this book therefore, I have had ample 
material from which to build up the story of every parish from the 
first evidences of its life. I have noted and described, I believe, 
every object of historical and archaeological interest, all the ancient 
camps, cairns, tumuli, stone circles, marked stones, house-steads, 
roads, dykes, and other evidences of prehistoric occupation. But in 
so wide a district, comprising vast extents of wild fell and uncultivated 
moorland, there may possibly be some object or remains of this kind, 
which have escaped notice, obscured as they may be by centuries' 
growth of peat and turf. Some of these overgrown prehistoric sites, 
as for example the extensive encampment within the township of 
Thorpe in Burnsall parish, I have been guided to discover merely by 
acquaintance with the Celtic names of the sites where they lie. 
In the light, too, feeble often though it be, of these ancient place- 



5 

N, as also of sculptured rocks, crosses, holy-wells, church 
symbolism and the like, I have been able to form some interesting 
conclusions on the occupation of the district from remote pagan to 
early Christian times. Things likewise that enable us to speak of the 
gradual abandonment of crude religious beliefs, and of the nobler 
aims and art of the people brought about by the development and 
spread of Christianity. 

The original settlements and orthographical interpretation of 
the various places dealt with, have been based on carefully-considered 
historical and philological evidences, and in all cases with due 
deference to the original character of the sites and remains so far as 
their existing aspects enable us to determine them. 

Coming to the period of actual written evidences, almost every 
parish chest and available archive, locally as well as in London, 
Wakefield, and York, has been examined, including old Sessions' 
Records, Wills, Fines, Inquisitions, Pipe Rolls, Charter Rolls, Close 
Rolls, Patent Rolls, Chancery Proceedings, Calendar of State Papers, 
Heralds' Visitations, Archiepiscopal and other Registers, as well as 
most of the publications of the learned societies and thousands of 
valuable newspaper cuttings collected by me during past years. 
Some of the parishes and places but lightly touched on by Whitaker, 
such as Otley, Leathley, Addingham, Burley and Grassington, I 
have dealt with at length. The much-visited localities of Bolton 
Abbey and Barden Tower I have also treated in somewhat 
considerable detail. For much of the information related about 
these places I am indebted to the generous condescension of His 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire for the privilege of an inspection of 
the charters and numerous old documents at Bolton Hall, facilities 
for the examination of which were courteously given by His Grace's 
steward, Mr. Alfred Downs. Many items of more than local interest 
have thus been brought to light, including some account of the 
historic Barden Tower, and the life that gathered round it during the 
stirring epoch of the famous "Shepherd Lord." Some fragments are 
also offered of a long-lost cell or religious house at Marton-in-Craven, 
and of the ancient "Wake" of St. Cuthbert at Embsay, a great annual 
event at one time, but the recollection of which must long have been 
forgotten. 

The history of manorial and other families and biographical 
sketches of local worthies, including abstracts from unpublished deeds 
and pedigrees, have received commensurate attention. Likewise 
every notable building, ecclesiastical as well as domestic, has been 
described from my own personal observations, such descriptions in 
many cases being aided by engravings illustrative of special features. 

In the preparation of a work of this character, it is a pleasure to 
state that I have been very willingly assisted by many of the gentry 
and other residents in Wharfedale. Indeed, there is not n village or 



a hamlet that I do not owe to one or more of its inhabitants facts of 
more or less importance obtained or related to me personally on the 
spot, or communicated to me by letter at various times. Every 
clergyman in the Dale too, from Otley to Langstrothdale, has been 
most obliging in allowing me to inspect the old parish books, registers, 
and other documents in their keeping, from which I have been able 
to make many useful abstracts and interesting reflections on past life 
in the Dale. It is a matter of much regret that I cannot mention 
every one separately by name and am perforce obliged to make this 
general acknowledgment of help so ungrudgingly rendered. 

Outside the district information has also reached me from 
almost all quarters of the globe. It is impossible to acknowledge 
the kind communications of every writer. To the Rt. Hon. Lord 
Hawkesbury I am particularly indebted for various information 
communicated in the midst of his many and pressing duties, and 
especially for his assistance in preparing the useful and important 
pedigree of the noble House of Cavendish, as all the published 
pedigrees of the Dukes of Devonshire are singularly deficient and 
inaccurate. The Rev. J. R. Baldwin, East Barton ; the Rev. W. C. 
Kendall, Aysgarth ; Mr. Wm. C. Maude, Bournemouth , and Mr. 
Cecil Tennant, F.S.A., London, have also courteously complied with 
my wish to furnish a detailed lineage of their respective families, 
which are among the oldest in Upper Wharfedale and its 
neighbourhood. To Major Parker, of Browsholme Hall, I owe an 
explanation of some difficulties in connection with the Currer 
pedigree, printed on pages 248-9, which has enabled me to connect 
that historic family with my old yeoman ancestors, the Moorhouses, 
referred to above. 

I have also had the use of two small unpublished manuscript 
volumes on a part of Wharfedale, kindly placed in my hands by Mr. 
W. Venables Rhodes, of Cleckheaton. They are of no historic value, 
but are interesting as being the earliest prose volumes on Wharfedale 
extant, containing several pen and ink illustrations, and dated on the 
title-page 1807. The author's name is not stated. They contain, 
however, some useful particulars on contemporary events such as the 
running of the coaches, holding of markets, descriptions of buildings, 
&c., then existing, and wherever I have quoted from them 
acknowledgment has been made. To Mr. John Hopkinson, 
F.R.MetS., St. Albans, I am indebted for the valuable Tables of 
Rainfall in Wharfedale, printed on pages 19-21. Mr. Francis Darwin, 
J.P., of Creskeld, has supplied many useful notes, and he has also 
been good enough to revise the proofs of the chapters on Bramhope 
and Pool. Very little hitherto has been recorded of these places. 
For various other kindly help, information, loan of papers, &c., my 
thanks are due to the Rev. Canon Beanlands, M.A., Victoria, British 
Columbia ; the Rev. Thos. Parkinson, North Otterington ; the Rev. 



7 

T. Basil \Voodd, M.A., London ; Sir James Ramsay, Bart., M.A., 
Bamff, Messrs. T. E. Yorke, Bewerley Hall; Arthur C. Benson, Eton; 
Geo. B. Nesfield, London; W. G. Collingwood, M.A., Coniston; John 
Varley, C.E., Skipton, J. W. Clay, F.S.A., Brighouse ; J. R. Boyle, 
K.S.A., Hull; Richd. E. Leach, M.A., Appleby ; J. W. A. Black, 
Bradford; Wm. Butterfield, Bradford; David Longbottom, Silsden , 
J. A. Clapham, Bingley; J. Norton Dickons, Bradford; John J. Stead, 
Heckmondwike; Gilbert Metcalfe and Nathaniel J. Hone, London. 

The illustrations from which the engravings have been made 
and which form a conspicuous and useful feature of the book, have 
been remitted from various quarters, and many of them have been 
specially taken for the work. They include also some valuable and 
scarce originals. In preference to an enumeration here of the names 
of those who have been good enough to allow me to engrave their 
views, portraits, &c., I have, in accordance with my usual plan, 
indicated on pages 16 to 18 the sources from which they have been 
derived. 

The bulk of the pictures have been engraved and the printing 
of the book and binding have been executed at the works of Mr. 
William Holmes, Ulverston. The quality of this work must be left 
to speak for itself. 

In conclusion, my thanks are due to the numerous and influential 
body of subscribers whose patronage has materially assisted me in 
the publication of the work. Their names are printed at the end of 
the volume. 

HARRY SPEIGHT. 
BINGLEY, YORKSHIRE, 

Midsummer, 1900. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS. 



CHAPTER I., OTLEY AND NEIGHBOURHOOD IN PREHISTORIC 

TIMES ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 

General character of Wharfedale Its isolation, healthfulness, and surpassing- scenery 
History and antiquities Rocks and wild flowers Early settlements in the parish 
of Otley Some British and Roman roads Otley under the Romans Celtic 
survivals Important discoveries Local evidences of Roman Christianity Holy 
Wells, &c. Otley in the kingdom of Elmete Abounding British remains Otley 
an early and important religious centre The planting of the Cross Historical 
and other evidences Local misconceptions The first Yorkshire monasteries 
Dedication of churches to All Saints Local dissent in the 7th century Pipin's 
Castle near Otley Saxon Otley Meaning of Otley Local ethnology The 
inroads of the Danes The victory of King Athelstan His grant of Otley to the 
See of York The Archbishop's jurisdiction and privileges The first church 
A dual right of sanctuary at Otley. 

CHAPTER II., RECORDS OF THE PARISH OF OTLEY FROM THE 

NORMAN CONQUEST... ... ... ... ... ... 38 

Settlement and extent of the Norman parish of Otley The feudal manor, how worked 
Township areas Guiseley and the origin of its parish Baildon and Bramhope 
in Domesday The extinct wapentake of Gereburg, its origin and purpose Claro 
wapentake and the Curia Regis The origin of lordships The gallows at Otley 
Hanging a bellman Citation of local executions Rewards for felling thieves 
Warrant against the Archbishop Unpublished market-charter for Otley Local 
errors Ancient laws of sale and barter Markets held in the nave of the church 
A picturesque Otley fair-day The monks of Bolton, Arthington, &c., attend the 
fairs The Archbishop's manor-hall and court at Otley Ancient burgage tenure 
How Otley was anciently represented in Parliament Local monastic possessions 
Foundation of a leper's hospital at Otley The building of Otley bridge Otley in 
the 1 4th century Abbot of Selby at Otley and local inns The "Shepherd" Lord 
Clifford at Otley after the battle of Flodden A i6th century Otley muster-roll- - 
Otley during the Civil War Menston Old Hall Local events, Extracts from the 
Registers The xyth century hearth-tax Otley and the 1715 and 1745 rebellions. 

CHAPTER III., THE TOWN OF OTLEY, PAST AND PRESENT... 57 

The town of Otley Noted visitors Antiquity of the parish and origin of die church 
Comparison with Dewsbury Historical and architectural account of the church 
The building of the aisles Endowment of the chantry-chapels The tombs and 
tablets The families of Fairfax, Fawkes, and Vavasour The medieties of the 
church List (annotated) of vicars Abstracts from the registers The churchyard 
The Grammar School Local Nonconformity The Friends Wesleyans 
Independents Baptists Primitive Methodists, &c. Old roads and streets, their 
origin and significance Old Otley inns Attack on Lord Fairfax Life at Otley in 
the coaching-days The railways Pleasant aspects Local trades and industries 
The Wharfedale Agricultural Society ; its origin and history Amusing anecdotes 
Various old customs at Otley The Maypole Old Otley families Distinguished 
natives. 

CHAPTER IV., AROUND OTLEY 91 

Delightful scenery and associations Bishop Tunstall's praise Local geological 
formation View from the Chevin Otley Bridge Newhall Old Hall Local 
families Interesting relics at Newall Hall Otley Union A centenarian. 



CHAPTER V.. FARNLKY ... 99 

Farnley Hall and the Fawkc- taniily -The family muniments Historical sketch The 
late Mr. Ayscough F'awkc- and the Rev. Frederick Fawkes The hall and il- 
trea-nrc- The Turner drawing- Relic- of the Civil \Var The park -Sale of 
pedigree stock The church Discovery of a lead coffin. 

CHAPTER VI., THE PARISH OF LEATHLEY 107 

Beautilul scenery The Washburn -Meaning of the name -Local field-names Pre- 
Coii(|uest Leathley Manorial history Meaning- of LYathley The De Lclay- and 
other families Warburton's visit to I.eathley The Pilgrimage of Grace The 
Cliurcli Architectural description Comparison with Celtic churches Historical 
records The old rectorv Curious old stocks and whipping-post -Ancient trades 
at I.eathley Boundaries of the common -The school and almshouses Mr-. 
Wat-on, centenarian I.eathlcv Hall Castle\-, the hall, &c. Historical notes 
Chapel Field Ancient manor-house -A rural solitude. 

CHAPTER VII., ROUND ABOUT POOL 127 

Pool Bridge A rare fern History of Pool Local monastic possessions < )ld families 
Old trades and inns -The church Picturesque aspects Local mansions -Leeds 
and Otley turnpike -Cycling scenes Caley Hall, an old hunting-lodge of the 
Gascoignes Park stocked with deer, zebras, &c. 

CHAPTER VIII., BRAMHOPE 135 

Meaning of Hramhope Situation and wide view --Roman camp Historical records 
Land cultivated from ancient times The Domesday carucate Dyneley family 
Local monastic properties Tenants in bondage -Hramhope Hall The Rhodes 
and Darwin families The old chapel erected during the era ot the Commonwealth 
The old churchyard The new church of St. Giles The Wesleyan Chapel 
The Craven Institute. 

CHAPTER IX., BURLEY 139 

The old cotton mill and how it was worked The new mills Burley in the van of 
progress Historical records Meaning of Burley -Local families -Descent of the 
manor -Monastic possessions The church The late Rev. Dr. Black -The Maude 
family Notable houses -Recent alterations -Burley Great Pudding -Burley Hall 

Local Worthies Handsome memorial to the late Rt. Hon. W. L". Forster 
Greenholme Mills, a model factory Mr. VVm. Fison and the late Mr. Forster 
Local benefactions Anecdote of Mr. Forster His death and funeral The poet 
Watson 

CHAPTER X., ON THE EDGE OF THE MOOR 156 

Burley Wood Head The Kumbalds Moor hermit Ancient -tone circles The old 
hamlet of Stead The Stead family Remarkable instance of continuous residence 
in one spot Stead Hall The Twisleton family Picturesque aspects -Probable 
site of Roman camp - Prehistoric remains ( )ld local families A moorland walk 
Hawksworth Hall and the Hawksworths < )kl Menston families Menston Old 
Hall The asylum. 

CHAPTER XI., THE PARISH OF WESTON 163 

Rural aspects Antiquity of the parish Manorial history The manor never once sold 
from the Norman Conquest to the present time Weston Hall Old tithe-barn 
The Norman Church The tithes View of the surrounding country Whin Castle 
Dog Park, an old Forest Lodge Askwith, meaning of its name Historical 
records The family of Askwith The Kendalls Old (Juaker Meeting-House 
Wesleyans Village inns -Askwith Fea-t. 



to 
CHAPTER XII., DENTON AND THE FAIRFAXES ... ... 172 

Meaning- of Denton Si. Helen's Gill Wild plants, &c. Scales Gill- Charter 
mentioning- ancient boundaries Denton an ancient centre of the clothing' trade 
The Fairfax family Their extraordinary talents Distinguished visitors at Denton 
Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax Thomas, Lord Fairfax, the Parliamentary General 
Sale of Denton to the Ibbetsons Denton Hall Old-time life at the hall The old 
chapel The present church Old customs. 

CHAPTER XIII., ILKLEY BEFORE THE NORMAN CONQUEST... 185 

Ilkley mentioned by Ptolemy A Brigantian station Meaning- of Olicana The Anglo- 
Saxon subjugation Conjectural site of the British "city" The Roman station 
Description of the Roman camp Local discoveries The "Verbeiie" stone 
Meaning of Wharfe- The "Hercules" stone, its probable significance Christianity 
prevailing' in places not reached by the Romans The Celtic Church -Early forms 
of baptism A remarkable Roman grave-slab at Ilkley Other discoveries The 
Ilkley camp the focus of four Roman highways Their routes described Saxon 
Christianity at Ilkley Local sculptured crosses Local influence of St. Wilfrid 
Ilkley a Danish mint Antiquity of boundaries Ancient methods of cultivation. 

CHAPTER XIV., THE TOWN OF ILKLEY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 201 

Contrast between old Ilkley and the present Rustic aspects The "Cow and Calf" rocks 
Ilkley "illuminated" at the Queen's coronation A murder in the Cow Pastures-- 
The Butterfield family- The old White Wells Manorial records Unpublished 
market-charter Ilkley contributes to the war ag-ainst Scotland The English 
defeat at Bannockburn Population and old inns The Parish Church Grammar 
School Places of public worship The old vicarag-e Schools Museum Con- 
valescent homes Coaches to and from Ilkley Former life at Ilkley Distinguished 
visitors Old customs Recent improvements The Ilkley of to-day Wheatley 
and its old Hall. 

CHAPTER XV., RUMBALDS MOOR: ITS PHYSICAL FEATURES 

AND ANTIQUITIES ... ... ... ... ... ... 224 

Unrivalled attractions of Rumbalds Moor Meaning of its name St. Rumold, a 
Christian martyr View from the top of the moor Local geology Glacial 
evidences Curious rocks and traditions Advent of man Original Goidelic 
settlement "Cow and Calf" rocks Marked stones and circles Their universal 
dispersion Local workers Descriptive list of antiquities on the Moor Theories 
and ideas respecting them Symbols of time, &c. Evolution of the Sun-Snake 
The doctrine of the ascending spirit The marked stones, the basis of Ilkley's 
existence Necessity for their careful preservation Projected military encampment 
on the Moor An unrivalled playground. 

CHAPTER XVI., AROUND ILKLEY 244 

Great changes about Ilkley Hebers' Gill, formerly Black Beck -An ancient tribal 
boundary Silver Well Hollin Hall The Hebers, Maudes, and Currers Ilkley 
Bridge Myddleton Lodge and the Middletons The late William Middleton Esq. 
His private benevolence Sale of part of the Middleton estate. 

CHAPTER XVII., AROUND BEAMSLEY BEACON 255 

Howber Hill, its meaning Supposed tumuli Beacon lighted during the threat of the 
French invasion Fine prospect Langbar An ancient paved way Barnbowers 
Currer Hall Farrand House West Hall and the Ferrands Beacon House The 
Briggs family The late Mr. B. B. Popplewell Church services at Beacon Hill 
Local Wesleyans Ling' Park and the Kendalls. 



I I 
CHAl'IKR XVIII., XESSFIKLD 265 

Meaning of NYsslield ( 'aMleberg, a prehistoric ramp Local discoveries Low Mill 

Scar Norman land-cultivation Plumpton family .Manor-house and mill ( )ld 

homeMeacU John Prior, clock-maki i- The Kendalls and Nesstields 'I'hc new 
church 'I'hc swing-bridge. 

CHAPTER XIX., PRE-NORMAN ADDINGHAM 270 

Banishment ot an Archbishop of York to Addingham in A.I). ISjo Abounding pre- 
historic sites Discovery ol a brun/e spear-head Roman road through .-\ddingham 
I he coaching (lavs Close House Roman camp on Counter Hill Prehistoric 
tumulus Ancient boundaries Curious field-names Local discoveries. 

CHAPTER XX , ALL ABOUT ADDINGHAM FROM THE NORMAN 

CONQUEST 275 

Little hitherto recorded about Addingham Addingham in Cumberland- -Domesday 
testimony Meaning 1 of Addingham Historic evidences The Battle of Flodden 
The Reformation A local martyr The Parish Church Local families A 
centenarian Remarkable discoveries 'Lithe-barn Kvents at Adding-ham during 
the Civil \Var Abstracts from the old parish books Pinfold and ducking-stool 
i'ettv Sessions Old customs Some old houses The old School The manor-house 
Lartield Hall --Local Nonconformists Old trades The power-loom riots. 

CHAPTER XXI , ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF BOLTON ... 287 

Prehistoric evidences Bolton, a possession of the Earls of Mercia Conjectural royal 
residence at Bolton in Saxon times Domesday inquest Superior importance of 
Snaygill, &c., to Skipton Importance of Embsay and Halton - Probable centres of 
Celtic missionary work Grant to Romille and the building of Skipton Castle. 

CHAPTER XXII., EMBSAY "WAKE" AND THE FOUNDATION 

OF BOLTON PRIORY... ... ... ... ... ... 291 

Beautiful scenery Motives for site of the Priory Ancient religious associations at 
Embsay -St. Cuthbert's "Wake" The Celtic Church in Northumbria The 
painting of St. Cuthbert at Bolton Priory The great Fair at Embsay Remains of 
the Priory at Embsay Citation of grant of the manor of Bolton Leg-end of the 
Strid- The grange of Stead Specte Beck and the name Speight Citations from 
unpublished charters. 

CHAPTER XXIII., BOLTON ABBEY: RECORDS OF EIGHT 

CENTURIES ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 298 

Descent of the manor to the Cliffords Purchase of the lordships of Bolton &c. by 
Henry, Earl of Cumberland The Priory raided by the Scots -Abstracts from and 
remarks upon the ancient Compotus of the Priory Death of the Lady Margaret 
Neville and the pomp of her funeral The Nortons and the Catholic rebellion 
Notes from letters at Bolton Abbey Effects of the Dissolution Local notices ol 
the Civil War Succession of the manor The Cavendish family Bolton Hall 
Armorial errors Cavendish Memorial Fountain The late Duke of Devonshire. 

CHAPTER XXIV., DESCRIPTION OF THE ABBEY 311 

A neglected approach to the Abbey A Pilgrim's Cross Beauty of the scenery The 
Poet Laureate's observations The ruined choir Norman sculptured stones 
"Sermons in stones" Additions in the i3th century The parish church 
Architectural description The Beamsley Hall chapel --Vault for upright burials 
Sealed altar -Other relics -The tower &c. The Priors o\ en Local discoveries 
A pilgrim's statue. 



12 

CHAPTER XXV., MARTON: A LOXG-LOST RELIGIOUS HOUSE 323 

Local references to Marton Priory The Bolton monks' land at Marlon in Craven 
The Priory of Marton in Cleveland Records at Bolton Abbey Discoverit - <>n the 
site of Ing-thorpe Grange Was there a dependent cell to Bolton at Marton? 
Situation of the religious house- Old monastic orchard Family of Baldwin 
Description of Ingthorpe Grange. 

CHAPTER XXVI., AROUND BEAMSLEV 327 

Picturesque aspect --Local families Manor of Beamsley The Claphams Beamsley 
Hall Risphill and Gihbeter Troubles of the Reformation Beamsley Hospital 
Ancient ferry-house Bolton Bridge Old Roads. 

CHAPTER XXVII., ROUND ABOUT DRAUGHTON 333 

Local geological phenomena -The great anticlinal, cause of the Harrogate mineral 
waters Aspects at Bolton Abbey Draughton in Domesday Old local families 
Dr. Wainman Draughton Hall Local relics An old cotton-mill The church and 
school -Past traditions A story of witchcraft Close House and the Moorhouses 
Local belief in "Red Cap" Pedigree of the Moorhouses Local relics in possession 
of the author -Families descended from the Moorhouses Dr. Moorhouse The 
('uirers of Skibeclen East Skibeden and Judge Nightingale A crack shot 
Local anecdote. 

CHAPTER XXVIII., THROUGH THE WOODS TO HARDEN 

TOWER ... ... 345 

Unceasing charm of Bolton Woods -Wild Dowers -The Bishop of Lincoln, Archbishop 
Benson and Mr. Ruskin's opinions Andsell and Landseer at Bolton The Rev. 
Wm. Carr Opening out the woods with pleasant paths and drives The Rev. A. 
P. Howes Names of some old "Seats" The "White Horse" of the Strid Lud 
Islands Harden Tower Inventory in the time of Lady Anne Clifford Life at 
Barden Tower in the time of the "Shepherd Lord" -Abstracts of his domestic 
expenses Forest lodges and river-watchers-- Local relics Barden Church. 

CHAPTER XXIX., THROUGH THE VALLEY OF DESOLATION 

TO SIMON SEAT 358 

Posforth Gill waterfall A great flood Romantic gorge Bounds of the Forest of 
Barden British evidences An old trackway over the moor Remains of ancient 
bloomeries In the Valley of Desolation Deer still wild there On the top of the 
moor Strange rocks and wild plants Truckle Crags, old rock-shelters Cairn of 
the "Devil's Apronful" Simon Seat Curious rock phenomena Glorious view 
Remarkable depression on the moor Geological peculiarities Lord's Seat 
Boundary of the Forest of Knaresbro'. 

CHAPTER XXX, APPLETREWICK 365 

Importance of Appletrewick before the Norman Conquest Its ancient gallows 
Manorial history Sale of the manor to Bolton Priory Grant of free warren, its 
meaning and significance History after the Reformation Old houses Erroneous 
conclusions Court rolls of the manor Old customs Local families The stocks 
Ancient mansions The noble family of Craven Supposed birth-place of Sir Wm. 
Craven Low Hall and the Proctors Local ancestry of Archbishop Benson 
Meaning of Appletrewick. 



T 3 

CHAPTER XXXI., UP THE DALE TO BURSSAU 375 

A lovely drive through the Forest of Harden old Forest lodges Club Nook Rustic 
simplicity Drebley Prospect from Burnsall Fell Side \Voodhouse and the 
Blands Ancestral connections with Lord Nelson Olti houses and families 
Hartlingion- - Loral properties of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem The 
Metralle family Manorial records Feudal obligations Some errors corrected 
Hartlington Hall, the residence of I.t.-('ol. Dawson Tin- old manor-house ami 
cliapel An old inn Ancient family of Dihh Skyreholme Percival Hall and the 
Low-oils A notable marriage The Inman family The gorge of Trailers Gill 
Descent of Hell Hole Geological aspects. 

CHAPTER XXXII., BURNSALL 387 

In the land of the Viking Meaning of the name Burnsall Dale-names in the Sagas 
Post-Norman history The glebe Local monastic possessions Bond tenure 
Ouality and weight of cattle in ancient times First evidences of the occupation 
of Burnsall Revival of Christianity Early sculptured crosses Burnsall never in 
the parish of Linton Ancient holy-wells Description of crosses Historical 
inaccuracies The medieties of the church The ancient chapels at Rilston, 
C'oniston, and Bradley Rectors of Burnsall The church described Eleventh 
century font Churchwardens' accounts Old customs Local pastimes The old 
Grammar School Local improvements Pleasant scenery. 

CHAPTER XXXIII., THE ANCIENT TOWNSHIP OF THORPE, 

OR THORPE-SUB-MONTEM ... ... ... ... ... 403 

A "Sleepy Hollow," the "birth-place of the world" A pre-Christian burial-vault 
and old bear den The shoemakers of Thorpe The Baily Hill, an old British 
encampment Evidences of coral-reefs Elbolton Cave Discovery of human and 
other remains Antiquity of the deposits Bones o( Arctic animals Subsequent 
history The hall and manor-house Former aspects. 

CHAPTER XXXIV., LINTON-IN-CRAYKN 409 

Numerous Lintons -Historical errors Local monastic possessions Traditions of an 
alien Priory -Discovery of a remarkable brass crucifix A brass seal of St. Michael 
found near Bolton Abbey Evidences of Celtic occupation "Borrans" at Linton 
Celtic customs at Linton Superiority of Grassington over Linton in Anglo-Saxon 
times The manor at the Conquest The church Architectural description The 
rectors Notes on the registers Pre-Reformation burials The old rectories 
Local evidences of Anglo-Saxon and other customs Linton Hospital Notable 
houses Delightful scenery. 

CHAPTER XXXV., AROUND THRESHFIELD 421 

The sense of freedom and freshness among the Craven fells The valley at Threshfield 
-Caverns at Skirethorns and evidences of prehistoric inhabitants Remarkable 
finds Early cultivation of land -Ancient customs The family of Threshfield 
Local grants to Fountains Abbey The Old Hall Inn -Craven butter Notable 
houses Local families The park Grammar School Distinguished pupils. 

CHAPTER XXXVI., CELTIC GRASSINGTON ... ... 427 

Romantic scenery Archaeological interest Grassington an ancient "citv" 
Extensive prehistoric earthworks &c. Recent discoveries A Celtic stronghold 
Antiquity of local lead-mines Roman conquest Bronze and iron Discovery of Roman 
coins The High Close encampment Roman roads Peculiar field-names Celtic 
traditions Fairy Hole Miners' superstitions -Celtic numerals An old Roman custom. 



CHAPTER XXXVII., GRASSINGTON PAST AND PRESENT ... 435 

The displacement of Christianity Grassing-ton the last strong-hold ot Celtic 
independence Extent of cultivation at the Conquest Garsington in Oxfordshire 
Manorial history The Plumptons The Old Hall, a notable house Architectural 
description Ancient local families Grassington Beacon Meeting of Yorkshire 
naturalists A Paradise of wild-flowers Beautiful scenery Our Lady's Well 
Ghaistrills Present aspects of the town Proposed light-railway Old customs Local 
dissent and effects of the Reformation. 

CHAPTER XXXVIIL, ON THE HIGH MOORS 448 

A tramp into Nidderdale An old road Natural history attractions On the moors with 
the late Mr. H. T. Soppitt A search for the bear-berry An extensive prospect 
Ancient hill-names Discovery of a brass celt Greenhow Hill The highest 
church in Yorkshire Geology of Greenhow The Bradford Waterworks tunnel. 

CHAPTER XXXIX., ROMANTIC HEBDEN 453 

Picturesque aspects Name of Hebden Thor's Well Manorial history The family 
of Hebden Roman Catholicism in Upper Wharfedale A Hebden recussant 
Local improvements Former appearance of the village An ancient drying-kiln 
The old manor-house Old natives Anecdote Some old homesteads The church 
Romantic scenery Ancient field-names. 

CHAPTER XL., ROUND ABOUT CONISTON 459 

Romantic scenery Chapel House : A grange and chapel of Fountains Abbey The 
Tennant family The village of Coniston Meaning- of Coniston Antiquity of the 
church Its present aspects Old houses Prehistoric evidences Discoveries in 
Coniston Pastures Local hill-names. 

CHAPTER XLI., KILNSEY 464 

Prehistoric habitations Dowkabottom Cave Discoveries of prehistoric animal and 
human remains Relics of prehistoric spinning and weaving Name and meaning 
of Kilnsey Local possessions of Fountains Abbey Grange destroyed by the 
Scots Annual sheep-shearing at Kilnsey Rights of way for ox-wains &c. The 
old Hall and the Wade family Lady Anne Clifford at Kilnsey Kilnsey Crag 
Local inns Kilnsey Angling Club. 

CHAPTER XLII., KETTLEWELI 473 

Remoteness from railways Proposed line up Wharfedale The charm of isolation 
Local inns and accommodation The Great Scar-Limestone Formation of terraces 
Ancient "terraced reins" Antiquity of local husbandry Prehistoric evidences 
Scale Park Hunting- Lodge Name of Kettlewell Progress of agriculture 
Manorial history Old families The church Wesleyan Chapel Kettlewell 
blacksmiths Inns Romantic scenery Douk cave. 

CHAPTER XLIII., A TRAMP THROUGH LITTONDALE 480 

Local possessions of Fountain Abbey Wild beasts and birds of prey The eagle in 
Littondale Last record of the eagle in Wharfedale Routes into Littondale 
Hawkswick The Horse Head pass Across Malham Moors Dalesfolk and the 
Transvaal War Rainfall in Littondale Heat and cold Local longevity Vicars 
of Arncliffe Botany of Littondale Some rare wild flowers The church at 
Arncliffe Halton Gill chapel, &c. Wild scenery. 



'5 
CHAPTER XLIV., UP DAM. FROM KETTLEWELL TO BUCKDEN 485 

Picturesque scenery Tin- village ol Suit l>o||< mi Meaning ol (lie name A historic 
Hood Old houses at Starliottom Buckden Woods Local field-names At tin: 
dale-head FiiM records ot Buckden Wild deer Manorial owners Buckdcn Hall 
Antiquity of manor-house The family of Hucktlen The village Church and 
\Vesleyan Chapel The Friends Wild scenery - A haunt of the marten Cray. 

CHAPTER XLV., IN WILD LANGSTROTHDALK 491 

Kxtent of Buckden township The Forest of Langstroth owned by the Percys and 
Cliffords The chapelry of Hubberholme Viking invasion Antiquity "t 
Hubberholmc Church Description of interior An ancient n)od-loft The Heliei- 
family and the new parsonage A walk up the dale Poor's Pasture K.xtermination 
of wild animals Lodges in the fores! of Langstroth Local possessions of Fountains 
Abbey Monastic cattle-folds Raysgill Keckermonds The Lodge family 
Oughtershaw and the Woodds Local enterprise A wealth of wild )lowcr< 
Discovery of coins Romantic scenery At the source of the Wharfe Conclusion. 



1 6 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FL'LL PAGE VIEWS. 
I\ THI: LARGE PAPER EDITION ONLY. 

Engraved for this work from the original 

supplied by 
BOLTON PRIORY, drawn by J. M. W. Frontispiece 

Turner, R. A. Face page. 

Burley House ... ... ... ... ... Wm. C. Maude, Bournemouth ... 147 

Interior of Hubberholme Church ... .. S. Milne-Milne, Calverley ... ... 192 



IN BOTH EDITIONS. FULL PAGE VIEWS. 



OtleyChevln 

Otley Church 

Kirkgate, Otley 

Ancient Crosses, Otley Church 
Old Grammar School, Otley ... 

Newall Old Hall . . 

Farnley Hall 

Ayscough Fawkes, Esq., J.P. 

Interior of Farnley Hall 

Swinsty Reservoir, Washburn Valley 

Norman Door & Window, Leathley Church 

Bramhope Hall ... 

Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster 

Forster Memorial Cross, Burley 
Weston Church ... 
I Ikley from West View 
Roman Grave Slab at York ... 
Brook Street, Ilkley, fifty years ago 
Old Grammar School, Ilkley ... 
Roman Grave Slab found at Ilkley ... 
Mother Downe's Cottage, Ilkley 

The Old Hall, Wheatley 

Prehistoric Sculptured Stone... 

Ilkley Bridge 

Myddelton Lodge, near Ilkley 

On the Wharfe, Bolton Woods 

Tomb of Henry, first Earl of Cumberland, 

Skipton Church 

Bolton Hall 

West Doorway, Bolton Priory 
Norman Arcading, Bolton Priory ... 

Ground Plan of Bolton Priory 

Ancient Houses formerly at Beamsley 

On the Wharfe, Bolton Woods 

Bolton Priory from the Thatched Summer 

House 

The Strid, Bolton Woods 

Harden Tower .. 



Wm. Walker & Soils, Otley . . . 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

R. E. Gregory, Bingley 
Wm. Walker & Sons, Otley. . . 

Do. do. 

Joseph Pollard, Ilkley 
Rev. F. Faivkes, M.A., Farnley 
Phineas B>iggs, Clayton 

Miss Beatrice Mylne, Leeds . . . 

Bradford Hist, and Antiq. Soc. 

H. W. Sachs, Bradford 

Wm. Walker & Sons, Otley . . . 

George Hepworth, Brighouse . . . 
J. Shuttlexorth, Ilkley 

Bradford Hist, and Antiq. Soc. 

Wm. Butterfield, Bradford ... 
J. Shuttleviorth, Ilkley 
Jesse Bontoft, Ilkley ... 

Wm. Bnimfitt, Ilkley 
Jesse Bontoft, Ilkley ... 

Thos. Pawson, Bradford 

J. SImttlewoi-th, Ilkley 
W. Scott, Ilkley 



Fred Turner, Morecambe 
D. Long-bottom, Silsden 
J.Jackson, Bradford ... 
Yorks. Arcfaeol, Society 
George Hey, Beamsley 
W. Scott, Ilkley 



2 5 
40 

57 
62 

7 1 



I0 5 
107 

"7 
132 

'39 
'5 2 
162 
202 
i93 

201 
213 
216 
218 
222 
237 
2 5 ' 
253 
291 

299 
305 

3 11 
312 
320 
328 
344 

347 
349 
35 



Biinisall I'rom the \\Vst 

Bunisall Church .. ,., ... "... 

Thirteenth Centurv Sculpture, Burnsall 

Church 

Ancient l-'ont, Burnsall Church 
I.inton Bridge and Falls 
Norman Crucifix found al I.inton 
Union Cliurch ... 

The Old Hall < Jrassjngton 

Suspension Bridge, ( ira-s Wood 

The Ghaistrills, Grassington .. 

Suspension Bridge, Hebclcn ... 

Scala (iill Waterfall 

\'ie\v in Wharfedale near Collision 
Collision C'hurcli 
Kettlewell from tin- west 

Hubberholme Church 

Oughte rshaw Hall 



l-'i-id Turner, .]/,i>; i in/i/ii 
Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

D. Brmonsworthi Skipton 

/'red 'I'u rner, Monniml'i 
/). /! ro~^ n s-^o >'//!, Skipton 



D. 



Do. 



, Skipton 
do. 



D. Brmansworth, Skipton 

/'red Turner, Moreeambe 
D. BnmmsuDorth, Skipton 

D,>. do. 

A'<v. T. H. U'oodd,.}f.A., O 



39S 

397 
408 
410 
4'5 
434 
443 
445 
45 a 
457 

459 
47^ 
491 

497 



OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS. 



A Vikinjc Warrior's .Memorial at Otley 
Some t'raifiiicnts of Anglian (,'rosses at Otley 
Vicinity of Otley Church Fifty Years Ago... 
Norman Doorway, Otley Church 
Ancient Crosses, Otley Church 
Fairfax Tomb in Otley Church 
Old Thatched Cottage, Otley 
Dr. John Spence 

Dr. Richard Garnett, C.B 

Leathley Hall Two Centuries Ago ... 
Leathley Church 

Leathley Church Tower, Showing Angle 
Buttresses ... 

Old Rectory, Leathley 

On Bells at Leathley Church 

The Old Chapel, Bramhope ... 
Burley Hall Two Centuries Ago 

The Rev. Dr. Black 

Thomas Maude, the Poet 
Old Thatched Houses, Burley 

John P. Clapham, Esq., J.P 

Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax 

Thomas, Lord Fairfax ... 

Denton Hall, A Century Ago... 

"Hercules" Stone at Ilkley ... 

Font at East Haddon ... 

Roman Gravestone found at Ilkley ... 

Saxon Crosses, Ilkley ... 

Rose and Crown Hotel, Ilkley 

Church Street, Ilkley, in 1880 

"Charity Hole," Old Vicarage, Ilkley 

Ilkley Museum ... 

Old House in Green Lane, Ilkley 

View of Ilkley from Panorama Woods 

The "Cow and Calf," Ilkley ... 

Dr. Thos. J. Call 



E. E. (,'rcyiry, Diiiffley 

Do do. ' 

John Bro~M>i, Otlcv 
E. E. Gregory, Rlngley 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Ilkley Hospital Committee. 
IV. M. Jackson, London. 
British Museum 
E. E. Gregory, Ringlev 

Do. do. 

Rev. H. Caiiliam, Leathlev ... 
J. E. Poppleton, Pontefract 
Rradjord Hist, and Antiq. S<><-. 
British Museum 
J. If. A. Black, Stone Gappe 
A'rr. A. Maude, HI.A.Jiiirffh. I\ci ton- 
Mr. Biear, Burley 
J. A. Clapham, Bingley 



J. Slmttlev:orth, Ilkley 

J. SludtleiKorth, Ilkley 
Do. Do. 

llklev Hospital Committee 

J. .Slnittleworth, Ilkley 
Joseph Pollard, Ilkley... 

Ilkley Hospital Committee 



37 
37 
5 
6i 

64 
76 
88 

oo 

I 12 

"4 
"5 

121 
126 

'37 
'4-' 
'45 
'47 
149 

176 
179 
182 
190 
190 
192 
200 
206 
209 
214 
216 
217 



i8 



Prehistoric Sculptured Stone on Green Crag 

Swastika on Woodhouse Crag 

Covvper Cross, Rumbalds Moor 

Hollin Hall 

Low Hall, Ilkley 

Currer Hall 

Benjamin Briggs Popplewell, Ksq 

Old Wesleyan Chapel, Langbar 
Seventeenth Century House, Xessfk-ld 
The Late Duke of Devonshire 
The Present Duke of Devonshire ... 
Norman Capitals and Arcading, Bolton 

Priory ... 

Interior of Nave, Bolton Priory 
South East Angle of Cloister Court, Bolton 

Priory ... 

Tower Entrance, Bolton Priory 
Mason Marks at Bolton Priory 
South Transept, Bolton Priory 

Posforth Gill Waterfall 

Summer House near Simon Seat 

Summit of Simon Seat... 

Reputed Birthplace of Sir Wm. Craven, 

Appletrewick ... 

Early Sculptured Crosses, Burnsall... 
Burnsall Church in 1839 
The Grammar School, Burnsall 
Section of Elbolton Cave 
Seal of St. Michael 
A Peep in Linton Village 
Bone Cave near Skirethorns .. 

The Old Hall, Threshfield 

Chapel House, Kilnsey 

The Old Hall, Kilnsey 

Kilnsey Crag 

Wesleyan Chapel, Kettlevvell... 

Wesleyan Chapel, Buckden ... 

Hubberholme Church ... 

Swarthgill, the Highest House in Wharfedale 



Thos. Pawson, Rrad/nnt 
J. Romilly Allen, L<>IK/<I 
/. Pollard, Ilkley 
J. Shuttle-Mirth, Ilkley 
J. Pollard, Ilkley 

llklev Hospital Committee 



\\'m. Holmes, i'h'erstuii 
Do. Do. 

D. Ltyngbottom, Silsdeii 
W. Scott, Ilkley 

I). Lonjrbottont, Silsdeii 
Do. (l. 

/*,". E. Gregory, Bluffier 
W. Scott, Ilkley 
Joseph Pollard, Ilkley 
Do. do. ... 

F. E. V. Stavert 

Do. do. 

John Vatley, C.H., Skip/on 
Fred Turner, Mo recant be 

T. Roose, Bolton Abbey 
D. Brownsworth, Skipton 
- Lister, Malham 
D. Bro-&ns~<xorth, Skipton 

D. Brmvnsvaorth, Skipton 
J. B. Smithson, Leylntnt 



Rei: T. B. Woodd, M.. l.,Oi<x/iters/iav> 



234 

237 
243 
2 45 

25' 

26 ( 
263 
268 

30? 
308 

3 '3 



316 

318 

3 '9 
320 

359 
361 
362 

37 1 
39' 
396 
401 

405 
411 
418 
422 
424 
460 
468 
47 
47 



FOLDING PEDIGREES. 
MAUDE of Burley in Wharfedale 

CAVKXDISH, Duke of Devonshire 
TKNNAXT of Bordley and Chapel House 



to face page 146 
,, 37 



1C. 



TIIK RAINFALL OF UPPER VV1 1.\ k l< Kl ).\ I.K. 



Hv JOHN HOPKJNSON, I". R.MET.Soc., F.G.S., &c. 



Upper Wharfedale has a rather copious rainfall differing- considerably in amount 
in various pans of the area drained by the Wharfe. From the head of the valley 
to the neighbourhood of Otley there is a decrease of about one-halt. For the twelve 
years 1886-97 the mean annual rainfall at Arncliffe in Littondale, near the head 
ol Wharfedale, was 58-16 inches, and the mean of two stations near Otley, viz. 
Leathley and Arthington, was 29-33 inches. The mean of twelve stations in Upper 
Wharfedale for this period was 37*35 inches, and if these stations be divided in three 
groups of tour each, the result is as follows : Mean rainfall from Arnclifle to Hurnsall, 
43' 1 2 inches ; from Harden to Ilkley, 36-23 inches ; from Hlubberhouses to Arthington, 
32*70 inches. This last amount is higher than it would otherwise have been through 
the inclusion of two stations on high ground in the Washburn Valley. 



The following table gives the mean and extreme annual rainfall at the 
stations arranged in the same order as the Wharfe and its tributaries flow : 


twelve 


Height above 


Station, 


Authority. 


sea level. 


Mean. 


Min. 


Mux. 






Feet. 


inches. 


inches. 


inches 


Arncliffe Vicarage 


Rev. W. A. Shuffrev 


* 714 


58-16 


42"?6 


68-50 


Trunla Hill, (Iriniwith 


]. Watson, C.F..1 


t *.)~ 
I 2O I 


-jc-eq 


T O 

27'2'J 


JO'JJ 


Grim with Res. (old gauge).. 




. 890 


OO 3:7 
43-06 


/ o 

34-02 


^ T^T 
48-97 


Thorpe Fell, Hurnsall 




. 1661 


35-68 


23-80 


4 ' Q .'i 


1'pper Harden Reservoir 


,, 


1250 


38-S5 


29-91 


44^7 


Harden Reservoir (old gauge) 




746 


40-27 


28-06 


44 '57 


C helker Reservoir 




730 


31*54 


20 '6 1 


35-44 


Ilklev (fherrv Hank) 


T. Robinson 


600 


34 ^4 


22 "35 


40-87 


Hlubberhouses 


T. Hewson, CM-;. 


575 


3 '54 


a6'53 


45' '9 


Timble, Few-ton 




720 


34-90 


26-64 


40-86 


Lindlcv Wood S., Leatlilev 


,, 


t 

3 ' -' 


30-81 


22-72 


36 ' 1 2 


Art liin irton . 




1.10 


28 -;6 


io- -jo 


.TV. TO 



* Previous to 1893, Veil. Archdeacon Hoyd. 

I Previous to 1890, A. R. Hinnie, C.E. ; in 1890, J. Webster, (Ml. 

Arncliffe has a long record, observations having been commenced there by the 
Venerable Archdeacon Boyd so long ago as 1853. In the following table is given the 
mean and extreme monthly rainfall at Arncliffe Vicarage for the 40 years 1859-98. 

Mean, 

ins. 

January 6-27 

February 4-88 

March 5-05 

M> ril 3'33 

Mav 3-20 

J"f 3' 6 4 

Year : Mean, 60-58 ; Min., 42-36 (1887) ; Max., 79-49 (1877) 



Min.. 


Max, 




Mean. 


Mi//. 


Mas. 


ins. 


ins. 




ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


6 1 


i ' '57 


July 


4-50 


'59 


9-64 


8 1 


10-40 


August 


... 5-46 


''93 


9'5 2 


I '00 


9-89 


September ... 


5'37 


'54 


1 1*64 


6 1 


7 '79 


October 


0-47 


2 '47 


'3'3 8 


74 


6-72 


November ... 


6'io 


1-09 


'i '39 


60 


6-80 


December 


... 6-31 


1-05 


12-24 



20 

The next table gives the same information for Barden Reservoir (old gauge) for the 
10 years 1881-90 : 

Mean. Min. Max. Mean. Min. Max. 

ins. ins. ins. ins. ins. his. 

January 3-87 '62 7-21 July 4-17 1-53 674 

February 2-70 -99 6-46 August 3-85 1-23 6-97 

March 3-24 1*14 6-14 September 3*70 1-21 6-56 

April 2-49 1-53 4-63 October 4-38 1-26 6-35 

May 2-44 -83 3-82 November 4-48 1*85 8'86 

June 2-19 -16 4*88 December 3-50 i "06 6-48 

Year: Mean, 40-98; Min., 28-06(1887); Max., 53-68(1882). 

The annual rainfall at Arncliffe Vicarage for the 40 years 1859-98 was as follows: 

his. ins. ins. his. 

1859 55-96 1869 65-01 1879 51*37 1889 49-60 

60 54-93 70 50-14 80 65-05 90 60-77 

61 59-94 7i 5273 81... .. 70-77 91 61-68 

62 64-05 72 79-00 82 77'2i 92 58-89 

63 66-43 73 5376 83 65-53 93 54-96 

64 45-78 74 64-87 84 58-82 94 68-87 

65 47-26 75 58-35 85 52-80 95 53-71 

66 75*97 76 61-20 86 67-79 96 58*00 

67 54-68 77 79-49 87 42-36 97 68-59 

68 66-70 78 58-55 88 52-69 98 68-77 



1859-68 59*17 1869-78 62-31 1879-88 60-44 1889-98 60-39 

The best idea of the rainfall of any district may doubtless be obtained by comparison 
with that of other districts. For such comparison it will be most convenient to take 
the ten years .1881-90. For this period the mean rainfall in Upper Wharfedale was 
about one inch more than it was during the 12 years 1886-97, ' ne mean of eight stations 
for the 12 years 1886-97 being 38-78 inches, and for the same stations for the 10 years 
1881-90, 39-88. Selecting four from these which give very nearly the same mean, and 
taking four representative stations in Wensleydale on the north and four in Airedale on 
the south, we have the following result, showing that the rainfall in Upper Wharfedale 
is rather greater than in the corresponding part oi Airedale, and considerably less than 
in Wensleydale. The geological position of all these stations is on the Carboniferous 
formation and below the Coal Measures, either on the Carboniferous Limestone, the 
Yoredale Rocks, or the Millstone Grit. 

NORTH RIDING. WEST RIDING. 

Wensleydale. Upper Wharfedale. Upper Airedale. 

itis. ins. itts. 

Hawesjunc 64-85 Arncliffe 59*83 Malham Tarn ,S S '34 

Hardraw 46*74 Up. Barden Res 38*51 Silsden Res 30*21 

Aysgarth 38*62 Chelker Res 33*"2 Bingley 32*75 

Leyburn 35*46 Arthington 28-49 Weetwood Res. ... 26-90 

Mean, 46-42 Mean, 39*99 Mean, 37*05 

A more extended comparison may now be made. If each Riding of Yorkshire be 
considered as a separate County, the West Riding, in which Wharfedale is situated, is 
surrounded by the following "Counties" East Riding, North Riding, Lancashire, 
Cheshire, Derby, Nottingham, and Lincoln. The following table gives the mean 
rainfall for the 10 years 1881-90 at twelve stations in the West Riding and at four in 
each of the surrounding "Counties," the twelve Yorkshire stations of which the mean 
lor this period is given in the preceding table being omitted in order to avoid repetition. 



2 I 



YORKSHIRE. 

IfV.v/ /\ii/in_i, f . 



i/is. 
35 '65 



The -e<|uence of the rainfall -tations in each group of four is downwards when in the 
same river-basin, and from north to south, or west to east, when not SO, 

LANCASHIRE. 

ins, 

Lancaster (Southfield) 40-01 

Clitheroe ( I )o\\ nham Hall) 4'44 

Manchester- (Fairfield) 1S'37 

Liverpool (Grove Park) 30*32 

CHESHIRE, 

Marple, Stockport 34 -50 

Bidston Observatory, Birkenhead 28*26 

Boston Minns, Cong-leton 33*89 

Chester (Newton Nurseries) 28-43 

DERBY. 

Woodhead Station 5 2 'O3 

Buxton (Devonshire Hospital) 49'33 

Matlock Bath ... 35"2O 

Findern, Derby 24*3-; 

NOTTINGHAM. 

Nottingham (Beeston Field) 26*83 

Hodsock Priory, Worksop . 24*47 

Retford (M.S. & L. Ry. Co.) 22-91 

Bawtry (Hesley Hall) 2 3'57 

LINCOLN. 

Brigg. (M.S. & L. Ry. Co.) 20*19 

Lincoln (do.) 2 3'34 

I lorncastle (Hemingby) 26*15 

Boston (Grand Sluice) 23*11 



Trunla Hill, Grimwith 

Grimwith Reservoir l.S'.W 

Barden Reservoir 40*98 

Ilklcy (Cherry Bank) 36*91 

Hareden Brook, Slaidburn 66*89 

Rib-ton, Wetherby 26*07 

Holbeck Water Works, Leeds ... 25*90 

Wakefield (Alverthorpe Hall) 25-79 

I hm ford Bridge, Penistone 48*12 

Sheffield (Redmires) 40*41 

' Ulley Reservoir, Rotherham 22-39 

Doncaster (Magdalens) 24-25 
East Riding. 

York (Meteorol. Council) 24-84 

Be verley (Alexandra Terr.) 25-11 

Hull (Pearson Park) 2 5'77 

Spurn Head, Patrington 19*11 

North Riding. 

Richmond (The Grove) 34 "5 

Guisborough (Hutton Hall) 33'4 

Whitby (Guisbro' Road) 26-19 

Scarborough (West Bank) 2 7'4! 



During the ro years 1881 to 1890 the mean annual rainfall in 
Upper Wharfedale (8 stations) was 39-88 inches, in the West Riding 
(20 stations) 37-35 inches, in the North Riding (8 stations) 38-30 
inches and in the East Riding (4 stations) 23-71 inches. The mean 
in the seven "Counties" surrounding the West Riding was 3fjo 
inches. It would thus appear that Upper Wharfedale has about 
two-and-a-half inches more rain per annum than has the West Riding 
generally, and eight inches and three-quarters more than the average 
fall in the district by which the West Riding is surrounded. Although 
the four stations for each county have been carefully selected as 
representative, the number is rather too small to give a sufficiently 
trustworthy average. 

P.S. The above information has been derived from returns collected by Mr. G. J. 
Symons, F.R.S., and published in 'British Rainfall' the 'Monthly Meteorological 
Magazine,' 'Rainfall Tables ,,f the British Islands, iN66-8o', lh. '1866-00,' and the 
'Reports of the British Association'; and the monthly rainfall at Arncliffe for the year 
1859 has been kindly supplied by Mr. Symons. 



22 



HEIGHTS OF MOUNTAINS. 



Compiled chiefly from the Ordnance 

Abbrev. Y., Yorkshire; W. , Westmorland; L., Lancashire. When not 
otherwise specified the summits are in Yorkshire. 



Addleborough 
Arant Haw (Sedbergh) 
Arncliffe Clowder ... 
Attermire Scar 

Barbon Fell (W.) 

Barkin Pike (Y. and W. ) 

Baugh or Bow Fell 
Beamsley Beacon ... 

Black Hill (Malham) 

Blea Moor 

Bow or Baugh Fell 

Bowland Knotts 

Brownsley Ridge (Pateley Moor) 

Buckden Gable (Ramsden Pike)... 

Burn Moor .. 

Burnsall Fell 

Calf (Howg-ill Fells) (Y. and W. ) 
Calvey (Swaledale) ... 

Cam Fell 

Casterton Fell (W. ) 

Castleberg (Settle) 

Cautley Crag 

Chevin Beacon (Otley) 

Colm Scar 

Coniston Pie 

County Stone (Y., L. and W.) ... 

Cracoe Fell ... 

Crag- Hill (L. and VV.) 

Croasdale Fell 
Cush Knott ... 
Deepdale Haw 

Dodd Fell 

Earl Seat 

Elbolton 

Embsay Crag 

Flasby Fell (Sharp Haw) ... 

Fountains Fell 

Giggleswick Scars ... 

Great Shunnor Fell 

Great Whernside ... 

Greenfield Knott 

Greygarth 
Hawkswick Clowder 

Hawgill Pike (Dent) 

Hebden Moor 

Hellifield Haw 

Helm Knott (Dent) 

High Mark (Malham) 

High Pike (Deepdale) 

High Seat (Mallerstang) (W.) . . . 
Howgill Fells (Calf) Y. and W.)... 

Hutton Roof (W.) 

Ingleborough 



FEET 

'564 

1089 
1637 

1600 

1794 

1718 

22OO 

'34' 
'536 
'753 

2 20O 

I4II 

'095 
2302 

1595 

1661 

222O 

1599 
iSQO 
I20X) 
709 
2150 

925 
1580 
IIOO 

2150 

1650 

2259 
1433 

'959 
'93 
2189 

H74 
1140 
1 200 
1150 
2191 
1025 

235' 

2310 

'959 
2250 
1346 
1825 
1250 
702 

975 

1746 
1762 
2328 

2220 

859 

2 373 



Inglehow (Ryeloaf) 
Keasdon 

Kirkby Fell 

Knowe Fell ... 

Lady's Pillar 

Lamb Hill (Croasdale Fell) 

Leek Fell (L.) 

Little Fell (Hawes) 

Little Fell (Langstrothdale) 

Little Whernside 

Lovely Seat (Buttertubs Pass) 
Meugher 

Mickle Fell 

Middleton Fell (W.) 
Moughton Fell 

Milker Edge 

Nine Standards (Y. and W.) 
Norber 

Oughtershaw Side ... 
Park Fell (Ingleborough)... 
Parson's Pulpit (Malham)... 

Pendle Hill (L.) 

Penhill 

Penyghent ... 

Piked Haw (Malham) 

Pin Haw (Elslack Moor) ... 

Rise Hill, or Rysell 

Rogans Seat (Swaledale) ... 

Ryeloaf 

Rylstone Fell 

Shunnor Fell 

Simon Fell (Ingleborough) 

Simon Seat ( Wharfedale) . . . 

Simon Seat (Howgills) (W.) 

Smrarside 

Snai/eholme Fell 

Stag's Fell 

Standard of Burn Moor ... 

Stank Fell (Bolton Abbey) 

Sugar Loaf (Settle) 

Ten End (Hawes) ... 
Thorpe Fell ... 

Threshfield Moor 

Water Crag ... 

Weets (Malham) 

Wetherfell ... 

Whelpstone Crag 

Whernside ... 

Widdale Fell 

Wild Boar Fell (W.) 

Wold Fell 

Yarlside(W.) 

Yockenthwaite Moor 



FEET 

'794 
1636 
1788 
1700 
22 57 
'433 
1756 
2186 

1985 
1984 
2213 
1887 
2 59' 
'999 
1402 
2213 
2153 
!33 
1950 
1836 

'PS 

1831 

'675 
2273 
1400 
1 200 
1825 
2204 
1794 
'45 
235 i 
2125 



"95 
'779 
1X22 
1318 

IOOO 
I20O 
1919 

1661 
1150 
2186 

1350 
2015 
1246 
2414 
2203 

2 3 2 3 
7829 
2097 
2109 



POPULATION TABLE. 






Increase 


Incfca-c 






or 


or 






I )r<Tt-a-r 




Population. from Population. 


from 




1891. 


1871 to 1891. 


1871 to 


Township. 




1891. Township. 


[891. 


A dilinirhiim 


> > > - 


i(iS i Karnhill 6^ 


16^ I 


Appletrewick 


-o 

JJC) 


ug I) < ;.'irgT,i\ e 1296 


5 i 


Bamoldswick 


4 ' 3 ' 


()44 i Glusburn . . 1942 


37.1 ' 


Bramslry (_) 


179 


30 i) < Jrassing-lon 4X0 


35 l > 


Holton Abbey 


169 


47 i Hi-bden 209 


'53 u 


Bradley- (Both) 


54-' 


^^ I Hctton 102 


_>j D 


Brogden 


120 


i ^ i Kettlfwcll-with 




Broughton 


'"5 


; ', 1 1 Starbottom 3 1 7 


191 n 


Burkdrn 


21Q 


04 n Kiklwick 14; 


[6 D 


Hurnsall 


~-yy 
109 


t^ TJ 

in D I.inton .. i [7 


()2 I) 


( 'arlcti HI 


1644 


.jy i 

34 D Marions (Both) ... 270 


-!-} I 


( \ miston-with- 




Salterforth 487 


.}. J 
OI I 


l\ilnst j \ 


1 16 


70 I) Silsden 3866 


y i i 
I I ?2 I 


Cononley 


881 


1^1 '? Skipton 10376 


i 13.4 i 

a >o8 i 


Cowling 


1828 


100 D Stirton-with- 


n^y* 5 i 


Cracoe 


OI 


44 D Thorlbv 163 


17 D 


Draughton 


y 

204 


26 I Sutton 


1 / " 


Embsay-with- 




Tlionitoii-with- 




Eastbj 


940 


165 D Earby 2770 


7'7 i 






Threshfield i m 


6-7 n 


HEIGHTS 


OF TOWNS, VILLAGES, AND HAMLETS. 




[ i..i i 


FEE1 




1 I 1 1 


Airton 


563 


I cixor ... ... 600 


Litton 


850 


Arm-liffe 


... 700 


Klasbv ... ... 420 


Long- PIVMOII 


495 


Askrigg 


... 726 


Gargrave ... ... 358 


Masongill ... 


54o 


Au^twick 


497 


Gigf^leswick . 487 


Malham 


637 


Harbon . . 


380 


Gisburn ... 453 


N'cwton 


440 


Beggarmonds 


... I 100 


Grassington 690 


Otterburn 


510 


Bell Busk ... 


500 


1 lalton Gill ... 1000 


Oughtershaw 


1180 


Bentham 


34^ 


Halton \\'cvt ... 445 


Rathmell 


4*5 


Bordley 


1260 


Ilawc- ... ... 802 


Rylston 


560 


Buckden 


. . . 788 


Ili-llifield 468 


Scdbergh 


400 


Burrow 


150 


1 lorton-in- Ribbles- 


ScNidc 


94- 


Biirton-in-Lonsdale 298 


dale ... ... 770 


Settle 


57 


Calton 


... 625 


Hubberholme ... 800 


Skipton 


. . . 362 


Casterton 


... 280 


Ingleton 437 


Slaidburn 


. . 488 


Chapel-le-Dale 


... 800 


Ki'ttlcwell 730 


Stackhouse 


55 


Clapham 


510 


Kilnsey (>jS 


Stainforth 


658 


Cowan Bridge 


... 284 


Kirkby Lonsdale . 200 


Starbottom ... 


. 748 


Coniston-Cold 


45 2 


Kirkby Malhani ... 612 


Thorn ton -in- Lons- 


Cray 


... 1070 


Kirkby Stephen ... 580 


dale 


... 480 


Dent 


472 


Langcliffe ... ... 623 


Threshfield ... 


. . . 620 


Draughton ... 


650 


Lawkland ... ... 450 


Tunstall 


105 


Kmbsay 


6.30 


I.inton ... 620 \Viggloswurth 


500 



HEIGHTS OF ROADS AND PASSES. 

FEET 

Fountains Fell, from Silverdale Head, cart-road ... ... ... ... ... 2180 

Malham to Horton over Fountains Fell, foot-path ... ... ... 2050 

YValdendale Head, between West Burton and Starbottom, foot-path ... ... 2000 

Horse Head, between Buckden and Halton Gill, cart-road ... ... ... tQTo 

Firth Fell, between Buckden and Litton, cart-road ... ... ... ... ... 1970 

The Stake, between Buckden and Bainbridge, cart-road ... ... ... 183* 

Buttertubs, between Hawes and Maker, cart-road ... ... ... ... ... 1682 

Coverdale, between Middlehara and Kettlewell, cart-road ... ... ... ... 1625 

Scar Slit, between Kettle well and Arncliffe, foot-path... . ... ... 1620 

Haws End, between Hawes and Semerwater ... ... ... ... .., ... 1600 

Stockdale Pass, between Settle and Malham, bridle-path ... ... ... 1550 

Helwith Bridge by Dale Head to Litton ... ... ... 1512 

Hawes to Ribblehead by Newby Head ... ... ... ... ... ... 1421 

Settle to Litton, or Halton Gill by Rainscar ... ... ... ... .. ... 1391 

Stainlbrth to Kilnsey by Malliam Tarn ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1340 

Malham to Kilnsey by Lee Gate ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... 1284 

Horton-in-Ribblesdale to Beckermonds ... ... ... ... ... 1280 

Settle to Kirkby Malham by High Side ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1272 



The following table shews the altitude of the highest inhabited 
houses, inns, villages, market-towns, and passenger-railway, in 
Yorkshire and in England, respectively : 

The highest inhabited house in England : FEET 

Rumney's House, south of Alston, in Cumberland, on the Durham border ... 1980 
The highest inhabited house in Yorkshire : 

Grouse House, near the source of the Cover, in the North Riding ... ... 1700 

The highest inn in England (it is in Yorkshire) : 

Tan Hill, between Barras and Held, in the North Riding ... 1727 

The highest village in England : , 

Colecleugh, West Allendale, Northumberland ... ... ... ... ... 1725 

The highest village in Yorkshire : 

Greenhow Hill, between Pateley Bridge and Grassington ... ... ... 1320 

The highest market-town in England : 

Buxton, in Derbyshire ; at the Palace Hotel ... ... ... ...'... 1044 

The highest market-town in Yorkshire : 

Hawes, in Wensleydale ; at the Shambles... ... ... ... ... ... 850 

The highest passenger-railway in England : 

The South Durham and Lancastrian Union Railway, between Barras and 

Bowes, on Stainmoor ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1378 

The foregoing summary of a discussion on the subject was furnished by the writer 
to the Leeds Mercury Supplement for April 7th, 1888. There is, however, an error in 
the original table with respect to the highest inn in Yorkshire, which should be as 
given above. The Cat and Fiddle on Buxton Moors, in Cheshire, is often stated to be 
the highest inn in England, but it is not. Its height is 1690 feet. 



UPPER WHARFEDALE. 



CHAPTER I. 



OTLEV AND NEIGHBOURHOOD IN PREHISTORIC TIMES. 



( irneral character of Wharfedale Its isolation, healthfulness, and surpassing scenery 
History and antiquities Rocks and wild flowers Early settlements in the parish 
of Otley Some British and Roman roads Otley under the Romans Celtic 
survivals Important discoveries Local evidences of Roman Christianity Holy 
\\Vlls, &c. Otley in the kingdom of Elmete Abounding British remains Otley 
an early and important religious centre The planting of the Cross Historical 
and other evidences Local misconceptions The first Yorkshire monasteries 
Dedication of churches to All Saints Local dissent in the 7th century Pipin's 
Castle near Otley Saxon Otley Meaning of Otley Local ethnology The 
inroads of the Danes The victory of King Athelstan His grant of Otley to the 
Sec of York The Archbishop's jurisdiction and privileges The first church 
A dual right of sanctuary at Otley. 




HARFEDALE is surely "The Queen of Yorkshire 
Dales." Its transcendent natural charms and abounding 
historic attractions fix you, go wherever you will. But 
when you penetrate its upper reaches and climb the 
great moorlands, where cradled among the lonely 
recesses of the mighty Cam, the infant Wharfe peeps out on a scene 
of wild, legendary fell-land, that land seems to favour more of romance 
than of history, sweeping wide and far into half-visible cloud-realms, 
and seeming aloof from all human ken and grip. Soon the Jittle 
stream after scrambling and tumbling from his high playground is 
joined by other moorland-mates and in the course of his rapid descent 
becomes a very giant in his strength, wielding at times his "club of 
waters " with such force and destructiveness as few English rivers can. 
During his long sixty miles' journey to where he joins the placid waters 
of Ouse within ten miles of the city-towers of York, his ever-widening 
course gathers the runlets and rainfall of nearly 500 square miles of 
field and moor and fell. Traversing in its upper length a region of 
grand hills amid noble scars of terraced limestone, and in its lower a 



26 

rich storied vale, the entire course of the river is full of a rare charm, a 
charm which in variety of scenic beauty, historic interest, and old- 
world life, is not surpassed by any river-valley in the kingdom. 
Remote from the common routes of traffic, it has, with the exception of 
the picturesque-seated towns of Otley and Ilkley (the latter a rising 
Spa), no large centres of population, and its ever-increasing popularity 
as a summer sanatorium is such that few of its farm-houses and public 
hostelries are without their full quota of visitors for five months in the 
year. In historical and archaeological attractiveness the valley from 
end to end teems with evidences and remains of the successive 
occupiers of the soil, even from the icy epoch when the majestic 
mountain-glacier ceased to bear its burthen of Upper Wharfedale rocks 
to where the vale opens out on the great Plain of York. To the 
naturalist the district from the varying character of its rock-formation, 
soil, and altitude also affords an almost unrivalled field of investigation. 

The neighbourhood of Otley possesses evidences of having had a 
comparatively large population in the prehistoric period, even for 
many centuries continuously from those dark barbaric ages when the 
nomadic habits of the primitive tribes had scarcely died out, when the 
caverns and rock-shelters of the hill-girt Craven dales were occupied by 
a rude untutored people, ill-nurtured and ill-clad. Yet their lives 
passed constantly amid a wild environment, strengthened an instinctive 
passion which made them real Nature-lovers, and kept ever active a 
practical sympathy for natural things. The aspects of the visible 
world, both its terrors and its charms, exercised a singular influence 
over them, and created beliefs that powerfully prejudiced the general 
tenour of their lives. Out of the mysteries of the elements there arose 
practices which lingered in the dales until quite recently ; customs, as 
the saying is, " as old as the hills," can be clearly traced to their 
primitive sources, no doubt having originated in the belief of some 
insolvable force or subtle essence behind them, passing comprehension. 
For this same poor, half-savage being, though unable to grasp the full 
meaning of things, lived and died conscious of a Power superior to 
himself, as his burial temples plainly shew. Daily at the door of his 
rude dwelling on the sides of old Chevin would he with uplifted hands 
bless the glorious sun, or at night beneath the star-lit heavens solemnly 
bend himself in adoration ! 

That Otley and much of Wharfedale was occupied by these old 
Nature worshippers* I shall hereafter testify by an examination of 
local caves and other remains. The valley at that time was a vast 
forest primeval, the haunt of the bear, wolf, boar, pole-cat, and other 

* Phallic worship, it may be noted, prevailed at Adel, as the discovered objects prove. 



2? 

;mim;ils no longer existing with us. The people made tracks through 
these intricate forest-lands, and when in the course of time they had 
formed thrmsrlvt-s into something like settled communities, they laid 
down rude stone or even wooden causeways, constructed of logs of 
unbarked trees, connecting their different encampments. From the 
ancient historian Gildas we gather that the Roman legions on their 
conquest of Britain in the second and third centuries AD., "repaired 
those ruinate causeys laid down by the ancient Britons," and built 
other new roads to all the principal towns in the island. Some of these 
British trackways and Roman roads are recognisable in Wharfedale at 
the present day. and there is little doubt that many of our old field- 
paths (unknown in modern America) are survivals of primitive British 
trackways. 

Within that area which was afterwards constituted the parish of 
Otley we have traces of such roads and also several ancient stone 
circles and sculptured rocks (notably on Hawksworth and Burley 
Moors*) as well as other remains, which are doubtless as old as the 
earliest Celtic occupation of the neighbourhood. Various names, too, 
and particularly that of the grand old Chevin,f which rears its mighty 
crest behind the town, plainly indicate that there was a British 
settlement in the vicinity, and that this at one time was included in the 
great Brit- Welsh province of Strathclyde, which stretched from the 
Mersey on the south through the Pennine forests of Lancashire and 
Yorkshire northwards to the Cheviot Hills, a vast region inhabited by 
a brave and hardy race which long defied the power of superior arms. 
Otley lay between the old Brigantian cities or stations of Ilkley and 
AdelJ eleven miles apart, both afterwards occupied by the Romans, 
and the old Roman road, doubtless on the site of a well-trodden British 
trackway, connecting the two camps passed over the Chevin to the 
south of the York Gate plantation. That the district was a strong 
refuge of the British is evidenced from the unusual number of 
characteristic earthworks in the immediate district, splendid remains of 
which may be seen in the camps at Ilkley, Addingham, Nessfield, 
Bramhope, Castley, and Blubberhouses, besides numerous earthen forts 
and enclosures on the moor-sides, the latter thrown up in all 
probability by the startled natives on the first Roman invasion of the 
district. At Burley, about two miles to the west of Otley, and within 

* One of these circles is described and illustrated in the author's Old Bin^liy, 
pagt- 45- 

t From Gym-Celtic cef'n, a ridge of high land, like the ("hrviots between Knglaiid 
and Scotland, and the Cevenm-s in France. 

Adel, a Celtic station held by odal tenure. See Bishop Stubbs' Const. History, 
i. 57, with authorities there cited. 



28 

the Saxon parish, there was doubtless also a Roman outpost to the 
great camp at Ilkley, afterwards occupied by the Saxons, as the ancient 
name Burghley appears to indicate. From the short manuscript 
history of Wharfedale, written in 1807, elsewhere alluded to, I gather 
that on the enclosure of the Chevin, more than a century ago, some 
apparent house-steads were removed in order to turn the land over to 
the plough. They were on the west part of the common called 
Dibendale (Cym.-Celt. dwfn, deep), then the property of Mr. Wm. 
Mounsey, of Otley. The ruins were locally known as the " Bishop's 
Stables," and some of the walls were quite a yard thick. Unfortunately 
we have no more definite information concerning them. A little south 
of the Bradford road also on West Chevin is a field called Jack Close, at 
one time "no man's land."* In the tithe-award plan I also find mention 
of a Camp Close on the east side of Busk Lane on the Pool Road, not 
far from Gallows Hill. Likewise on the south-east side of Maple Bank, 
the residence of Mr. Wm. Dawson, is a piece of land called Munbury 
Field, which seems to imply a similarly protective enclosure. The A.-S. 
mujid-bora, means a bearer of protection, from the substantive mund, a 
hand, a defence, help or security. In the direction of Menston we have 
also a Burras Lane, and a High Burras or Barras, which I am inclined 
to think is equivalent to the Barass near the Roman road over 
Stainmoor, and to the " Brass Castles " near our Roman highways in 
West Yorkshire.! The name may here, however, be a personal one. 

The idea entertained by many writers that Otley was the 
Cambodunum of the Romans may be mentioned only to be dismissed, 
for the simple fact of the unnatural proximity of Otley to the great 
station of Olicana (Ilkley), not six miles distant. Cambodunum is now 
assigned to the neighbourhood of Huddersfield, probably Slack, \ 
in accordance with the distance of the different stations between 
Mancunium (Manchester) and Eboractsm (York), lying along a line ot 
march through Tadcaster (Calcarid). Nor is it likely the name Otho, 
which appears in the Domesday name of Otley (Othelai}, proclaims a 
Roman ascription, bestowed in honor of the Emperor Otho, who was 
born at Rome in A.D. 32, and died in A.D, 69, or many years before the 
Roman soldiery penetrated these parts. Indeed, it is not till the 
advent of Agricola that we learn anything definite with respect to the 
country or people in North England. The coins that have been 
found at Otley are chiefly of the second and third centuries, when 
the local Britons were under the Roman power and an era of peace 

* See Seebohm's English Village Community, p. 6. f See Old Ringley, p. 377. 

J See Yorks. Archl. Journal, vol. iv. This place must not be confounded with the 
Campodunum of Bede, probably Doncaster (Danum), where Paulinus built a church in 
630. See Watson's Halifax and Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, p. 375-7. 



2Q 

prevailed. The fact, however, should be recorded that a rare first 
brass coin of Nero (A.D. 54-68) was found in a well at Joppa, in 
Leeds, and I have also mentioned the discovery of a coin of this 
Emperor in the gorge of How Stean, in Upper Nidderdale,* but this, 
of course, does not premise the Roman occupation of the district at 
that time. In the churchyard at Otley there was found in March, 
1888, a number of Roman coins, dating from the reign of Hadrian 
(A.D. 117-138) to that of the savage pagan Emperor Decius, whose 
short sovereignty of two and a half years (A.D. 248-50) was almost 
wholly occupied in persecuting devout Christians, thousands of whom 
were cruelly tortured, and even crucified, or otherwise put to death. 
Singularly, these coins were found at a depth of eight feet from the 
surface, and lay amongst a quantity of human bones, broken pottery, 
and bits of flint and charcoal. They seem, indeed, to suggest a burial 
on the site, probably in the third century, and it is noteworthy that 
the same site should have been appropriated for the burial-ground 
of the early Christian church adjoining. An unmortared cobble- 
stone tomb, which I shall mention in the account of the church, may 
possibly be of this date. Two of the carved stone crosses discovered 
in the walls of the church are accounted by Dr. Waldstein, Lecturer on 
Archaeology at Cambridge, to be distinctly Roman-Christian in design 
and workmanship. Other Roman evidences also appear. Dr. Shaw, 
of Otley, relates (1830), that he found a coin of Aurelianus (A.D. 
270-5) in his garden, and that a farmer at Norwood, while ploughing, 
turned up as many Roman coins as would fill a pint measure. They 
ranged in date from Hadrian (A.D. 117-138)10 Constantius (who died 
at York in 306), and Constantine, his prosperous son, rightly surnamed 
The Great, who some say was born at York,f and died in 337. Coins 
of his reign, it may be observed, bear for the first time the Christian 
emblems of the dove, cross, &c. 

Constantine was the ardent partisan and promoter of Christianity, 
which by him was raised to the position of a State religion, and his 
mother, the Empress Helena, the reputed discoverer of the true Cross, 
is commemorated in the name of many holy-wells in the dales of the 
West Riding. There is one at Adel, another near the camp at 
Bramhope, another near Tadcaster, one at Denton, in Otley parish, 
and a fifth at Burnsall ; Wharfedale being thus greatly honored by this 
early Christian lady. That Christianity actually prevailed in Wharfe- 
dale during the latter days of the Roman occupation, and was 
continued by the Roman-British inhabitants of Elmet, I think the 

* See Nidderdale and the Garden of the Nidd, p. 433. 

f See Drake's Eboratum, and Gibbons' contradiction in Roman Empire. 



records of the early Fathers, and the local relics already mentioned, 
amply prove. From Tertullan (ca 206) we gather that the Britons 
acknowledged Christ, while St. Chrysostom tells us that " churches and 
altars " had been erected in Britain in the fourth century, when he 
wrote, and that " men may be heard discussing different points of 
Scripture in different languages, but not with different belief," and 
again, St. Jerome tells us that three British bishops, namely, of York, 
London, and probably Lincoln, were represented at the Council of 
Aries in A.D. 314, and that British bishops took part in the Council 
of Sardica in A.D. 347. Perhaps the scarcity of contemporary Christian 
relics in these parts of Yorkshire may be owing to the repeated 
subsequent supremacy of the pagans, who no doubt destroyed every 
tangible object of the faith. 

According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Romans withdrew 
from Britain in the year 418, and our knowledge of events in this part 
of Yorkshire for the next two centuries is somewhat obscure. We 
know that the district was harassed by invasions of the Picts and Scots, 
and that the heathen Angles and Saxons had swarmed into the 
country, and that for a long period there was a terrible warfare 
between them and the native Britons?* The latter had become 
possessed of improved methods ot resistance, learned from the Latins, 
and falling back upon their old camps and trenches, managed for a 
time to keep the foeman at bay. Sometimes, however, as contem- 
porary chroniclers tell us, they " fled from the Angles like fire," and 
betook themselves to the woody fastnesses and marsh-protected hills 
and moors of Craven, where they remained and dwelt in comparative 
security. There can now be little doubt that Otley and the whole of 
Wharfedale, with the moors between the Wharfe and Aire, were 
included in the undefined British kingdom of Elmet, or Elmete, which 
maintained its independence against the Anglian usurpers for more 
than 100 years. The abounding British place-names in this territory, 
and the very prolific character of coeval remains in the shape of camps, 
dikes, enclosures, and other earthworks, together with tumuli, marked 
stones, weapons of stone and flint, and various ornaments and imple- 
ments of warfare and the chase, present strong evidence to support 
this. Extending from its supposed frontier stations of Sherburn-in- 
Elmet, and Barwick-in-Elmet,t where are vast earthworks, it included 
the land northwards and westwards towards Adel, and the north of 
Leeds, where is a large camp, &c., on Woodhouse Moor, and thence 

* On the east side of Otley, near the river, is some land called Elam, which, if not 
derived from the A.-S. hie (high), and lam (mud, clay), may signify the A.-S. call 
(foreign), and ham (a home), a term applied by the later conquerors to their British 
predecessors. There is an Elam near Keighley in a similar position, near the river Aire. 



31 

by Horsforth, with its ancient Elf Knowle, Rawdon, where a British 
ton of gold was found on the Billing, Yeadon, with its primitive 
remains, Baildon, with its numerous Brit-Welsh tumuli, &c., and the 
great extent ot Rumbalds Moor to Skipton, and even along the high 
ground to Grassington and the entrenchments near Kettlewell, which 
all help to mark out this territory as one of pre-eminently archaeologu al 
interest, and in the richness and variety of its British remains it is 
probably unrivalled by any similar extent of country in England. 

This province of Elmet was annexed to Northumbria by Edwin, 
its king, who was baptised in the faith of the Christians according to 
Bede, on Easter Day, 627, in the Church of St. Peter the Apostle, at 
York, which he himself had built of timber. The probability is that 
the British Christians of Elmet would long ago have given themselves 
up to the adjoining kingdom of Deira, which with Bernicia afterwards 
formed the kingdom of Northumbria, had that kingdom acknowledged 
the true God, but they were loth to fall into the power of the heathen. 
The conversion of Edwin gave a fit opportunity for the amalgamation, 
and thus it is we learn from Nennius that the British king was 
" expelled " or abdicated in his favour, not that any battle was fought, 
but that Edwin, who was corrfptete master of all the country between 
the Humber and the Tyne, quietly acceded to the old Christian 
territory of Elmet. The absence of heathen place-names in this 
territory seems to confirm this. 

This happy state of things however did not last long, for in the 
year 633, Edwin the Good after reigning 17 years was slain by the 
heathen Penda, aided as he undoubtedly was by Cadwalla, King of 
the "Christian Britons, at the battle of Heathfield, or Hatfield Chase, 
and the Saxon Christians had to flee for their lives. Paulinus, the great 
Roman missionary, left the country with Edwin's widow and went back 
to her home in Kent, having indeed done much preaching in the north, 
but established no church, nor altar, nor cross. He afterwards became 

f In a single deed of A.D. 1361, cited by Dodsworth, South Kirkby, 7 miles east of 
Barnsley, is described as Kirkby-in-Elmet, from which circumstance it would be rash 
to .-ay positively that this place was included in the old British province of Elim 
places of this name, or compounded with it, as El-met, El-meten, El-land, &c., are 
scattered throughout England, and doubtless have the same significance. Inasmuch as 
I consider the name explained by the custom of the Saxons, as of most primitive 
peoples, to designate those who were estranged from them as foreigners, and in this 
-case we must interpret Elmete as a derivative from the A.-S. el, foreign, and mete, 
bounds, that is, the mete or bounds of the stranger or foreigner. Thoresby and his 
followers are unfortunate in the derivation of this name from a supposed abundance 
ol elm trees in the Wood of Elmet. This territory was overgrown principally with ash 
and oak, especially the latter, which was religiously preserved and cultivated lor the 
sake of the mast it yielded for fattening hogs, and also as food for the people in times 
of scarcity. 



32 

Bishop of Rochester and died in 644. For a year Northumbria was 
again divided into its rival factions of Deira and Bernicia, but by the 
death of Edwin the British Christians were actually in possession of all 
Northumbria, which was then governed for nearly two years by a King 
who represented the ancient Christianity of the British Church. He 
was, however, himself a Briton, and opposed to a violent Saxon 
faction, who whilst approving his Christianity did not support his 
sovereignty. In 635 he was overthrown, not on religious grounds, but 
on political, by the Saxon St. Oswald, who thereupon succeeded to the 
conjoined kingdom, and during his reign the great northern see of 
Lindisfarne, the parent of nearly all the churches from the Humber to 
the Tweed, was established.* Oswald was slain in battle by the 
heathens in 642, and there was some years of strife, but in 655 the 
great pagan King Penda was slain at Winwidfeld (said to be Whin- 
moor, near Leeds), and Mercia, together with all Northumbria, once 
more and ever afterwards embraced the Christian religion. This famous 
battle, in all probability fought on old Christian territory gave a great 
impetus to the faith in Yorkshire and the north ; and twelve monasteries, 
each upheld by ten families, were founded in Northumbria to com- 
memorate the event. One of these was on the Wharfe, at Collingham, 
where the church is dedicated to St. Oswald. Only two other 
Wharfedale churches, it may be noted, bear dedications to the Scotic 
Saxon Saint, namely, Guiseley and Arncliffe, though it is not unlikely 
Leathley church was dedicated to St. Oswald, but the ascription is 
now lost. 

One important fact, which has not before been pointed out, is that 
very few of the churches in the Celtic Christian territory of Elmete, in 
which Otley was situated, have retained in their dedications the names 
of the old Saxon promoters of Christianity. Nearly all the principal 
and most ancient churches, that arose out of the Saxon parishes, such 
as Sherburn-in-Elmet, Barwick-in-Elmet, Thorp-Arch, Bardsey, Hare- 
wood, Bramham, Spofforth, Kirkby Overblow, Otley, Ilkley, Bingley, 
and Broughton-in-Craven, are all dedicated to All Saints. And this, 
though some of the original dedications may be lost, it is well to 
remember, is an early Saxon dedication, and should be borne in mind 
in any estimate of the early Romish influence in this district. 

The influence of the see of Lindisfarne, the direct fruit of the 
teaching of Columba in lona, had made itself felt throughout the 
present Yorkshire, and the Celtic priesthood had obtained a firm 
footing almost everywhere. Their cult, says Raine, was all-prevalent 

* The diocese of Lindisfarne covered pretty nearly the whole of the Northumbrian 
kingdom, as well as Staffordshire, Cheshire, and part of Shropshire. 



33 

in this country, Kent alone owing its Christianity to the Roman 
missionaries.* It is therefore not surprising that when the Synod 
of Whitby abolished the system of the Celts in 664, there was a 
considerable dissension among the Britons, who preferred to isolate 
themselves and follow their accustomed rule rather than obey the 
Roman Catholic decree, especially as it affected the celebration of 
Easter. The Abbess Hilda,, who had been ordained by the Scots, 
expressed her strong sympathy with the opposition of the British 
priests, though she afterwards conformed to the Papal decree, and 
remained at Whitby till her death in 680. St. Heiv, too, the first 
woman in Northumbria who took upon her the habit and life of a 
nun, was reared in the Celtic belief, and founded the monastery at 
Hartlepool, but coming into Yorkshire she established a monastery at 
or near Tadcaster, possibly at Healaugh, and doubtless, like Hilda, 
erected several cells to the parent house, one of which, in all probability, 
was at Bingley, where, in a retired part of the parish, the site has been 
known from time immemorial as St. Heiv's (St. Ives).f The Celtic 
monastery at Ripon, which had been founded by King Oswy shortly 
before the Synod of Whitby in 664, was afterwards handed over to 
Wilfrid, because he had adduced such evidence in favour of the Roman 
Catholic usage that the King and court were persuaded ; for, said 
Wilfrid, " we found the same practised in Italy and France, in Africa, 
Asia, Egypt, and Greece, and all the world, wherever the church of 
Christ is spread abroad through several nations and tongues at one 
and the same time; except only these and their accomplices in 
obstinacy, I mean the Picts and the Britons, who foolishly, in these two 
remote islands of the world, and only in part even of them, oppose all 
the rest of the universe.''^ 

Thus we find even at this remote period religious dissent had got 
a firm hold en the people of the West Riding of Yorkshire, which their 
vigorous independence has retained to this day. Bede tells us that the 
Catholic institutions daily gained strength; yet in 731, or nearly 
seventy years after the adoption ot the Roman usage, the Britons were 
still perverse, and " wrongfully and from wicked custom oppose the 
appointed Easter of the whole Catholic Church ; " otherwise he says 
they are under subjection to the English.^ It is difficult to reconcile 
these facts with the statement of Father Haigh that Eadberht, King of 
Northumbria (738 to 757), after the capture of Dumbarton from the 
Strathclyde Britons, came into Yorkshire with Angus, King of the 

* Preface to Lives of the Arclibishaps of York. (Rolls Ser.) 
f See the author's Old Bingley. Bede, Eccl. Hist., Book ii., c. xxv. 
Ib.. Book iii., c. xxviii., and v., c. xxiii. 



fc-jLA$cAv- v 

^t4 <& 



34 

Picts, and in the vicinity of Bingley engaged in battle with the Britons, 
with whom he afterwards ratified a treaty which he believes to be 
recorded on the Rune stone in Bingley Church.* The evidence really 
points to the fact that the Britons of Airedale and Wharfedale, though 
Christian dissenters, were at this time already subject to the Anglo- 
Saxons, and in a civil sense were at peace with them. Indeed they 
gloried in the successes of Eadberht, himselt a wise governor and a 
devout Christian, who afterwards, in 757, was shorn and entered his 
brother's monastery at York, where both of them are buried. We are 
told that the fame of his excellence and of his valour spread far and 
wide, and that Pipin, King of France, sent emissaries to him laden with 
splendid gifts. It is not improbable that the traditional site known as 
Pipin's Castle, on the verge of the original parish of Otley, may have 
something to do with commemorating these events. There is a 
tradition that the early Kings of Northumbria, from the annexation of 
Elmete by Edwin, about 630, resided at Barwick-in-Elmet, where the 
extensive artificial mound, or burh, adjoining the supposed British 
entrenchments was thrown up by the Anglo-Saxon rulers, and held by 
them for an indefinite period. It is known by the name of Hall Tower 
Hill. Dr. Shaw expresses a belief that Edwin, the Northumbrian 
king, had a temporary residence at Otley, but of this there is no 
proper evidence. 

It was doubtless during this period that Otley was first colonised 
by the Angles (not unlikely within the extensive fosse of the old 
Norman Manor House), and received its name of Othelai, or Otelai (as 
variously spelled in Domesday),! most probably from the chief of the 
family. Some writers, however, have supposed the name to be derived 
from the oat-fields, for which the district was once famous. On the same 
basis one might conclude that the neighbouring townships of Burley 
and Wheatley were called after certain barley and wheat fields, thougrT 
bere is Anglo-Saxon for barley,! while ata (pron. ota) is oat, and hwceta 
is wheat, and these versions at any rate of oat and wheat render such 
assumption plausible. But the district is essentially Saxon in its 
language and laws, with traces of the Celt surviving in the customs 
of the manor. 

The year 793 witnessed the first recorded invasion of Northumbria 
by the heathen Danes, who destroyed the church at Lindisfarne, and 

* See the author's Old Bingley, p. 60-1. 

f Observe the Saxon th retained in the first spelling', a very unusual occurrence 
in Norman writing's. There is an Otley, a parish town in Suffolk. 

% Burley in Domesday is Burgelei, undoubtedly named from some fort or 
enclosure. 



35 

the monastery at Monk Wearmouth, but they do not appear to have 
penetrated tar into Vorkshire until the s;ivage attack on York in 867, 
when thrv began to spread themselves over the country, burning, 
plundering, and wasting villages and the cultivated lands on all sides. 
Not a minster or holy place was left standing, and saving in name the 
Christian church in Yorkshire did not exist. There is a very interesting 
memorial of this period in Otley Church, which has been mistaken to 
commemorate a Roman standard-bearer, but it is unmistakably a 
memorial portrait of some Christian Viking warrior whose valour in 
conquest has earned for him an honorable sepulchre at Otley. The 
stone, which appears to have been burnt, measures 1 1 inches at its 
greatest length, is 8 inches wide at the bottom, 7 inches wide at the 
top, and 2^ inches thick. An engraving of it is on the next page, 
together with another view of the same, shewing the debased scroll- 
pattern on the edge, and also some fragments of the exquisite art of 
St. Wilfrid's time. Upon this "warrior-stone" Mr. W. G. Collingwood, 
the well-known authority on early sculptured crosses, writes to me as 
follows : 

I find your Otley stone (of which you sent me a photograph) bears a close 
rcM-mblanrr to the Scandinavian figures in Westmorland and Teesdale. Its costume 
is like that of the (Josforth cross, with the usual kirtle and belt, but its treatment is 
quite different. Still more different is it to the flowing draperies of Anglian saints on 
Hedda's tomb at Peterborough, or on the Kuthwell cross. When we look at the edges 
of the stone we find other reason for the .same conclusion. The Anglian scroll, done 
cheaply, became that of the Leeds cross ; done not only cheaply but without feeling, it 
degenerates into a coarse rolled cord, like this on your Otley fragment. The inter- 
lacing, losing all intellectual and naturalistic intention, becomes what we have here, 
and what we see elsewhere, not rejuvinated into Norse dragons, but degenerate and 
associated with the decadence of Anglian art under Danish influence. 

These old Viking warriors made sad havoc of our district, but in 
937 Athelstan "the glorious" obtained a great victory over the 
combined armies of the Danes and Scots at the celebrated battle of 
Brunanburh,* after which they confirmed the peace by pledge and 
by oaths, and according to the Saxon Chronicle, renounced all idolatry. 
This decisive encounter raised Athelstan high in the estimation of his 
countrymen, as well as in the opinion of many foreign potentates, the 
most powerful of whom was Otho, who succeeded to the throne of the 
Roman Empire in 938, and amid great rejoicings took to wife King 
Athelstan's sister, Elgiva. 

It is at this period that we obtain definite written information 
respecting Otley and the surrounding neighbourhood. Athelstan, who 
attributed his successes to the interposition of divine favour, had made 



* Near Dunbar, according to Syrneon, of Durham. ,SVv lvalue's York 
'/'owns series), p. 37; also Sir Jas. H. Ramsay's Foundations <if England (1898), ix., 
284 n. 285-6, with plan of earthworks, shewing Bourne in Lincolnshire to be the site. 




A VIKING WARRIOR'S MEMORIAL AT OTLEY. 




SOME FRAGMENTS OF ANGLIAN CROSSES AT OTLEY. 



37 

a vow that in the event of the overthrow of the pagans he would most 
liberally endow the three ancient churches of JVork, Beverley, and 
Ripon. Having, as stated above, achieved the success wished for, he 
proceeded to confer lands and privileges on these struggling centres of 
religion in a manner and with a liberality never previously heard of. 
The cause of Christ then truly prospered. To the cathedral church at 
York, over which Wulstan, i6th Archbishop, then presided, he gave 
the rich lordship of Sherburn (in Ehnet), likewise the Archbishop 
received the manors of Cawood, Wistow, and Otley, together with the 
whole of the villages and territory which at that time belonged to them. 
By this grant the three last-mentioned places were formed into a 
particular legal jurisdiction, over which the Archbishops, as hereditary 
lords, civil as well as spiritual, exercised full control. Many and 
various were the powers and privileges they enjoyed, including free 
warren, sac and soc (or the privilege of determining causes, levying 
fines, &c., within their precincts),* toll, team (the right of holding an 
inquest as to the title to goods),! infangtheof (or the right to judge and 
execute thieves), assize of bread and ale, merchet and lecherwite 
(customs of a barbarous age), lands free and quit from all suit and 
exaction, with return of writs and pleas, &c. This extensive franchise 
was termed the Liberty of Cawood, Wistow and Otley, whose churches 
possessed the right of sanctuary,! as also appertained to the similarly 
enfranchised domains of Ripon and Beverley, the limits of which were 
defined by stone crosses. But Otley was a locum privtleipatum, not 
only offering sanctuary within the walls of the church, but the 
Archbishop in person, before the Conquest, when in residence had the 
power of granting protection in the same manner. The Archbishops 
had also halls or palaces, where they occasionally resided, as well as 
court-houses, prisons, and justices at Sherburn, Cawood, Otley, Ripon, 
and Beverley. About these we shall learn more presently. 

* An expressed grant of sac and soc, so general after the Conquest, should in the 
reign of Athelstan be received with caution. See Earle, iMiid Charters, xxiii. 

f See Lams of Athelstan (Schmid) ii. c. ix. 

$ The right of sanctury belonged, not only to the fabric of the church, but also, by 
the laws of Athelstan (A.D. 924-30), to men of position, and invariably to the 
Archbishop. The laws of vEthelred (ca A.D. 1000) mention the different degrees of 
churches and the protection even in some cases afforded by the village ale-house. 
See also Pollock and Maitland's Hist. I'- tiff. f.ir^'. ii., 590. 

$ Two charters of Athelstan's grant to Ripon are printed in the Monaxticoti, and 
also in the Mi-mot iuls of Kiftau. I may further point out that the rhyming charter of 
Athelstan, though evidently a fourteenth century version of a genuine original, is 
an interesting survival of the ancient Aryan method ot transmitting events and 
traditions in a metrical form to facilitate remembrance. The practice is still in 
vogue among the Hindoos and other primitive nations. 



CHAPTER II. 



RECORDS OF THE PARISH OF OTLEY FROM THE NORMAN 
CONQUEST. 

Settlement and extent of the Norman parish of Otley The feudal manor, how worked 
Township areas Guiseley and the origin of its parish Baildon and Bramhope 
in Domesday The extinct wapentake of Gereburg-, its origin and purpose Claro 
wapentake and the Curia Regis The origin of lordships The gallows at Otley 
Hanging a bellman Citation of local executions Rewards for felling thieves- 
Warrant against the Archibishop Unpublished market-charter for Otley Local 
errors Ancient laws of sale and barter Markets held in the nave of the church 
A picturesque Otley fair-day The monks of Bolton, Arthington, &c., attend the 
fairs The Archibishop's manor-hall and court at Otley Ancient burgage tenure 
How Otley was anciently represented in Parliament Local monastic possessions - 
Foundation of a leper's hospital at Otley The building of Otley bridge Otley in 
the 141)1 century Abbot of Selby at Otley and local inns The "Shepherd" Lord 
Clifford at Otley after the battle of Flodden A i6th century Otley muster-roll 
Otley during the Civil War Menston Old Hall Local events, Extracts from the 
Registers The ryth century hearth-tax Otley and the 1715 and 1745 rebellions. 

]HE twenty -fourth Archbishop of York was Aldred 
(1061-69), who was the ninth lord of Otley from^he 
creation of the Liberty by Athelstan. He it was who 
crowned the Conqueror at Westminster Jn_ 1066^. and 
when the new feudal survey was made some twenty 
years later, Archbishop Thomas, formerly canon of Bayeux, was lord 
of the manor. This is how it is described before A.D. 1086, when the 
facts were first collected : 

In Othelai (Otley) with these berewicks, Stube (Stubham) Middletune (Middleton) 
Dentune (Denton) Cliftun (Clifton) Bichertun (see page 40) Fernelai (FarnleyJ Timbe* 
(Little Timblc) Kctoiie (Weston) Pouele (Poole) Gisele (GuisHey) Henochesuuorde 
(Hawksworth) another Henochesuuorde (Upper Esholt or Hawksworth Mill) Beldoiu- 
(Baildon) Mersintone (Menston) Burghelai (Burley) Ilecliue (Ilkley). 

* A name that has puzzled many writers. Thoresby suggests Temple, from the 
Knight's Templars (but the Order was not then established), though I think there can 
be little doubt it comes from the A.-S. Timber, the first buildings being probably of 
wood, yet in Domesday as well as in the Great Roll of the Exchequer for i ith Henry II. 
(1164), an interesting reference by the way, which Mr. Grainge'in his Histoty of 
Timble has overlooked, great Timble is spelled with the final I, which suggests the 
A.-S. temple, a temple of idols, an enclosure sacred to the gods. The famous 
Almes Cliff, a heathen temple, is not far away, and according to Shaw's Celtic 
Dictionary, this name is derived from al, a cliff, and mias, an altar. 




39 

In all, there an- sixty carucates and six bovatcs lor geld, in which ihcrc may he 
thirty-live ploughs. Archbishop Kldred had this I'm- OIK- manor-. Now Archbishop 
Thomas has in the demesne two ploughs and MX villanes, and ten bordars having live 
ploughs; and there are live soUemen having lour villanes and nine bordars with live 
ploughs. A church and a priest with one villane and one plough. l-'our acn > ot 
meadow. \V(io(l pasture, two letiga- anil three quaranteens in length and as much in 
breadth. I'nderwood, nine leuga> in length and as much in breadth. Arable land, 
two leut^.i- in length and two in breadth. Moor, two U-ug;i> in length and one in 
breadth ; the greatest part of this manor is waste. Value in King Kdward's time ten 
pounds ; now three pounds. 

In the Recapitulation of the same Norman inquest, or re-adjustment 
of particulars collected before 1086, a very difficult task which must 
have taken a considerable time to complete, we find : 

Item, in Gcrcbnrg Wapenf. There are these berewicks in Otelai (Otley) Stube 
(Stubham) Fernelie (Farnley) Mideltun (Middleton) Timbe (Little Timble) Dentun 
(Denton) Estonc (part ot Weston) C'liltun (Clifton) Bichertun (see page 40). Among 
the whole twenty earucates. The Archbishop has these. 

The manor of Otley therefore included at the time of the Norman 
Conquest all the places and territory on the south side of Wharfe, in 
Skyrack wapentake, from Pool on the east to a part of Ilkley on the 
west, and from the boundaries of the parishes of Bradford and Bingley 
on the south (including Guiseley, Hawksworth, and Baildon), while on 
the north side of Wharfe, now in the division of Claro, but described 
in the Recapitulation as within the now extinct wapentake of Gereburg, 
it extended from Farnley eastwards to Middleton westwards, excluding 
Askwith and part of Weston, and northwards to Little Timble and the 
bounds of the Honor and Forest of Knaresbro'. As little alteration, 
if any, has taken place in the township boundaries, it will be useful to 
tabulate the places within the old Domesday parish of Otley, with their 
respective areas in acres, as follows : 

Otley 22 33 Menston 1076 

Farnley 1844 Pool 885 

Lindley r 499 Guiseley* T 5 2 5 

Newhall with Baildon 2606 

Clifton 1478 Weston (part of) 

Little Timble 420 Middleton ^763 

Denton 310 Ilkley (part of) 

Burley 3 T 33 Bickerton (unknown - 

Esholt (part of) Hawksworth 2462 

There is thus a known area of 25,024 acres, and an indefinite area 

* Horsforth, Rawdon, Carlton, and Yeadon, within the old parish of Guiseley, are 
separately surveyed. 



40 

in Esholt, Weston, and Ilkley, while the hamlet or village of Bickerton, 
apparently destroyed or lost at some subsequent period, cannot be 
identified.! The probability is the total area of the Saxon manor 
would not fall far short of 30,000 acres, or roughly forty-seven square 
miles, a very large portion of which, as stated in the Norman survey, 
was then waste ; most of the people having died or fled, and very few 
were left to till the land. But in the Saxon era it must have been in a 
high state of cultivation, and judging by the number of carucates and 
ploughs, the bulk of the manor was worked on the ancient three-field 
system, with a three-year rotation of crops, and contained an annual 
workable area of not less than 7,000 acres. Afterwards as tillage 
improved, the system of two crops and a fallow prevailed in this 
district, though the proportion of grass and arable has fluctuated to 
some extent in late times. In 1797 for example, in a computed area 
of 2,291 acres within the township of Otley, there were 2,045 acr ^s in 
grass, and 246 acres arable, the latter included 34 of wheat, 122 oats, 
13 barley, 9 beans, while 68 acres were fallow. At Farnley consider- 
ably more than half the township was arable land. There was also a 
common of nearly 500 acres held by Mr. Fawkes, which was gradually 
being improved by him by partial enclosures and ploughing. 

It will be noticed that there was a church and endowed priest at 
Otley, he being taxed for the proportion of land specially allotted for 
his subsistence; there were also churches at Ilkley (a parish that now 
embraces Middleton on the opposite side of Wharfe) and Weston, but 
not within the Archbishop's jurisdiction. Guiseley, which was then 
within the manor of Otley, was a mere cluster of timber and thatched 
dwellings (ancient timber being still in evidence in the interior 
construction of the Parish Church), and its parish does not appear to 
have been formed, nor its Church built, until after the Norman settle- 
ment, probably through the munificence of the Wards. Perhaps like 
other outlying places in the parish, too inconveniently remote from the 
mother Church, it had a small chapel-of-ease, or originally even only a 
stone cross, erected in accordance with the practice of the times, visited 
by the Otley priest, where he " preached and celebrated." But as 
several churches in this neighbourhood are mentioned in the Domesday 
testimony, no reference is made to a church at Guiseley which induces 
the belief that there was nothing but a preaching-cross here until the 
formation of the parish in the middle of the i2th century. Also the 
state of the country at this time, with its comparatively sparse 

f In 1247 Archbishop Gray instituted Th. de Cantilup, clerk to the church at 
Bychton, at the presentation of Dame Agatha Trussebut. There is a Bickerton in 
Bilton parish, 3^ miles east of Wetherby. 



o 

I 
c 

33 
O 

I 




population, persuades me that it allowed only for the maintenance of a 
single priest.* 

The parish of Otley was not formed, as at Ilkley, out of the 
territorium of the Romans, for as Professor Freeman points out the 
Anglo-Saxons on their conquest of Britain did not as a rule at once 
occupy a Roman or British town, but preferred a settlement of their 
own especially where the land lent itself to convenient cultivation. 
There is consequently little doubt that Otley was colonised by the 
Kn^lish much earlier than Ilkley, though with regard to this ascription, 
the A..-S. ftvast-scyre, priest's share, or parish, was based on a pre-existing 
township that recognised, as we often find, old British boundaries or 
tribal claims, at any rate in the direction of Ilkley, where the population 
was largely Celtic and in the exercise of its ancient customs.! 

Baildon it should be observed was entered in the Survey as in two 
holdings (perhaps High and Low Baildon), one of which was within 
De Burun's soke of Bingley, and the other a berewick within the 
Archbishop's manor of Otley ; the first soon lost and perhaps explained 
by De Burun's forfeiture of the lordship of Bingley before the comple- 
tion of the survey,} though the whole of Baildon was not acquired by 

* The stone cross, dedicated at Guiseley to the memory of St. Oswald (though 
made probably two centuries later), often led to the erection of a church on the site 
dedicated to the same Saint. The Standard of St. Oswald (which was in existence 
in Bedt-'s time) was a cross of wood, and was borne before him in his marches 
against the pagans, and which he planted with his own hands before the battle 
began. (See p. 32.) The Guiseley cross bears an interlaced cord pattern on the 
shaft and on the head is the device of a twisted dragon, in allusion probably to the 
Apochryphal Gospel of the Nativity, "Beasts and dragons knew the Saviour of the 
world in the desert, and came and worshipped Him." The Church is an interesting 
epitome of the several early styles of ecclesiastical architecture, mingled with some 
execrable modern incongruities. The south entrance and piers of the nave are late 
Norman. There is an Early English chancel, with a curious low-side window in the 
north wall, which has been continued through to the outside, where until lately, was a 
recessed kneeling-stone, much worn, commanding a view of the altar. Inside the 
aperture has been closed with a shutter. The south transept has been a chantry-chapel 
dedicated to Our Lady, and contains some interesting 131)1 century half-timber work 
on the north side. It has three Early English lancets in the east wall, and a Decorated 
piscina and window in the south wall. The tower is somewhat later. In the church- 
yard is an excellent example of an Early English tomb-slab having characteristic 
dog-tooth ornament (ca 1220) which ought to be placed inside the Church. 

| S<-t- the introduction to the Census Report (1851) on the "Ancient Kingdoms and 
Provinces of England and Wales, and Scotland;" also D. H. Haigh's "Anglo-Saxon 
Conquest" wherein he connects the A.-S. Octarchy with the Roman Province of Great 
Britain. 

J A communion of feeling probably subsisted between the Domesday lords of 
Bingley and Otley, for Archbishop Thomas, the first Norman lord of Otley, came from 
the Cathedral of Bayeux, which belonged the honor of Evrecy, near Caen, in which 
province is situated the vil of Burun that gave name to the subsequent lord of Bingley 
and was the prim urn stamen of the noble house of Byron. 



42 

the Archbishops till about A.D. 1220.* Bramhope on the other hand, 
which was merged in the parish of Otley, appears in the Domesday 
record as the property of the Norman Giselbert Tyson, who permitted 
Ulchil the former owner to continue as his tenant. Bramhope however 
never came within the Archbishops' jurisdiction, which embraced all the 
townships of the manor including Guiseley. 

There was a tract cut off from Otley and the wapentake of Skyrack 
by the Wharfe that is mentioned only in the Recapitulation, above 
cited, as parcel of the manor belonging to the Archbishops included in 
the wapentake of Gereburg. This name and jurisdiction are now lost 
(being merged in Claro), but it must have included an area of little less 
than twenty square miles. Doubtless this particular territory main- 
tained a number of families recognizing a common kinship, a gemana, 
bound to each other by ties of law and inheritance. As most of the 
hundreds and wapentakes were not named after their townships but for 
other valid reasons, such as from some properly authorised spot or place 
of meeting, as in Osgoldcross, Buckcross, Skyrack, Tickhill and Claro, 
it may be well to consider how far such names illustrate political unity 
within their particular jurisdictions. For the present, dealing with a 
definite area as the manor of Otley is revealed to us yet the Norman 
"manor" by the way is but a legal fiction based on a divisional system 
going back to the oldest proprietary interest in land, I will confine 
myself to the district of Claro and its banished member, Gereburg, in 
which that portion of the manor of Otley lying on the north side of the 
Wharfe was situated. It must be remembered that over and above the 
agricultural rights of the primitive village assembly all interest in local 
government was centred in the hundred or wapentake courts as we find 
the same term expressed in those of the northern counties principally 
settled by the Norse. Dr. Wilkins, in his Glossary upon the Anglo- 
Saxon laws derives " wagentake " from weapan arma and teacan docere, 
as the district where a given number of persons in each county were 
accustomed to meet and train themselves in the use of arms.f There 
can however be little doubt that these judicial areas arose from a given 
number of families uniting themselves in one common interest for the 
maintenance of life and property, of law and discipline. Doubtless 
the motive, as we gather from Tacitus, was originally military as well 
as civil. In course of time these self-constituted village tribunes were 

* Mr. W. Paley Baildon, F.S.A., informs me that the two moities of Baildon were 
owned by the De Lelays, or Leathleys, in the i2th century, both of which they 
conveyed at separate times to the See of York, the last, as stated above, about 1220. 
The two charters are in the Cotton MSS. 

f Wilkin's Leg. Ang.-Sax., p. 117. 



43 

gradually encroached upon by the lords or heads of clans arrogating to 
themselves many of the duties and much of the prerogative belonging 
to them, which [in-pared the \vay for the Norman system of tenure in 
capHe. By thr time of Athelstan every man under a federation was 
bound to find a lord. It is thus we hear of the hall of the chief and the 
seat cf justice, or capital station of the manor or hundred. In the 
name Claro, anciently Clare-how, I have no doubt there lurks such a 
meaning, for clere (pron. dare) is an Anglo-Norman word signifying a 
myal or episcopal seat, or chief place of judicature,* and it is very 
likely that customary meetings continued to be held here as late as the 
reign of Henry I (1100-35), as that monarch in order to oppose his 
Norman barons and curry favor with the populace, restored these old 
English courts. They were in fact the Curia Regts, the court of the 
King's vassals, which grew out of the Saxon Witenagemote, and 
attended at first by all the King's tenants in capite, and afterwards by 
the superior lords only, ultimately led to the principle of hereditary 
legislation in the House of Lords. Yet a notable exception to the 
principle of hereditary right is afforded by the fact of the presence of 
the Bishops in the House of Lords from the earliest times, being the 
actual representatives of the general body of the people, as prescribed 
by the laws of Edward the Confessor. Therefore, I contend, we have 
in the how\ or hill, near Allerton Mauleverer still known as Claro 
Hill not a mere inert antiquity, but a place whose very name is still 
voiceful of the busy past, being the scene of the Anglo Saxon gemot 
and Norman Curia Regis,\ or place of assembly of the chief lord or 
governor of the wapentake. 

Gereburg seems to have a similar meaning, being the burg, or hill 
where the decrees passed by the wapentake Court of Claro were 
proclaimed annually, just as they are now by the Isle of Man House of 
Keys on the Tynwald Hill every 5th of July. 

The word gear is simply A.-S. for year, and gearlic is yearly, 
though with regard to the term burg in a judicial sense, it is possible 
that Savigny is right when he states that among the Franks and 
Lombards there were monthly courts attended by all the freemen who 
collectively are styled a rachimburgi, which he derives from rek, rich or 

* Vide Blackie's Place Names, page 50. 

I Like Cleofesho in Berkshire, a place celebrated in Anglo-Saxon Councils. 

J The leet is accounted the King's Court. Vide Scriven on Copyholds, Ft. iii, 
c. xxii. 

I find in the Pipe Rolls for Lincolnshire, 8th Henry II. (1161) that there was a 
wapentake of Gereburg in that county then responsible for levies to the King's 
Exchequer, 



44 

great, and burg, surety.* These regular periodical meetings of the 
Continental rachimburgi, observes Mr. Gomme, have their parallels in 
England in the great court, or sheriff s-tourn, or leet, as it was after- 
wards called, held twice a year, and the curia parva Hundredi, held 
every three weeks, which though appearing now to be so distinct from 
each other, belonged originally to the old hundred assembly, the one 
representing the civil, the other the criminal jurisdiction of the hundred- 
moot.! A local illustration of this is found in the ancient court leet or 
sheriff-tourn for the royal Forest of Knaresboro', within Claro which 
used regularly to be held at the Castle twice yearly, at Easter and 
Michaelmas. The constables then attended to be sworn into office, 
eleven for the Forest and nine for the Liberty, each of these 
accompanied by four men out of whom the juries were empanelled. 
In the light of this present-century custom we can clearly discern the 
old ante-Norman claim of the people to be entrusted in the 
administration of its local councils, thus directly or indirectly making 
all men party to the government of the State. 

One important privilege which the old lords of Otley exercised 
was that of judging and executing thieves taken within their several 
liberties. Consequently we find they had their own gallows at Otley, 
Beverley, and Ripon, and the site of the Otley gallows is still known 
and retained in the name of Gallows Hill, below the cemetery on the 
road to Pool. When the last execution took place here I have no 
knowledge, but at Richmond, in the North Riding, the right was 
exercised even to the time of the final abolition of feudal tenures, i2th 
Charles II. The gallows stood at the east end of the Gallows field 
near an old quarry, and the last person hanged there, according to the 
old parish registers, was John Conyers, bellman, izth Jan, 1613-14. 
Part of the old gallows-tree was standing as late as 17244 Among the 
Pleas of the Crown, 52iid Henry III. (1267), there is an indictment 
presented by the inhabitants of Pool, Otley, Bramhope, and Arthington, 
to the effect that one Ralph Brun had committed many robberies and 

* See also Stubbs' Const. Hist., vol. i, p. 54. 

f Gomme's Local Institutions, p. 54 ; see also Thoresb)' Soc. Pub., vol. ii, p. 129, 
where Sir Symon le Ward, Kt., is stated to owe suit(A.D. 1306) to the Archbishop's 
Court at Otley from three weeks to three weeks. Other local instances occur. 

J An old York gallows stood near the "Black Horse" public house, on the south 
side of the road leading from York to Kexby. Yorks. Archl.Jl., xiv., 450. A "Gallow 
Hill Close" is mentioned in the Leeds manor rolls (1650), vide Thoresby Soc. Pub., ix., 64. 
The city of Bradford had also anciently its gallows, which stood near the site of the 
present Bowling Ironworks, and is described in the local manor rolls as Gallows Close. 
Knaresbro' had likewise it's public gallows in use to a late period. As civil liberty 
extended these local executions generally lapsed, and not by the express statute 
mentioned above. 



45 

Ili-cl. But he was afterwards apprehended and executed by the said 
townships at the Otley gallows, and his land, said to be worth 245. 4d. 
and chattels, worth 14*., were forfeited.* Again, in J45g, one Thomas 
Tesdaile, of Otley, was apprehended for stealing goods value js. gd., 
belonging to the Prioress of Esholt, and was sentenced to be hanged, 
in all likelihood at Otley. t By the laws of Athelstan (vi., c. i., s. i.) 
the goods of the culprit were to be divided, one half to the wife (if she 
be guiltless of connivance), the other to be again divided, half to the 
King and half to the township (geferscipe), while izd. went to the man 
who first felled the thief. Although the prerogative of a gallows at 
Otley is not traceable beyond the grant of Athelstan, there can be no 
doubt that it was the transfer of a pre-existing custom. The unsettled 
Britons were notorious pilferers, and their raidings obliged some 
stringent method of repression. Doubtless, also, for the good behaviour 
of their own people, the Anglo-Saxons embraced and applied the 
same in the law of their own townships. This law was continued, 
and was not, as some have imagined, introduced by enactment at the 
Norman settlement. From the Saxon Chronicle we gather clearly that 
the Conqueror did not .subvert the old customs of the country, and on a 
comparison with his laws and those of his predecessors, notably of Ina, 
Alfred, and Athelstan, we shall find that he retained a great deal of the 
Anglo-Saxon prerogative. This included infangtheof (from A.-S.fa/ig 
or fang-en, to catch, and theof r a thief), or the right to execute felons 
apprehended within particular jurisdictions, and this prerogative the 
Norman lords of manors claimed, not as a new creation, but by virtue 
of ancient law-right. The feudal system was, of course, no new thing 
in the Conqueror's time, but had its original from the military policy of 
the ancient Celtic nations. 

These transmitted privileges, as affecting the liberty of Cawood, 
Wistow, and Otley, were formally contested by Edward I., almost 
immediately on the elevation of William VVickwane to the Archbishopric 
in 1279. It appears that during the King's absence in the Holy Land 
there had been much improper alienation and appropriation of State 
tribute and various unwarranted exactions levied on the people on the 
pretext of manorial title, to the serious diminution of the. Crown 
revenues. Commissions were appointed in every hundred of the 
kingdom to inquire into these abuses, and thus a Quo Warmnto was 
brought against William, Archbishop of York, demanding to know 
by what warrant he claimed to have gallows, returns of writs, estreats, 
&c., within the city of York and without. To have a park and free 

* Tower Assize Roll, No. 37, quoted in the Yorks. Co. Mag. (1891), p. 86. 
t Yorks. Rec. Ser., xvii., 58. 



46 

warren, and to have his lands quit from suit at " Beverley, Burton, 
Wilton, Ripon, Otley, Schireburn, and Thorp," and to have a park and 
free warren at Cawood. To which the Archbishop made sure answer 
that as to the gallows he claimed them, without York, " in his baronies 
of Schireburn, Wilton, Patrington, Otley, Beverley, and Ripon," by this 
warrant that King Athelstan gave the said manors to the Archbishop 
of York and his successors before the Conquest, from which time all the 
Archbishops of York have enjoyed the said liberties. That afterwards, 
King Henry I., son of the Conqueror, did, amongst divers other 
liberties, grant to the Archbishop infangtheof in the aforesaid lands by 
_his_charter, which he produced in court. This settled the matter, and 
the Archbishops continued to exercise their hereditary rights. 

The returns of Kirkby's Inquest (1284-5) shew that the Archbishop 
of York answered in Otley for half a Knight's Fee, the annual value of 
the Knight's Fee having been originally fixed at ^20, probably about 
A.D. noo. With Otley he held of the King in capite Guiseley, Burley, 
Menston, Hawksworth, Baildon, and Pool, as well as the barony of 
Sherburn. In 1290 the Archbishop contributed 205. from his manor of 
Otley, being at the rate of 405. granted from each Knight's Fee in the 
kingdom, in aid of the marriage of the King's eldest daughter. These 
" aids,'' says Blackstone, were originally mere benevolences, granted by 
the tenant to his lord in times of difficulty and distress, but in process 
of time they grew to be considered as a matter of right and not of 
discretion. In 1315 the Archbishop, William de Grenefeld, is returned 
as lord of the manor of Otley. The revenues of the manor, as furnished 
by a rent-roll, 36th Henry VIII. (1544), quoted by Drake,* then 
amounted to ^32 175. i id., or about $oo of present money. Cawood 
yielded a revenue of ^70 135. 4d., and Ripon, then the most valuable 
appurtenance of the See of York, was worth ,143 45. 8d. 

It is to be noted that in the Quo Warranto of Edward I. no 
allusion is made to the proprietary claim of the Archbishop to the tolls 
of the ancient markets at Otley. This was for the reason that the King 
only questioned those rights which could in any way infringe on the 
imperial interest. Though it did happen in one recorded instance, 
viz. A.D. 1439, when the Archbishop's steward levied tolls on some 
Knaresboro' Foresters who claimed exemption, by virtue of ancient 
grant, to stand toll-free in any market-place in the kingdom, that the 
said tolls had been unjustly demanded and taken to the injury of the 
men of the Forest. There was no justification in the Archbishop's 
claim by reason of any prior privilege as the Foresters well knew. 
That a weekly market was instituted by the grant of Athelstan, ca 940, 

* Eboracum, pages 545-7. 



47 

is very probable, but that " market and fairs in Otley have existed by 
ancient charter for more than fifteen hundred years," as asserted by 
Dr. Shaw* is a stretch of local patriotism which may be excused 
though not for a moment entertained. That would carry us back to the 
days of the ancient Britons, when many were living in the Stone Age 
and such a thing as a charter was totally undreamed of. Even during 
the Anglian occupation of Wharfedale there is no doubt that with the 
exception of particular grants and charters from the State, the succession 
to property and all important transfers and exchanges were ratified 
simply by the presence of persons outside the parties to the transaction, 
for the laws of Ina in dealing with sale and barter distinctly inform us 
that all purchases of any value were to be made before witnesses. No 
one could write then, or indeed very few.f In the time of Athelstan 
it was moreover not allowed to make any purchase of over twenty 
pence value extra portam, and the purchase had to be ratified before 
the portreeve or the reeves in the folk-moot. The State whilst always 
encouraging every form of legitimate trade has jealously guarded 
against any abuse of it, and has always claimed and exercised the 
right to establish fairs and markets. There do not appear, however, 
any records of letters patent granted before the reign of John. The 
earliest mention which I can find of such a grant to Otley is of the 
time of Henry III., when in 1222, a two days' fair was licensed to be 
established in the town. The following is the transcript, now for the 
first time published. 

MARKETS AND FAIR AT SHERBURN, PATRINGTON, AND OTLEY 

(1222). 

The Lord King hath granted to W., Archbishop of York, that he may have, until 
his coming of age, a market every week, on Wednesday, at his Manor of Sherburn, 
and that he may have, until his coming of age, a market every week, on Thursday, at 
his Manor of Patrington, and that he may until his coming of age of the lord King, a 
fair every year at Otley, lasting for two days to wit, on the vigil of St. Mary Magdalen, 
and on the day itself unless aforesaid markets and fair be to the injury of neighbouring 
markets, and it is commanded the Sheriff of Yorks. that he cause him to have aforesaid 
markets and fair as aforesaid. Witness, H. &c., at Nottingham, the first day of March, 
by the same.J 

The markets would be originally held in the churchyard (often in 
winter they were held in the nave of the church), and most likely on the 

* Wharfedale (1830), page 118. 

t Even at the present time this primitive system of transfer prevails to some extent 
in the Orkney and Shetland Islands : the right to property not being retained by 
deed or written agreement, but simply by undisturbed possession proved by witnc-.-t.-. 
before an inquest. 

J See also Rot. Chart., zy:A Henry III. (1248) for the Charter of grant of a yearly 
fair on St. Mary Magdalen's Day, and weekly (Monday) market at Otlt-y, Hexham, and 
other places to Archbishop Gray. Stotees Soc. Pub., vol. Ivi., p. 283. See also the 
author's Nidderdale, page 446. 



Sabbath, no matter what the chartered day, so that buyers and sellers 
coming from the outskirts of the parish, or from long distances, might 
do their business, and attend divine service on the same day.* Public 
proclamations were also made on the same occasions.! The markets 
and fairs were attended by all classes of society from the noble to the 
serf, and now and then no doubt one might have seen the lord of the 
manor, the Primate himself, accompanied by his steward, mingling with 
the motley group. Strolling about the booths and stalls on these ancient 
fair days appeared perchance an odd Crusader, or disabled hero with 
the war-tan fresh upon his cheek, along with mounted knights and 
ladies, shaveling soldiers, privileged beggars and players, and miserable 
lepers, crippled and sore, with their clap-dishes begging corn. There 
were also monks and laymen from the neighbouring monasteries ; 
the monks of Bolton and Arthington and the nuns of Esholt (the latter 
had lands at Otley) being regular visitors. Cattle, sheep, and goats 
were exhibited then as now, though goats in former times were much 
more in request than they are now. I find in the compotus of Bolton 
Abbey that the canons came to Otley fair in 1290 and spent 285. 8d. in 
the purchase of goats, worth at that time from i5d. to i8d. each, while 
a good milch-cow fetched 6s. or about the price of a stone of wool. 
There were no shops (as we understand the term) in those days, and at 
the back end of the year particularly, the markets were crowded by 
many who had travelled from a distance to lay in their winter supplies.} 

The Archiepiscopal rule ceased in 1837, wnen the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners took over the duties, exactly 900 years from the grant 
of Athelstan ; the Archbishops having enjoyed the fruits of the above 
customary gatherings during this long period, and for a great part of 
the time they were amongst the largest and best of their kind in the 
kingdom. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners resigned the manorial 
rights in the Market Place to the Otley Local Board in July, 1872. 

The Archbishops, as I have said, had a residence at Otley where 
they transacted business and received the homage of their suitors. It 
has been variously called a. palace and a castle, but I cannot think that 
it was ever a properly fortified manor-house or castle, otherwise we 

* The holding ot markets in churchyards was repressed by statute, i^th Edward I., 
but the prohibition seems to have been more honored in the breach than in the 
observance. 

f See Beverlev Minster Chapter Act Book, p. 5. 

J In a comparison of the value of the honor and manor of Skipton-in-Craven in 
1310 and 1612, the profits of the weekly market and two fairs in the year there amounted 
in 1310 to ;i6 133. 4d., and in 1612 they were declared not to yield so much. There 
had been a long- course of prosperity up to the disaster at Bannockburn in 1314 which 
"put back the dial-hand of civilisation fully two centuries." 






49 

sin mid find it mentioned amongst the Crown licenses to < renellate 
wli'u h win n.'irssary in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, when 
this house seems to have been most frequently occupied in honor and 
state. The old mode of defences having become useless by the 
introduction of gunpowder, we find that in the fifteenth century the 
type of fortified castle gradually died out and the domestic mansion 
took its place.* Some alterations appear to have been effected about 
the year 1415 when the great kitchens were added by Archbishop 
Ilouet, who also made some additions to the houses at Ripon and 
built the large dining-hall in the castle at Cawood. This prelate was 
celebrated for his lavish hospitality, and was frequently in residence at 
one or other of his palaces where he maintained a numerous retinue, 
anil no doubt the market-salesmen at Otley always rejoiced at his 
coming hither. He is recorded to have consumed four score tun of 
claret yearly, besides various other liquors and a proportionate quantity 
of comestibles. When he died in 1423 he left by will ^100 (at least 
;i,ooo of present money), to meet the expenses of the great feast and 
pomp of his funeral. f His successors continued to occupy the old 
moated mansion at Otley occasionally, to the time of Archbishop 
Hutton (1544-1606)! when it was neglected and by the time of 
the Civil War it was a complete ruin. Thoresby in his Diary, under 
date 1702, says "we rode by Askwith and Newhall over the bridge to 
Otley, where the first thing I observed was the ruins of the Arch- 
bishop's palace there." The foundations remained until about 1780 
when the existing Manor House, at the bottom of Kirkgate, was built 
on the site. It is the residence of Thomas Constable, Esq., J.P., 
descended from the Maxwells, Earls of Nithsdale, and nephew of the 
"good Mr. Middleton," of Middleton Lodge, whose only child, Mary 
Constable, married Charles Botolph, Lord Mowbray and Stourton, ot 
Allerton Mauleverer. The Archiepiscopal Courts, I should add, were 
afterwards held at one of the inns or at the old Free School. 

The inhabitants of Otley anciently held their tenements by 
burgage-tenure^f, and temp. Edward I. there were 137 burgages that 
paid an annual rent of fivepence each to the Archbishop by way of 
soccage. These burgage-houses collectively were designated a borough 
and their occupants were named burgesses, a term afterwards applied 

* See Parker's Domestic Architecture in England, Part i. 

f See Raine's Historians of the Church of York, iii., 322. 
% See Fairfax Correspondence, vol. i., p. 162. 

Similarly the remains of the old palace or manor hall at Ripon were removed in 
1830 to make way for the present Court Hou-c. 

* .Set- Blount's Law Dictionary, 



5 

to the general body of inhabitants. Although the town is now the 
capital of a Parliamentary division it had never a municipal government, 
nor was it ever actually represented in Parliament excepting indirectly 
by the Archbishops. In 1298 when two knights of the shire and two 
discreet and able citizens were summoned to meet the King at York, 
from every county and borough in England, the only towns in Yorkshire 
directly represented at this great national assembly were York, Beverley, 
Malton, Northallerton, and Scarbro'; the last mentioned place having 
been incorporated by charter of Henry II., A.D. n8r, and at the 
Parliament held in 1282 was the only borough in Yorkshire summoned 
to send members. Whilst Otley had anciently the privilege of direct 
representation, it seems always to have claimed exemption by reason 
of its affairs being controlled by the metropolitan and consequent 
unnecessitated liability to the expense attached to such representation. 

In a place so long and completely monopolized by the Arch- 
bishops, it would be interesting to discover how the two tofts at Otley 
came into the possession of Fountains Abbey.* In 1371 the Abbot 
had to maintain his right by claiming against Richard Bonefaunt, 
chaplain, and William de Merton, chaplain, one messuage in Otley, in 
right of his church. Also in 1372 the Abbot claimed a messuage in the 
town against John Ryder, chaplain. Otley had early given name to an 
honorable family, which I find first mentioned in the Pipe Rolls of i2th 
Henry II. (1165); and one Henricus de Ottley was Abbot of Fountains, 
who on his death in 1289! was interred in the chapter-house in 
accordance with the early Cistercian rule. Richard de Ottelay was 
Vicar of Otley in 1391. A Robert de Otley was also Prior of Bolton 
in 1370, and Thomas Otley was Prior in 1495. About 1 130 Archbishop 
Thurstan gave to the Nunnery of St. Clement, York, which he had 
founded, "one acre of land in Otley, with the tithe of a certain mill 
there. "\ This is an early reference to the lord's mill, where in former 
times it was compulsory to grind all corn grown or consumed within 
the liberty. 

The hospital for that terrible malady the leprosy, cited by Tanner 
as existing here temp. Edward II., originated in all probability early in 
the twelfth century when the disease was making great ravages in 
England. At that time, before the general foundation of monasteries, 
it was the especial province of the Church to relieve the sick and the 
poor, and there are good reasons for supposing that it was to the 

* Burton's Mon. Ebor. p. 189. 

t The compotus of Bolton Abbey for 1290 also mentions a Henry de Otteley. See 
Dr. Whitaker's Craven yA ed., pages 455, 454, 457. 
J Mon. Ang. I. 510. 



5' 

forethought and charity of the above-mentioned Archbishop Thurstan 
that the hospital at Otley was due. He also founded the leper's hospital 
of St. Mary Magdalene at Ripon, and the old Norman chapel, with its 
low side window, belonging to it, is still standing at the north end of 
Stammergate, not far from the river. Archbishop Thurstan died in 
1139, at which time there were at least 10,000 hospitals in Europe 
containing lepers. In Yorkshire they stood at the entrance of many of 
our old towns such as York, Pontefract, Newton near Hedon, Richmond, 
Whitby, &c. At Otley the site is not accurately known, but Dr. Shaw 
(1830) thinks it was in Westgate, as certain houses there are described 
in the old parish-books as the Hospital.* But ex-Councillor John 
Brown, of Otley, now in his 8oth year, tells me that in his young 
days there were three very old thatched houses (at one time forming 
one dwelling) in Cross Green, which were always spoken of as 
Leper Houses. My own opinion is that the enclosure marked in the 
tithe-award map as Spittal Field, on the Pool road, near the Cemetery, 
is the likeliest locality, as these hospitals were invariably isolated and 
near one of the principal entrances to a town. Strangers were not 
allowed to enter a town without passport, and anyone with the disease 
upon him would be told off to the hospital for temporary relief pending 
further enquiry. The disease was no doubt caused by the wretched 
habits of the time, uncleanliness (the poor for centuries could not afford 
soap) bad dietary, indulgence in diseased meat and damaged vegetables. 
At Berwick-on-Tweed it was even ordered that all rotten meat and fish 
were to be given to the lepers, and if there were no lepers then the 
corrupt meat was to be destroyed. Indeed the refuse of most markets 
was usually the perquisite of these poor fallen creatures. 

King Richard's poll-tax for 1378 gives us the names of the lay 
adult inhabitants of Otley at that time, and from this list we find there 
were 43 married couples and 25 single persons above the age of i6f 
who contributed their hard-earned groats to satisfy the warlike King's 
ambition to maintain Calais as an English port. The people of 
Otley, it may be safely affirmed, cared little whether it belonged to the 
French or the English, but they were compelled perhaps to provide 
men as well as to submit to the obnoxious tax, which as is well known 
afterwards led to the Wat Tyler rebellion. The principal tax-payer at 

* Are these the two old alms-houses in Westgate for poor widows ? The offices of 
Messrs. Payne's machine-works now occupy the site. 

t Assuming- that the 43 householders had each a family of three children under 16, 
and allowing for the clergy and a few others, not included in this enumeration, we 
shall be safe in estimating the population at about 250 in 1,379. Bingley at this time 
(1379) was just twice as populous as Otley, while the present great city of Bradford, 
not so large as Otley, had only 26 married couples and 34 single adults. 



52 

Otley was Johannes Filius Ade [de Otley?], or John Adamson, who is 
described as a " franklan " (gentleman), and paid 35. 4d. ; all the rest 
were engaged in agriculture or farm-service and paid 4d., except a tailor, 
a shoemaker, a mason, and a smith, each of whom was assessed at 6d.* 
It is noteworthy that no innkeeper is mentioned, as one would have 
thought there had been hostelries at Otley at an early period for the 
convenience of those attending the markets, as well as the hostilers 
were sometimes called on to act as hostages for merchants under the 
old trade-guilds. There does not, however, appear to have been any 
licensed inns in 1379 between Bradford (where there were three) and 
Knaresbro' and Ripon, although there was at least one brewery at 
Ripley. Yet I find that in 1345, when the Abbot of Selby travelled to 
Preston to treat with John of Gaunt, then Earl of Derby, he baited his 
horse at Otley, and paid for pan pro pale/rid, id. before proceeding to 
Skipton. 

War and pestilence ravaged the country during the greater part 
of the succeeding century, and the reports everywhere are that large 
tracts of old farm-land remained uncultivated. In 1372 the population 
of England was estimated at rather over 2,000,000 and there was no 
increase for fully a hundred years after that date.f When the sixteenth 
century was ushered in with ill-bodings in the north, the flower of the 
Craven dales, its young and able-bodied men, was singled out from an 
already sadly-thinned populace to aid the King's forces against the 
Scotch. The " Shepherd Lord " quitted his lonely retreat in the Forest 
of Harden, and leading the "bone and sinew" of Wharfedale far into 
Northumberland, triumphed on the field of Bannockburn in 1513. The 
names of those who Avent with bill and bow from Otley have not been 
discovered, but a portion of the list preserved among the records at 
Bolton Abbey, furnishes the names of many from villages adjacent.^ 

Proud the day when in 1525 this Shepherd Lord's son rode in state 
from Skipton to London, to receive that mark of the Royal favour 
which advanced him to the rank of Earl of Cumberland ! Doubtless 
the grand liveried cavalcade passed through Otley. It included thirty- 
three servants, all well mounted, with the noble Earl's chaplain, the 
parson of Guiseley, " Sir " Thomas Benson, whose fur-lined gown and 
other rich vestments had been new-made for the occasion, as appears 
by the Skipton Household Books, for the wonderful sum of 135. 4d. In 

* There was no joiner or carpenter here then, although I find mention made of 
William the Carpenter at Otley in a grant by Archbishop Walter Gray, A.D. 1215-55. 
Surtees, vol. 56, p. 252. 

f See Denton's England in the Fifteenth Century, p. 130. 

See the author's Craven Highlands, pp. 61-66. 



53 

1523 we have a list of inhabitants of Otley,* and in the Muster Roll for 
1539 we find the names of twenty-seven Otley men, able-bodied and fit 
for war.f This was on the eve of the downthrow of the monastei 
for the continuance of which the people of Otley seem to have had 
little sympathy. The parishioners became speedy converts to the new 
arrangements, and by 1604 there were only five persons in Otley parish 
who absented themselves from the reformed church. These were, 
according to Peacock's list, Dorothy, wife of Win. Thompson; Hugh 
Sherburne, Esq., and Elizabeth, his wife, of Esholt ; Dorothy Inghain, 
their servant ; and Robert Fauconbridge, of Burley, a servant of Wm. 
Middleton, Esq., who had not been to the Parish Church for a year. 
In 1669 the recussants in Otley were reduced to two, namely, Anthony 
West, and Mary, his wife; while Pool claimed one in the steadfast 
person of John Sparrow. 

When the Civil War broke out, urged by the J'uritan party, as it 
was said, " for the safety of Protestantism," the parish of Otley provided 
a gallant leader in the person of Sir Thomas Fairfax, of Denton Hall, 
who, with his father, Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax, of Steeton Hall, York, 
were two of the most conspicuous personages in the events of that 
tumultous period. Ferdinando, worn out with the troubles and disasters 
of the time, died in 1648, and his son Thomas, created Lord Fairfax, 
was made General of the Parliamentary forces throughout England. 
Could the gallant General have foreseen the protracted strife and trial 
of conscience he subsequently suffered, one can hardly believe he 
would have entered on such a career. That he erred in judgment, 
observes Hartley Coleridge, none will deny. The event proved it.J 
He took no part in the king's death, and when the regicide Court 
assembled he was not present, and his lady even dared to exclaim, as 
the court-crier was waiting the response to his name, which was placed 
first on the list of judges, " He has more wit than to be here." Yet 
this same spirited dame had no doubt been largely instrumental in 
guiding and urging his choice of action, for she was a daughter of the 
able and valiant Horatio, Lord Vere, under whom Fairfax had served 
in Holland, and had " learned her religion and politics in the Dutch 
Republic." She had no sympathy with the strong Roman Catholic 
feeling that prevailed in England, and no doubt resented Queen 
Henrietta's endeavours to raise supplies from the English Catholics for 
the Royal cause. Lord Fairfax himself, was one of the few noblemen 
in the north that threw in his lot with the Parliament, and though at 

* Yorks. Archl.JL, vol. ii., p. 290. f See Thoresby Soc. Pub,, vol. iv., p. 251. 
^ Worthies of Yorkshire and Lancashire, p. 181. 



54 

heart a Presbyterian, one is tempted to question whether, if left to his 
own unguided judgment, he would have allied himself among the 
"enemies of his king.''* His father, however, was "actively and 
zealously disaffected to the king," and his brother Charles, though 
afterwards a good friend to the Restoration, took some share in 
formulating the Parliamentary schemes. 

Charles Fairfax, who was a ripe scholar and antiquary, and 
author of the Analecta fairfaxiana, lived at this time retired from 
public gaze at the old hall at Menston. It is said that while Prince 
Rupert was lodged at Denton Hall, three days before the crushing 
defeat of the Royalists at Marston in 1644, Cromwell, accompanied by 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, visited Charles Fairfax at Menston Hall, and 
round a stone table, now at Farnley Hall, discussed and devised those 
plans which culminated in that disastrous battle which proved the 
turning point of the war.f The town of Otley quietly sided with their 
powerful neighbours at Denton, and many an Otley stripling would 
shew his mettle at Marston Moor. A sad time it was, too. Some, 
whose names we know not, doubtless fell on that day of ruthless 
carnage ; some perhaps worn out with the ill fare and hardships of the 
time died prematurely soon afterwards. In the Otley registers I have 
noted such an entry as this : 

1644, Richard Skelton, a souldier, buryed the xth of October, 

This is little more than three months after the great battle. Then in 
1647 appears: 

Mathew Peale, a souldier, buryed the sixth day of April), 1647. 

Otley, situated as it is mid-way between the two garrison-towns of 
Skipton and Knaresbro', was naturally the victim of some occasional 
raids, and when, after the Preston rout in 1648, Cromwell and Lambert 
led the army into Yorkshire, we find that the two generals camped at 
Otley for a night, and there is a tradition at Otley that some of the 

* Mark the tone of gracious loyalty and condescension in the letter addressed by 
Fairfax to Her Majesty, after the opening of the war in 1642-3, quoted in Whitaker's 
Loidis and El-mete, pp. 194-5. 

f The table has been raised on two stone supports against the west wall of the old 
dairy at Farnley. Its surface measurement is 4 feet 8 inches by 3 feet, and a brass plate 
in the middle of it reads : 

AT THIS TABLE, 

which formerly stood in the Orchard of Menston Hall, 
The seat of Colonel Charles Fairfax, 

OLIVER CROMWELL 
(according to a tradition carefully handed down) 

DINED 

June 3<Dth, 1644, 
Two days preceding the decisive battle of Marston Moor, 



55 

soldiers entered the Black Bull inn and drank every drop of liquid 
they could find. In a despatch by Cromwell to Parliament he writes : 

Alter the conjunction of that party which I brought with mi- out of \Vales with the 
northern forces about Knaresborouj;!! and \Vetherby hearinff that tin- enemy was 
advanced with their army into Lancashire, we marched the next dav, bein^ the 131 h of 
this instant August, to Otley (having cast oil our train, and sent it to Knaresboroujfh, 
because of the difficulty of marching tlierewith through Craven, and to the end we 
might with more expedition attend the enemy's motion) ; and on the i-Jth to Skipton ; 
the I5th to Gisburn ; the i6th to Hodder Bridge, over Kibble ; wher<- \\-e held a 
council of war. 

The Royalist vicar of Otley had been obliged to resign on the 
outbreak of the war, and the pulpit was filled by "ministers" of 
Puritan bias, whose prayers were for Cromwell and " liberty." Public 
"fast-days" were frequently held in the town, in atonement partly, it 
may be supposed, for the duty of taking up arms. 

When Oliver Cromwell was " King" I find a number of entries in 
the register of marriages " solemnized " not by a minister of religion, 
but before the martial. Colonel Fairfax, at Menston Hall. The Act ot 
1653 required that all marriage contracts should be performed and 
completed before a magistrate, and the young couples instead of being 
married in their Parish Church, as of old, had to trudge off to Menston, 
taking witnesses with them to certify to their legitimate union. The 
following I have copied are samples of these local civil contracts : 

Thomas West, of Otley, and Dorothy Scott, of the same place, marrycd at Weston 
the xijth daie of ffebruary, 1654, without publication. [It would appear the banns had 
never been published in this case.] 

Xickolas Hudson, of Baildon, and Mary Hartley, of Hawkesworth, boath of this 
p'ish, marryed at Menston, before Coll. ffairfax, the xijth daie of ffebruary, 1654. 

On Saturday, April 3oth, 1649, two Otley men, named John 
Hollins and James Dallin, were executed at York, for rebellion, and it 
may also be mentioned in connection with the Farnley Wood Plot, four 
natives of Otley, viz. : Timothy Mosley, John Hutchinson, David 
Jackson, and Cornelius Thompson, suffered with fourteen others at the 
York Tyburn, on Wednesday, January 25th, 1663. Two of them were 
quartered, and their heads and quarters set up on the several gates of 
the city; four of their heads were placed over Micklegate Bar, three 
at Boothan Bar, one at Walmgate Bar, one at Monk Bar, and three 
over the Castle Gates. The well-known story of this unfortunate 
rebellion need not be repeated here. Otley has always been particularly 
free from crimes of a serious nature, and for 500 years, viz. : from 1379 
to 1879, I believe these six natives of Otley are the only persons in the 
parish who have suffered the extreme penalty of the law.* 

* See the author's Old Bingley, page 253, also Mayhall's Annals, vol. i., pp. 587 and 
661. 



56 

In 1672 there were 108 householders in Otley who paid the tax 
for their fires or hearth-stones; in all there were 278 hearths, the old 
Court-house of the Archbishop having been vacated, as also the Free 
School. The principal contributors were Mr. Stephen Topham, who 
paid for 12 hearths; Mr. Henry Wilkinson, 10; Mrs. Dawson, 7; 
Mr. Edward Barker, 7 ; Seth Pullan, 7 ; Anne Hobson, 6, and the 
following had each 5 hearths : Peter Rhoades, Mr. Pullan, Rich. Hogg, 
Henry Wyley, Rich. Rhoades, Wid. Braithwaite, Wm. Tebbs, Anthony 
Hall, and Mr. Fawkes. The name of Thomas England is entered 
three times for 3, 2, i. All others had from one to four hearths each.* 

As affording some idea of the general status of Otley, towards the 
close of this century, it may be mentioned that it was rated higher 
than any other place in the wapentake, Leeds only excepted.f In 
1715 and also in 1745, I find Otley witnessed some of the proceedings 
connected with the Stuart rebellion which terminated in the " waefu' 
day o' Drumossie Muir." In the Skipton Township Books are entries 
of items of expenditure for conveying baggage and sick and lame 
soldiers from Skipton to Otley4 The bone and sinew of Otley was 
called on to defend His Majesty's peace on the Jacobite rising in 1715, 
just as we have seen many a gallant Otley lad had shouldered pike or 
musket on the terrible day of Marston Moor. I have seen an old 
manuscript volume at Bolton Abbey which gives a " long list of militia- 
men ordered to be raised in different divisions of Yorkshire, and Otley 
figures largely in that list. The first list for Otley commands Mr. 
Dinsdale, as principal, and then follows these names of contributors . 
John Stables, Occupiers of Mr. Sperm's Lands, Robert Snawden, 
Thomas Dunwell, Quintan Rennard, David Rhodes, Robert Barker, 
Wm. Hoddington, Joseph Page, John Cowgill, Jeremy Myers, and 
Christ, fflesher. (2nd list.) James Powell, principal, followed by 13 
others. (3rd.) Lawr. fflesher, principal, and 10 others. (4th.) Joseph 
Stocks, principal, and 7 others. (5th.) Daniel Neale, principal, and 17 
others. (6th.) Joseph Whitehead, principal, and TO others. Altogether 
85 persons in Otley were called on to provide an able man each or 
serve themselves in the King's cause against the Pretender, James 
Stuart. When Prince Charles Stuart beat a hasty retreat from Derby 
through Lancashire in December, 1745, a portion of Marshall Wade's 
army passed through Bradford on December 2ist, though it is not 
very certain which was the route it afterwards took. It was obviously 
sent to cut off the Prince's retreat northward from Preston. Spies to and 
from Skipton (an intelligence station) doubtless passed through Otley. 

* See Tlwresby Soc. Pub., vol. iv., p. 26-27. 

f Yorks, Archl.Jl., vol. i., p. 160-1. + Dawson's Skipton, p. 146-7. 



CHAPTER III. 




THK TOWN OF OTLEY, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The town of Otley Nntl visitors Antiquity of the parish and origin of tin- rliurch 
Comparison with Dewsbury Historical and architectural account of the church 
The building of the aisles -Kndowment of the chantry-chapels The tombs and 
tablets The families of Fairfax, Fawkcs, and Vavasour --The medic-ties of Un- 
church List (annotated) of vicars - Abstracts from the registers The churchyard 

The Crammar School Local Nonconformity The Friends \\VsIevans 
Independents Baptists Primitive .Methodists, <fcc. -Old roads and streets, their 
origin ami significance Old Otley inns -Attack on Lord Fairfax Life at Otley in 
the coaching-days -'I'he railways Pleasant aspects Local trades and industries 
The Wharfedale Agricultural Society; its origin and history Amusing anecdote-, 
Various old customs at Otley The Maypole Old Otley families -Distinguished 
natives. 

" ' - HEN Camden wrote his wonderful Britannia more than 
three centuries ago all that he deemed it necessary to 
say about Otley was that it was " memorable for 
nothing but its situation under a huge craggy cliff 
called Chevin," an opinion which I venture to think 
will be disputed by those who consider the thirty pages that precede 
this present chapter. But old writers are generally brief in their 
dissertations upon individual localities. Although brevity may be said 
to be a negative rather than a positive virtue, yet in these days of 
research and enlightenment, when the interest in the lives of persons and 
in events connected with particular places in former times has greatly 
increased, the local historian of the present day would certainly be 
judged ill-fitted for his task were he to forego every consideration of an 
ancient town save its dominant feature. 

Otley indeed before the century just closed has not come in for a 
large measure of notice at the hands of the historian and topographer. 
Warburton, the acute antiquary, who came here in 1718, simply 
describes it as "a small village," but the observant poet Gray, who did 
not profess either history or topography, furnishes perhaps the best 
among the earlier notices of the locality, and that is but brief. In the 
autumn of 1769 he drove from Skipton in Craven and descended the 
Chevin into Otley, which he describes as "a large airy town, with clean 
but low rustic buildings, and a bridge over the Wharfe," and then he 
adds, " I went into its spacious Gothic church, which has been new 



58 

roofed, with a flat stucco-ceiling." A few lines on the monuments 
follow, and that is the sum of his remarks upon the old town. 

The Church is, of course, the most important erection, and around 
its time-stained walls and hallowed ground there cling memories 
redolent of the far distant past. The pre-Conquest crosses, very 
properly preserved within the church (an example that might be 
followed in many other places), proclaim a high antiquity to the 
teaching of Christianity in these parts. Dr. Shaw has stated, and his 
assertion has been often repeated, that, as a matter of fact, there was a 
church in Otley in 630, " which was burnt, with the town, by the 




VICINITY OF OTLEY CHURCH FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

pagans,"* an opinion, I am obliged to say, unsupported by a single 
authentic record. If Christianity had obtained a footing in the place 
at this early period, and as I think I have shewn there is a probability 
that it had, it is not likely in these unsettled times there would be 
anything more than a preaching-cross erected so soon after the con- 
version of the Northumbrian king Edwin, in 627. While the west of 
Yorkshire had in the first instance been Christianised from the north by 
Qeltic missionaries, the Anglo-Saxons, on their colonization of Wharfe- 
dale, presumably in the sixth century, when Deira was conquered 
(559) by Ella, were rank heathens, and were the actual founders of Otley 
before the annexation of Elmete. They received their first impulse 

* Wharfedale (1830), p. 109. 



59 

tn the true faith through the Roman missionary Paulinus, who, as I 
have said, lied from the north on its relapse, or perhaps partial relaj 
into paganism in 633.* As shewing how slowly the tide of Christianity 
uas moving at this time, it may be mentioned that the great Saxon 
parish of Dewsbury, which is stated, though on questionable authority, 
to have originally covered an area of nearly 400 square miles, had but 
one church recorded in the Domesday inquest ; while in the whole 
wapentake of Morley there were only two churches which can with any 
degree of certainty be referred to the first period of Saxon church- 
building, f The two important parishes of Bradford and Halifax had 
no churches authenticated at the time of the Norman survey, although 
they had long existed as separate townships, whose boundaries formed 
the parishes which joined up northwards to the parishes of Otley and 
Bingley. Bingley, Bradford, and Halifax may have had small chapels 
of wood or stone and thatch, or only preaching-crosses, before the 
Norman conquest, but such chapels are never mentioned in Domes- 
day. At each of these places fragments of Anglo-Saxon crosses still 
exist. Otley on the other hand had undoubtedly, like Dewsbury, 
as the capital of a wide parish in the Saxon era, a church and a priest. 
This is stated in Domesday, and it is significant that two other 
churches in this part of Wharfedale are also recorded in 1086, viz., at 
Ilkley and Weston, shewing that Christianity had become a citadel of 
strength in this neighbourhood, as it had been for centuries before the 
Norman conquest. The teaching of Paulinus, however, did not at 
once, except in one or two special instances, as at York, lead to the 
erection of churches ; nor is it likely that either Dewsbury or Otley can 
lay claim to their structural foundations dating earlier than the final 
overthrow of paganism in Yorkshire in 655.! The dedication of most 
of the ancient churches of the Saxon parishes of Elmete to All Saints, 
which I have before alluded to, does in some measure support the idea 
that after the Synod of Whitby in 664, when " Rome rule" supplanted 
" Home rule," the attempt was made to maintain the Romish supremacy 
and to commemorate in the most practical manner the achievement of 
Pope Boniface IV. in making the Roman church the head and mistress 
of all churches. In 610 the heathen temple of the Pantheon at Rome 
had been converted into a church of God Almighty, and dedicated to 

* The local absence of heathen place-names does not premise that Christianity 
then prevailed, though it may g-ive colour to the belief that Otley and the Anglian 
settlements in Wharfedale were not colonized until after the annexation of Elmete, 
A.D. 627-630. 

f See Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete, p. 274. 

J According- to Lappenberg, very few churches were erected before the time of 
Archbishop Egbert, of York, A.D. 731-766. 



6o 

the Blessed Virgin Mary and all the Saints, a dedication warmly 
followed in the erection of churches throughout Christendom.* The 
period following these events was marked by marvellous efforts to 
promote Christianity in the north, and however thinly scattered its 
seeds were sown, there is no doubt that, compared with other parts of 
England, the church in Northumbria was the very root and sap of the 
Church of England at this time. 

Whilst the establishment of a seventh century church at Otley 
must ever remain conjectural, there can, I think, be little doubt from 
what I have said in the first chapter 'that on the acquisition of the 
parish by the See of York, in the reign of Athelstan (a grant that gives 
additional force to the idea of its being already an important centre of 
religion) a more commodious church would soon afterwards be erected. 
It should be remembered that over a great part of Yorkshire, and 
particularly in the western dales, the land was poor, rugged, and 
mountainous, the parishes were of large extent and consequently 
churches were few and far between. But through the fostering care of 
the archbishops the parish of Otley in the later Saxon times attained, 
as I have before explained, a high degree of prosperity, which led no 
doubt to the subsequent founding of churches at Ilkley and Weston, 
and perhaps chapels at Guiseley, Baildon, and other outlying places in 
the parish before the Norman Conquest. 

On the recovery of the parish from the ravages of the Conquest, 
early in the i2th century (the greater part of the manor in 1086 being 
waste), a larger and better church would be erected in accordance with 
the spirit of the times. It is to this period I refer the existing north 
doorway, which has a plain, round arch supported by single columns 
with square abaci and large trefoiled capitals, evidence of rather late 
date. When the north aisle was added in the reign of Henry VII. this 
Norman doorway was moved to its present position, as appears by the 
Perpendicular masonry on either side of it. The original church 
would have a mere bell-turret and no tower. It appears to have 
occupied the site of the present chancel, and to have extended south- 
wards to the Denton Chapel and westwards as far as the columns of 
the transept arches, where a foundation wall was discovered in 1867. 
At this time the floor was concreted, which necessitated the deepening 
of some old graves. While this was going on a very remarkable tomb 
was discovered in the chancel. It was about four feet below the 
surface, and hardly wider and deeper than an ordinary coffin. The 
sides and ends were built up of rough unmortared cobble-stones, 

* 1 may here observe that a dedication festival at Otley has been instituted by the 
present vicar of Otley, Mr. Frost, and was held for the first time on All Saints Day, 
Nov. i st., 1899. 



6i 

overlaid with similarly large unhewn stones. On removing this rude 
cover no body was found, only a tress <>l temale hair and some teeth, 
while the soil was covered with a white dust. On the antiquity of this 
burial I shall not presume to speak, but it is evidently pre-Norman. 
There were no rings or relics, nor even a nail, shewing that the body 
had been buried uncoffined. There is a very early look about some of 
the masonry at the east end of the chancel, and also in the south wall, 
which is built of stones of all shapes and sizes, and with wide joints. 
It may also be noted there is no string-course. 




NORMAN DOORWAY, OTLEY CHURCH. 

In 1851 part of a Saxon cross was found in the chancel walls, 
having been preserved there by later builders on the enlargement of the 
church. The many and varied fragments of sculptured crosses and 
other remains of Christian antiquity in the church, supply strong proof 
of the importance of Otley as a centre of the faith in early times. 
Apparently one of the oldest of these relics is the plain semi-cylindrical 
base of a cross, now placed against the west wall of the tower, which 
seems to belong to the same class as the famous Pillar of Eliseg, near 
Valle Crucis, in Denbighshire, an illustration of which appears on page 
27 of the late Rev. W. S. Calverley's Early Sculptured Crosses (1899), 
edited by the able pen of Mr. W. G. Collingwood, M.A. It is said to 



62 

be Mercian in type rather than Northumbrian, and is not found either 
in Scotland or Ireland, and only once in Wales. There are also some 
large and very beautiful fragments, now in the baptistery, one of which 
bears the device of a creature having the appearance of an eagle's 
head with winged body and dragon's tail. It is a magnificent and 
probably unique piece of sculpture. For a long period happily 
it had been out of harm's way, having been basely used as a 
building-stone over the chancel-arch, whence it was removed at the 
restoration in 1867. Another stone bears on its front face several busts 
in panels which seems to be of similar date and workmanship. Mr. 
Thomas Drew, R.H.A., of Dublin, who has designed many Celtic 
crosses, now in various parts of the world, believes the two stones have 
formed part of one cross, and has ventured to " restore ' it as shewn in 
the accompanying illustration. In design it is Celtic, yet in its sculpture 
which is remarkably well and boldly executed characteristically Franco- 
Norman, and evidently historically and symbolically significant in 
every part. The date of this fine churchyard cross may be nth or 
1 2th century. The heads in the bottom panels are probably of historical 
personages.* The central fragments also bear evidences of the Celtic 

* Mr. W. G. Collingwood, to whom I have submitted photographs of the crosses 
inclines to think there is too great a tendency to judge this kind of home work by 
Irish art. In Ireland the type lasted longer than it did here. Our artists, he says, 
certainly cannot be judged by Irish dates, any more than Scotch, and in Scotland 
the pre-Norman type lasted till the Reformation. He is of opinion that the two 
fragments have not formed part of one cross, though it is difficult to pronounce upon 
them without seeing the objects themselves. The fragment bearing the scrolls with 
animals and birds shews extremely beautiful work though not very early Anglian 
it might be dated 8th century or possibly early gth. The two lower figures hold books 
not unlike the usual representations of evangelists on crosses of that type. The 
uppermost figure seems to be an angel. As to the so-called eagle-dragon stone he 
holds that it is not an eagle, but the usual northern dragon which has two totally 
distinct meanings in its original symbolization. One has the devil, the old serpent, 
Leviathan, Midgard's worm, &c., and in Christian monuments placed beneath^ or in 
subjection to the cross, or other symbols of divine power. And the other meaning, 
originally, was the griffin, winged lion of St. Mark, combination of best human and 
divine qualities, Immanuel. For decorative purposes there is no doubt the griffin's 
head became more eagle-like, simply because a lion's head is far from easy to carve in 
stone, and an eagle's beak is known at once ; the griffin's tail then became more 
and more serpentine. On the other hand Leviathan's head that was bruised became 
more bestial, that is, less imitating a natural serpent, and he got wings because he is 
a spirit, and his tail got twisted up because he is an ornament. At last ignorant 
northern workmen really did not know the difference between the two figures, but 
they liked their dragon because he was easy to draw, effective as a subject, and the 
most adaptable decorative object that could be introduced into a composition. It is 
questionable whether in Anglian art of the earlier period the dragon was used as a 
stock subject, at least not uncombined with figures that explain it. Of course there 
must be differences of opinion until all the facts are collected together, and the most 
we can do is to obtain careful drawings or photographs of the stones, studying the 
whole together before being too positive as to dates. 




4 H 



(A to 




63 

influence in its scroll and plait ornamentations, which are not 
particularly good and are probably of the loth or early part of the nth 
century, that is Anglo-Danish. The old Norman windows in the chancel 
were only discovered in 1867, when the clerestory was added. The one 
on the south side has been restored. According to Dodsworth the 
south aisle was built by Sir Simon [Christopher ? the hero of Flodden] 
Ward, of Esholt,* and | Thomas) Thwaiu-s of Denton, and it had a 
roof of flat pitch. In the south window of the choir appeared the arms 
of Ward, arg. a cross patonce, and they were also cut in the pillar 
thereof. The arms of Croker, Wortlay, Scargill and Calverley are also 
mentioned. The north aisle, with the Lindley Chapel at its eastern 
termination, was doubtless also added a little before the Reformation 
when the large east window was inserted,! although the date 1606 appears 
over the door. But this must commemorate some later restoration. 
In the respond of the .arcade, near the pulpit, is a piscina, and doubt- 
less there has been a small altar. It is not unlikely that a similar 
piscina exists in the Denton Chapel behind the Fairfax monument. 
There was a chantry dedicated to Our Lady on the north side of the 
church,:}: the incumbent whereof was hired by the parishioners to help 
and further the curate for the ministration, not only of divine service, 
but also for the visitation of impotent and poor people within the 
parish, which is stated in the Certificates of Chantries at the Dissolution 
to number 1000 householders at the least. There were copyhold 

* Sir Christopher Ward held the patronage of Guiseley Church from 1496 to the 
time of his death in 1521. He was the last male representative of this ancient family. 
See Surtees Soc. Pub., vol. xlii., pp. 197-811. For pedigree of Ward, see Flower's 
Visitation of Yorks. (1563-4), and Slater's Guiseley, pp. 101-110. 

f Out of certain lands, the property of Thomas Lindley, Esq., of Lindley, six 
marks were bequeathed by him in his will, proved in 1524, to " fyncle an honeste preiste 
for ev'r more to syng at my maner of Lyndley, to pray for my saull, my fader's 
and moder saulls, and al Cristen saulls," and the trustees were recommended to 
appoint Sir William Grene, for the remainder of his life, he being then testator's 
chaplain. 

Jane Sykeream of Adel, by will dated 1503, gave one torch, value 4'-, to the church 
at Otley. Tlioresbv Soc. Pub., iv., 7. 

+ 13, April, A.D. 1529. Bryan Palmes, of Farm-ley, to be buried in Our Lady 
(Jhere, and ordered that his executors do cause a stone to be layd over him with the 
Image of the Nativity of Our Lady set upon it, and his own image kneeling under it. 
Tmre. Bryan Palmes married Isabel, d. and co-heir ot Thoma> Lindley, and by this 
marriage the two families became united as explained on the quaint old bras* in the 
church. 

23, Jan., 1545. Tho. Johnson, of Lyndley, Knt., to be buried in Our Lady Queare, 
and willed that his executors do cause a stone to be layd upon him with the image of 
Our Lord's Nativity set upon it, and an image of himself made kneeling under the 
same with his arms on four corners of the stone. Torre. 

S Su> tees Soc. Pub., vols. 94, pages 230 and 395. 



6 4 

and freehold lands, and certain burgage land, in the holding of diverse 
persons, belonging to the said chantry, which was returned in 1548 as 
of the gross yearly value of ^4 8s. 8d. and nett ^3 tos. 3d. There 
was also an oratory or donative of St. Catherine in the parish church, 
" founded for assistance in serving the cure," and valued yearly at 
395. 8d. At this time (1548) it was stated that there were two persons, 
viz. : William Holgill, master of the Savoy in London, and Thomas 
Magnus, not resident, who find one curate to serve the cure, having no 
other assistance but that of the chantry priests, and the ministers must 
have found the work somewhat rough and difficult for the parish was 
very large and as then described, " foule to traveyle in wynter." 




FAIRFAX TOMB IN OTLEY CHURCH. 

In the chancel is a Norman piscina, and in the south wall of the 
chancel is a small rectangular cupboard or almery, 17^ by 12 inches, 
the use of which may be explained as follows : 

Upon the right hand of the higfhe altar, ther shuld be an almorie, either cutte into 
the \\alle or framed upon it ; in the whiche thei would have the sacrament of the Lord's 
Bodye ; the holy oyle for the sicke, and Chrismatorie, alwaies to be locked.* 

It is interesting to note in the will of vicar Rood, or Rud (A.D. 
1478), that the ambo was still in use in the church. This was a kind of 
raised reading desk, ascended from the east and west sides, and which 

* From the Fardle of Facions, translated by Wm. Watreman (A.D. 1555), and quoted 
in Rudder's History of Gloucester p. 410. 



65 

at a later period developed into the pulpit. In very early times the 
ministers usually preached from the altar steps, and there is little doubt 
but that the amba at Otley is a survival of its use in an early church, of 
which examples still exist in the churches of St. Clement and St. 
Laurentius at Rome. Formerly the chancel-arch was covered by a 
gallery, and had an organ in the middle of it, and there was a painting 
of Moses and Aaron on the wall behind. An iron ring on each side of 
the chancel-arch also most likely supported a pre-Reformation rood-loft. 
There was likewise a gallery at the west end, erected in 1764. These 
unsightly galleries have been removed, and in 1851 the plaster ceiling, 
referred to by the poet Gray, was also taken down ; the roof being 
then raised, and the clerestory erected. At this time there was a small 
bell-turret directly above the chancel-arch, which most probably con- 
tained the sanctus bell. It is just perceptible in the illustration on 
page 58, shewing the old aspects of the church and its surroundings. 

The monuments and inscriptions in the spacious interior of the 
church are both numerous and interesting. The most notable is an 
altar-tomb in the south aisle, bearing effigies of Lord and Lady Fairfax, 
grandparents of the famous General, Sir Thomas, afterwards Lord 
Fairfax. The effigies are cut in Hazelwood stone, the male figure 
being represented bare-headed, with thigh armour of six or seven taces, 
and plain, ridged cuirass, characteristic of the Elizabethan period. The 
lady is attired in a plain robe reaching to the feet, and has close-fitting 
sleeves. A ruff is worn round the neck, and the cap or head-dress is 
worthy ot note, as this varied much at different periods. The inscrip- 
tion, which is in Latin, translated, reads : 

A.I). 1620. SACRED TO THE MEMORY 

Of the Hon. Thomas Lord Fairfax, Of Kllen, his most affectionate wife, 

who, after he had discharged the the daughter of Robert Aske, Esq., 

various duties of war among; the descended from the Barons Clifford 

French, Germans, and the Dutch, and Latimer, and mother of twelve 

obtained his dismission from this children. After she had lived an 

warfare of troubles, and after hav- example of piety for fifty-seven 

ing attained the age of 80 years, years s ''e placidly expired, being 

during the halcyon days of Eng- taken from her human to her 

land, he obtained celestial safety heavenly relations the twenty-third 

the first of May, 1640. day of August, 1620. 

Beneath the lady appears this panegyric : 

Here Leah's fruitfulness, here Rachel's lie.iuty, 
Here lyeth Rebecca's taith, here Sarah's duty. 

On the east wall, above these effigies, is a monument erected to 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, but it bears no inscription. Sir Thomas was 
father of the above Lord Fairfax, and was knighted by Queen 
Elizabeth. He died in 1599. Another commemorates Col. Chas. 



66 

Fairfax, already mentioned, who lived at Menston Hall. On the north 
side is a curious brass plate, depicting the cumbent figure of Palmes, 
of Lindley, laid on a mattress, with the names of his ancestors to the 
year 1297, in tree-form, with roundels rising from him. The inscription 
in Latin tells us : 

No figment of the herald's craft, nor venally procured, 
These ancient monuments declare a race of worth assured. 

Within this Church are many Lindley's laid : 
Here exequies o'er the last Palmes were said. 
Vain and uncertain was their tame ; for when 
Has ancestry alone ennobled men. 
Yet virtue blooms like palm-trees branching' wide, 
And gifted souls no sepulchre can hide. 
Anno D'ni 1593.* 

There are also several monuments to the Fawkes' of Farnley, the 
oldest being to Thomas Fawkes, armtger, who died in 1626. One 
pays a fitting tribute to the memory of Francis Fawkes, Esq., M.P. for 
Knaresbro', who died in 1747, and of Margaret, his wife, one of the 
daughters and coheiresses of John Asycough, Esq., only son of Sir 
Wm. Ayscough, Kt. Another in the choir commemorates Ayscough 
Fawkes, Esq., who died in 1771, unmarried, and another is to Francis 
Fawkes, Esq., of Farnley Hall, who died July i7th, 1786. He married 
Christiana, only daughter and heiress of Wm. Wilkinson, Esq., of 
Newall Hall, and dying without surviving issue, left the bulk of his 
fortune to Walter Hawksworth, Esq., of Hawksworth Hall. Another 
monument, bearing a long inscription, is dedicated to the last named. 
He assumed the name of Fawkes, and was born at Hawksworth Hall 
in 1746, removed to Farnley Hall in 1786, which he rebuilt, and died 
there October i7th, 1792. In the choir is a marble tablet inscribed to 
Maria Fawkes, who died December loth, 1813. There is a portion of 
an old memorial tablet (date about 1640) to Wm. Vasasour, Esq., of 
Stead Hall in the township of Burley. Mary Pulleyn was his sole 
heiress, and there is in the choir a tablet erected to Thomas Pulleyn, 
Esq., of Burley Hall, who died in 1759 ( see BURLEY). Another stone 
tablet commemorates Sir Robert Dyneley, Kt. of Bramhope, who died 
in February, 1616. A small brass on the east wall of the Fairfax 
chapel commemorates Anne, first wife of Sir George Wentworth, of 
Woolley, who died in 1624. She was a daughter of Thomas, Lord 
Fairfax (see page 65). There are also some other tablets to the families 
of Wood, Lacon (connected with the Barkers of Otley, from whom 
Viscount Halifax descends), Dunn, Fourness, Sheriton, and the Rev. 

* A full description, with illustration, of the brass appears, in the Yorks. Aich.JL, 
vol. xv., pp. 36-7. 



67 

Ilt'tiry Robinson (vicar); ;ilso much beautiful memorial glass to tin- 
several families of Billam, Wilkinson, HartU-y, Trnnant, Whitaker, and 
the Rev. Joshua Hart (vicar). The fine east window of five lights was 
erected by subscription. There is also a beautiful font erected in 1868 to 
the memory of Mrs. Ann Rhodes of Bramhope, by her son Mr. Francis 
Darwin, of Creskeld Hall ; likewise some chaste standards and a very 
handsome brass tablet bearing a list of the vicars, the gift of Mr. Wm. 
Fison, of Greenholme. In addition to these numerous memorials and 
objects of interest in the church, there are also now in the tower various 
carved stones and relics illustrative of past history, to which I have 
alluded in the narrative account of the parish. In 1885 the tower 
opening was furnished with a suitable oak screen and the window filled 
with a beautiful design in stain-glass, the whole cost being defrayed by 
Mr. Win. Fispn, of Burley. I may also mention that in his diary for 
the year 1748, Sir Walter Calverley, Bt, states that he subscribed three 
guineas towards the new bells for the church, which (excluding the old 
metal) cost ,230. In 1782 eight bells were obtained at a cost of 
,384, and the old bells were sold for ^260. 

A mediety of the church belonged to the prebendary of South 
Cave, who was rector of the mediety and had half the tithes thereof, 
which he usually let to farm for the rent of ,39 per annum. The 
other mediety was bestowed by Roger, Archbishop of York (1154-81) 
with other benefices on the chapel of St. Sepulchre, York, and in 1258 
Archbishop Sewall gave the presentation to the vicarage to the sacrist 
of the said chapel and his successors for ever, he to allow eight marks 
per annum to be distributed amongst the poor of the parish.* In the 
taxation of the tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices granted by Pope 
Nicholas IV. in 1281 towards the expenses of an expedition to the 
Holy Land, the vicarage of Otley is entered as parcel of the above 
prebendary, and worth annually ^6 i3s. 4d. The value of the other 
mediety is not separately stated, being grouped with the benefices of 
Thorp Arch, Collingham, and other ecclesiastical properties of the said 
sacrist, as of the total annual value of ,88 6s. 8d. In the King's 
Books the vicarage is valued at \$ is. 8d., and in Ecton's Liber 
Valorum (1728) at ,38 6s. 8d. 

An imperfect catalogue of the incumbents has been furnished by 
Torre, commencing with the year 1267, and to these I may add the 
occurrence of the names of Adam and Henry, chaplains of Otley, who 
appear as witnesses to charters of grants of land to Archbishop Gray, 

* Sec Raine's Historians of the Chunk of York, iii. 176-180, also Snrt?es Sc. Pub. 
56. p. 106. See also "Otley C'liaritk-s " pagv 71. 



68 

ca. 1220. The name of the first vicar on the ordination of the vicarage 
has not been found. The list is as follows : 

1258 1512 Laurence Pecke (?) 
1267 Galfridus cle Bridlington. 1532 William Stanley. 

1288 William de Leverton. 1536 John Barker. 

1319 Jolinde Brantingham. IT Richard Oliver. 

1349 Robert Bonfaunt. 1554 

John Rovvcliffe. 1594 Will Hardisty. 
1391 Richard de Otteley. 1596 Robt. Thompson. 
1432 Robert Xewall. || 1606 Will Harrison. 

f 1449 James Cams. Alex. Robertson. 

1452 Richard Rudd. 1654 Joseph Stocks. 

Will de Skelton. 1656 John Furness. 
1478 Will Taylour. 1662 Lancelot Dennison. 
1502 Edw. Mayhew. ft 1673 Thos. Harrison. 
1504 Richard Walker. JJ 1689 

* The Black Death was raging about 1350 and half the clergy in Yorkshire 
succumbed to it. There was probably more than one vicar between 1349 and 1391, 
but see Tlwresby Soc. Pub. vol. viii., p. 28. 

f 6 Oct., 1452, Jas. Carus, vicar, to be buried in the churchyard. Torre, 

% 4 July, 1478, Richard Rudd, vicar, to be buried in the quire before the ambone 
(pulpit, see page 64) Torre. 

J5 1^32, Laurence Lake, vicar, to be buried before the picture of All Hallowes, 
within the High Queare. Torre. 

IT Richard Oliver was deprived by Queen Mary. See Yorks. Archl. Jl., vol. x., 

P- 95- 

|! William Harrison, vicar, was buried at Otley, Feb. 28, 1648. On the outbreak of 
the war he would appear to have resigned, and was succeeded in his office by ministers 
of Puritanical proclivities. The Rev. Thos. Parkinson, vicar of North Otterington, 
has courteously placed in my hands a MS. volume of sermons preached at Otley and 
elsewhere during this stormy period, which once belonged to the Fairfax family and 
was sold in the Phillips' Collections in 1898 (see BuRLF.v). From this volume it appears 
that a "Mr. Ellison" was the regular minister at Otley in 1641-2. His name occurs as 
preacher on March 2oth, 1641, and runs through the book till July 17, 1642. In the 
Bradford Parish Church registers I find this entry among the burials: " 1642, June 4, 
Hanna, d. of Mr. Ellison, Minister, Otley."* He preached at Otley on the following 
day. Bradford at this time was a stronghold of the Parliament, and had ejected its 
Royalist vicar, the Rev. Francis Corker, who subsequently joined the king's garrison 
at Pontefract, and had two horses shot under him. He was taken prisoner at Gains- 
borough and thrown into Lincoln goal, from which he made his escape. His name 
appears in the same MS. vol., under date 13 July, 1642, as having preached at Calverley. 
Puritan ministers occupied most of the local pulpits at this time, and the names of Mr. 
Ellison, Mr. Cooper, Mr. Belwood, Mr. Clarkson (of Bingley), Mr. John Furness and 
Mr. Clapham, appear as the preachers at Otley, Weston, and Denton, in 1641-2. 

" " Alex. Robertson is described in the records of Otley Grammar School for 1652, 
as "present incumbent of the perpetual vicarage of Otley." This was when Cromwell 
held the reins of government. In 1654 Joseph Stocks appears as vicar, and in 1656 
John Furness (sec last note) occurs as vicar. 

H' Thomas Harrison, vicar, was buried at Otley, Dec. 2ist, 1688. 

Ji In Oliver Heywood's Register for Coley Chapel there is entered "Mr. Farran, 
vicar of Otley, buried Dec. 2ist, [1688?] a fat man, aged 52." Cannot this have 
reference to the Rev. Timothy Farrand, who was minister at Bolton Abbey, and from 
1683 to 168^, vicar of Skipton, where he died? He was buried at Skipton, Nov. i2th, 
1685. 



69 

1692 Laurence Hentham. * 1786 James Bailey. 

1701 Thomas Dadc. 1816 Hv. Robinson, M.A. 

* 1708 Henry Humphrey. 1834 Ay-rou^h Fawkes, M.A. 

1744 Thomas Dawson. 18-7 Joshua Hart, 15. A. 

1746 Joshua Crowther. i,Hf>5 S. R. Anderson, M.A. 

1750 Christ. Aleoek. i.SS.S R. M. M. < -haneellor, M.A. 

| 1761 Henry WiNon. i,X () o John T rower, M.A.. K.I). 

178.2 Ceorge Hatlield. iKoS (I. I'erry H. Frost, M.A. 

The registers of the church commence with the year 1562, and the 
first two volumes were some years ago transcribed by the then vicar, 
the Rev. S. R. Anderson, and it is to be hoped that the lately-formed 
Yorkshire Parish Register Society will take these valuable registers in 
hand with a view to their publication. Many items of interest may be 
gleaned from them respecting local families, trades, events, and a 
variety of circumstances reflecting the manners of the past three 
centuries. The records of excessive burials in certain years, notably in 
1604, when 10,000 persons in York alone died of an infectious sickness, 
shew that Otley did not escape this virulent epidemic. Also during the 
stagnation in the woollen trade after the Civil Wars, when it was 
ordered that no one was to be buried in linen as heretofore, but in 
woollen, we find an instance at Otley of a party preferring to pay the 
statutory fine, which was a penalty of ^5, half of which was given to 
the informer and the other half to the poor of the parish where the 
person died. The great flood of 1673 ' s a ' so referred to under date 
September nth, when the Wharfe ran up in a direct line to Hall-Hill 
Well, and Otley Bridge and most of the water-mills in the dale were 
overturned and swept away. At that time the mills at Pool were 
largely constructed of wood, which caused them to float, and as the 
register relates, "carried them down whole just like a ship."** 

Amongst the many papers which I have examined in the vestry 
there is a terrier of glebe-lands and other possessions of the church in 

* See Parkinson's Lays and Leaves of the Forest, p. 188. 

f A tablet in this church commemorates this vicar, who died Der. 14, ij.Si. He- 
was the second son of Mathew Wilson, Esq., of Eshton Hall, and grandfather of Sir 
Mathew Wilson, Bart., M.P. 

%. He died in 1816, and was interred with his family at Guiseley. See Yorksh. 
An III. Jl., vol. vi., p. 90. 

S For a biographical notice of Mr. Hart, see Taylor's Supplement to Leeds Worthies, 
pp. 608-9 &c. 

17 Mr. Trower was elected to the 2ist honorary canonry in the Cathedral Church 
of Ripon, in May 1896. He died Feb. 6th, 1898, and was interred at Farnley. 

Mr. Frost was vicar of Christ Church, Upper Armley, Leeds, from iS88 to 1898. 
* The mills of Pool are mentioned in an inquisition taken at York in 1279 as 
yielding with other thing's there an annual rental of sos. to the Lord Archbishop of 
York, and the said lord is bound by his charter to defend them against whomsoever it 
be. Yorks. Arch.JL, Record Ser. xii., 188. 



70 

1748, wherein is mentioned the vicarage-house, a barn, and an orchard 
lying on the north side of the house, and containing by estimation 
three roods of ground. The old vicarage on the north side of the 
churchyard is now occupied by Mr. Edmund Walker, but the orchard 
was cut down when Messrs. Walker built their printing works on the 
site about forty years ago, and the old tithe-barn was pulled down 
perhaps long before. Up to about twenty years ago the^curfewjbell 
used to be tolled by the parish clerk daily at 6 a.m. in summer and 
7 a.m. in winter, as well as at 8 in the evening. Formerly, too, 
there was an old custom in the town (when everybody knew 
everybody else) of collecting money on the occasion of a death, which 
was either given to the bereaved family or was spent in a feast on the 
day of the funeral. This collection was known as the " dead brief," 
and the sum usually subscribed was a shilling. The custom was long 
ago discontinued. Another old custom was for the churchwardens 
with their rods of office to visit all the public houses on Sunday 
mornings in order to see that no drinking was going on during divine 
service. They usually set out on this errand before the reading of the 
first lesson. Mr. Jeremiah Garnett, aged 81, tells me he well remembers 
as a boy going round with his father, who was a churchwarden, when 
they turned out one " Sailor Tom " and a man named Wheelhouse, 
who were put in the stocks just inside the church gates. 

The most conspicuous memorial in the well-filled churchyard is a 
facsimile in miniature of the celebrated Bramhope Tunnel, erected as 
the inscription tells 

In Memory of the unfortunate men who lost their lives while engaged in the 
construction of the Bramhope Tunnel of the Leeds and Thirsk Railway, from 1845 to 
1849. This tornb is erected as a Memorial, at the expense of James Bray, Esq., the 
contractor, and of the agents, sub-contractors, and workmen employed thereon. 

"I am a stranger and sojourner with you ; give me a possession of a burying 
place with you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight." 

"Of those eighteen upon whom the Tower of Siloam fell and slew them, think ye 
that they were sinners above all the men in Jerusalem ? I tell you, nay ; and except 
ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish." 

There are other memorials and epitaphs of general interest to 
those who chose to spend a quiet hour among these silent records. 
One of the most interesting, and one which speaks eloquently for the 
seductive scenery of Otley, commemorates a Dr. John Ritchie, who led 
a hazardous sea-faring life and made journeyings between many lands. 
Having achieved honour in his capacity of surgeon at the siege of 
Porto Bello, in South America, he at length retired from active service, 
and travelled leisurely through many counties of England for the 
purpose of fixing on some beautiful spot where he might pass his days 
in peaceful retirement. Coming into the valley of Wharfe, and being 
much impressed with the situation and surroundings of Otley, his 



choice was at once fixed, first at Bramhope, and soon afterwards at 
Otley, where he passed his remaining days. He lies in the south-east 
of the churchyard, and his epitaph reads : 

Here rest the remains of John Ritchie, gentleman, who migrated in lull hope of a 
better life, from (hi-; terraqueous M-ene of fluctuating trouble, May 151)1, 1780. 
I'Yoin Torrid Climes by nautic Art conveyed 
I sought the refuge of a peaceful Shade, 
Oft in the tumult of the broken Wave 
I votive call'd, when Heaven vouchsafed to save 
Here all is calm ; ye idly vain ! deduce 
The pointed moral to salvation's use 
Tired of this mortal toil, Debate and Strife 
I rise atoning- to triumphant Life.* 

The Free Grammar School was founded in 1602, by will of Thomas 
Cave, of Wakefield, and King James I. granted a charter for the same, 
and added the name of his son, the Prince of Wales, and his arms to 
to the title and seal of the school. The motto on the seal is Deum 
Pare, Tomo Cave (Fear God, and mind thy book), being a punning 
allusion to the founder's name. A small estate situated at Landmoth, 
near Northallerton, was purchased and afterwards sold for an annuity, 
yielding 26 per annum. The school was continued till Midsummer, 
1874, when it was closed, as owing to its limited endowment and other 
defects, it was never a very flourishing institution. In August, 1883, 
the premises were sold for ,800, and the trustees have allowed the 
income to accumulate with the object of founding scholarships in 
connection with institutions devoted to higher education, tenable by 
Otley boys. It may be mentioned that Thomas, Lord Fairfax, of Civil 
War renown, was one of the trustees of the old school. Mr. Christopher 
J. Nevvstead, of Otley, hon. sec. to the governors, has in his possession 
an original minute-book, containing many particulars of interest relating 
to the school from its foundation. 

The following particulars of local charity bequests were compiled 
by the vicar and churchwardens in 1862, from ancient documents and 
other authentic sources. 

THE OTLEY CHARITIES. 

The Thorp-Arch Dole 2 135. 4d. 

The Hooton Pagnell Dole... ... ... ... ... 2 133. 4d. 

The Rectors of the above-named places are bound, by Letters Patent of Queen 
Elizabeth, dated 1588, to pay out of the lands, tithes and profits of the said Rectories 
the sum of ^5 6s. 8d. yearly to the poor of Otley, for ever. The Thorp-Arch Dole is 

* John Ritchie, the younger, of Otley, linen draper, was co-executor of the will of 
Benj. Kendall, of Otley, tanner, dated 3ist May, 1777. 

Dr. Ritchie left a son, who was father of Joseph Ritchie, the African explorer, and 
a daughter who never married. She was one of the Rev. John We>ley\ ino-t intimate 
friends, and the eminent divine bequeathed to her his gold seal and other personal 
mementos of his friendship. 



7 2 

paid by Teale and Appleton, Solicitors, Leeds ; and the Hooton Pagnell, by Beckett 
and Co., Bankers, Leeds. The Charity Commissioners have awarded to the poor of 
Burley 123. 3%d. yearly, to be paid out of the above, and 35. 6d. out of the Saxey's 
Charity. The above doles are distributed every Christmas Day. 

THE SAXEYS* CHARITY. 

In the year 1614, Hugh Saxey and Dorothy his wife left .30, which was lent 
formerly to young' tradesmen at 5 per cent. ; but in the year 1724 it was invested in 
five cottages and croft adjoining', called Plum Tree Garth, situated in Cross-Green, 
Otley. The interest, 3os. , is paid out of the rent of Plum Tree Garth, and distributed 
on the 7th day of April, or the Sunday after, as follows : To twenty poor women, is. 
each ; the Vicar, 8s. ; the Clerk, as. 

THOMAS BARKER'S CHARITY. 

Thomas Barker, Esquire, by will dated 2nd April, 1724, gave to the Church- 
wardens and Overseers of the Poor of Otley, and their successors, the yearly sum of 
505., to be paid quarterly, free of all deductions, out of the rents and profits of his 
close, called the Calf-houses Close, in Burley ; which 50*. he directed should be 
distributed the next Sunday after his death, by the Churchwardens and Overseers of 
the Poor of the town of Otley, for the time being", and their successors, as follows : 
That they should every Saturday night or Sunday morning buy twelve penny loaves 
of good and substantial household bread, which they should distribute in such 
proportions as they should think fit, among the poor housekeepers and poor of the 
town of Otley only as should repair and come on Sunday to the divine service in 
the morning at the Parish Church of Otley, and stay there all the time till the divine 
service and sermon be done ; and he charged the owner of the said closes with the 
payment of the said 5os., and in default in payment of the said quarterly payments for 
six days after any of the days on which the same ought to be paid, he empowered 
the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor for the town of Otley, for the time 
being, or any two of them, to distrain for the same. This rent-charge is now paid 
by the Rev. Charles K. Armstrong, Hemsworth, near Pontefract. 

PLUM-TREE GARTH. 

This land was purchased in or about 1725, with money supposed to have belonged 
wholly or in part to the poor of Otley, with the addition of Saxey's charity fund. It 
contains 2 R. 27 I'., and is let to the Surveyors of Highways at the yearly rental of 4. 

THE BOSTON DOLE. 

William Jenkinson, of Boston, Lincolnshire, Alderman, gave, by will dated 

"October i8th, 1642, out of his lands on the Erode Field, to the poor people of Otley, 

where he was baptised, 405. in the year for ever ; and 403. to the poor of Burley, where 

he was born and brought up, to be given them against every Christmas. The amount 

is received by the National Provincial Bank of England, Boston, and is due on the 

loth of December. The amount is payable by the Mayor and Corporation of Boston. 

MRS. BARKER'S CHARITY. 

The sum of 10, left by Mrs. Barker for the poor of Otley, was lent to the 
Overseers, and expended by them in building the old Workhouse. The Overseers 
have always paid IDS. yearly for its use. 

THE WORKHOUSE COTTAGES AND PINFOLD. 

This property adjoins Plum-Tree Garth, and is let to the Overseers for 255. a year. 
The cottages were purchased with Plum-Tree Garth in 1725, but the ground where the 
Workhouse stands seems to have belonged to the poor from a much earlier period. 

LAMB'S CHARITY. 

Left by Mary Hird, of Otley, in the year 1733, and originally consisted of 20, or 
interest thereon, paid out of the rent of a field called " Fitters." A release, dated 
1792, was given to Mr. William Lamb, of Arthington Nunnery, on payment of the 
principal sum, together with six years' arrears of interest. With this money the two 
cottages at Well-Hill, in Westgate, were built, and they were let to the Overseers at 
the annual rent of 265. 



73 

THK GARDEN AM) COTTAGES IN WIsM.AIF. 

The garden contains i K. 20 P., and has belonged (o the poor lrom time 
immemorial. It i> now occupied by Kdward Mawson, at the annual rent ot $ is. 
The cottages, two in number, adjoin the garden; they are occupied by two poor 
persons who have usually been widows, and the occupiers receive each of them ys. a 
year out ot the rent ot the garden. The privilege of nominating and placing poor 
persons in the cottages appears to have been exercised by a family now represented 
by two ladies residing at Aberford. 

POOR FOLKS' CLOSE. 

A close of land, situate in Burras'-Lane, Otley, containing 2 A. i R. 4 P., and now 
let to Susannah Hannam, at the yearly rent of ^13 5*. Origin unknown. A House 
in the Market-Place, Otley, occupied by Hannah Heighten, is charged with the annual 
payment of 2S. 4d. 

CAMBRIDGE ALLOTMENT. 

i A. 2 R. 12 P. of the moor or common called Otley Chevin, set out in lieu of 
common right in respect of the Poor Folks' Close in the year 1783, was sold to 
William Mounsey, subject to the annual payment of 2 i6s. The rent is now paid by 
William Walker, Publisher, Otley. 

UPPER STEEL CROFT. 

The house, garden and land at the bottom of Kast Chevin, belonging to the late 
Rev. J. Horsfall, are charged with the annual payment of 6s. 8d. 

LOWER STEEL CROFT, NOW CONSOLIDATED ANNl'lTIES. 

The land, formerly charged with the yearly payment of 2os., is situated in Gay 
Lane, Otley, and was redeemed by John Wilkinson, the owner, on the i^th of May, 
1860. The amount, ,31 125. 6d., was invested by the Charity Commissioners in the 3 
per Cent. Annuities. The interest, 2os., is due in July, and is paid through the 
Yorkshire Banking Co., Otley. 

LITTLE COMMONS. 

Land situate near the Wharfe, in Newall, now the property of Thomas Constable, 
of Otley, Solicitor, is charged with the yearly payment of 8s. 

CLAIMLANDS. 

Two fields, situate on the Bradford New Road. The one on the north side of the 
road is the property of William Ackroyd, Worsted-Spinner, and is subject to the 
annual payment of 33. 6d. That on the south side of the road belongs to William 
Brumfitt, Staymaker, and is charged with 25. 6d. a year. 

PORTMOOR. 

Three houses and yard, in Bondgate and Kirkgate, Otley, once the property of 
the Akeds, afterwards of Frances Whitehead, William Moody, and William Read, and 
now belonging to James Croft, William Thackeray, and Mary Wilson ; charged 8d. 
each yearly. 

RENT-CHARGES AND DOLES. 

The following yearly sums are paid for the poor of the Township of Otley. 
Information concerning them has been given above. 



Annual 
Payment. 



Property Charged. 



Lower Steel Croft 
Little Common, Newall 



( nvner or Person Liable. 



John Chadwick. 
Ditto. 



068 Upper Steel Croft Joseph Green. 

060 Claim Lands ... ... ... .. ... Ditto. 

024 House in Market-place ... ... ... ... John Deighton. 

020 House called Portmoor ... ... ... .. Wm. Reed and others. 

o 10 o Interest of _io left by Mrs. Barker .. ... Overseers of Poor. 

Other particulars concerning these local benefactions will be found 
in the Official Report of the Charity Commission, published in 1894. 



74 

The Nonconformist interest has for a long period been strongly 
represented at Otley, and there are several large and handsome 
chapels. The Society of Friends is probably the oldest denomination, 
dating from the time of the local visits of George Fox, about 1658. In 
1 66 1, Christopher Taylor, of Otley, was committed to gaol for attending 
a meeting at the house of Ann Thurston, widow, of Whitechurch, in 
Bucks.* In an old minute-book of the Friends I find a subscription 
list was opened in 1779, for the purpose of raising funds for building a 
Meeting House at Otley. f The old Meeting House stood in Cross 
Green, and was pulled down about 1890 to make room for the Christian 
Brethren Chapel, but the burial-ground of the Friends remains 
untouched at the rear of the chapel. 

The Wesleyans had a hard up-hill fight before they were received 
in favour at Otley, and it is said they never assembled for worship 
without being pelted with stones, or had other injury done to them. 
But the cause of God, in whatever outward form, prospers, and so it did 
at Otley. John Wesley came here as early as 1759, and in his Diary 
he tells us that he preached to " an immense congregation," and that 
next day (July i8th) he rode to Mr. Marshall's, at Guiseley, which he 
describes as " The Capua of Yorkshire." He paid nearly a score visits 
to Otley, on one occasion preaching the funeral sermon of his dear 
friend Mr. Ritchie, in the Parish Church, and his signature also appears 
in the Parish Registers as the officiating minister at a wedding in 
the church on May 7th, 1788. A chapel was built in Nelson Street, 
in 1771, and Wesley occupied its pulpit on one occasion in the 
following year. A more spacious place of worship was erected in 1826, 
and in 1876 the present large and well-built edifice was opened (the 
foundation stone having been laid on March 7th, 1874, by Mr. Wm. 
Lawson) in Boroughgate, at a cost of ,7,000, and the old chapel was 
transformed into a Sunday School. Otley, like Bingley, was originally 
in the Keighley Circuit, but was made head of a Circuit in 1790, 
covering a very wide area. The Circuit of Pateley Bridge was formed 
out of it in 1811. 

The Independents are also an old and influential body at Otley, 
founded in the year 1821. Their chapel in Bridge Street was built in 
1825, and afterwards enlarged.} In 1882 they erected spacious Sunday 
Schools on a new site not far from the Bridge, and they are now 
building on land adjoining [_the schools a very large and handsome 

* Yorks. County Mag. (1890), p. 35,3. 

f Vide the author's Old Bingley, p. 189. 

See Miall's Congregationalism in Yorkshire (1868), p. 328, 



75 

chapel, which, when completed, will he one of the finest buildings of 
the kind in the town ami district, if not in the kingdom. 

Both the Baptists and Primitive Methodists owe not a little of their 
initial success in Yorkshire to two natives of Otley. The Rev. 
Thomas Dewhirst, of Otley, was one of the pioneers in the cause of 
the Yorkshire Baptists, and largely through his efforts the first Baptist 
Chapel at Gildersome was erected in 1707.* The Rev. John Flesher, 
of Otley, was really the founder of the Primitive Methodist Society in 
\\Vst Yorkshire, and preached at Silsden in 1821, where the first Circuit 
was formed. f A number of earnest workers succeeded in establishing 
an independent society at Otley, and in 1835 their first chapel was 
erected in New Market. The congregation continued to increase, and 
a large and handsome chapel was in 1874 built in Station Road. On 
May 29th, 1897, the foundation stones of a new Sunday School were 
laid near the chapel by Mr. J. Crossfield, Mrs. Hanson, Mrs. E. 
Walker, and the School Superintendent, Mr. J. Simpson. 

The Methodist New Connection (founded in 1799) built a chapel 
in Westgate in 1856, and the Christian Brethren have a very neat 
edifice on Cross Green, built about ten years ago on the site of the old 
Friends' Meeting House, the latter being "nothing more than an old 
house fitted up about thirty years since for their meetings.";}: 

The Roman Catholics are also a numerous body in Otley, 
consequent upon the large immigration of Irish peasantry and others 
into England, many ot whom settled in this neighbourhood after the 
terrible Irish famine of 1847. A year or two subsequently it was found 
necessary to erect a church, and the present beautiful edifice dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin Mary and All Saints was then built almost 
wholly at the cost of Mr. Thos. Constable and his sister. Through a 
long and arduous period of 28 years the Rev. Father Kelly served the 
mission at Otley as "priest, educationist, and friend," and in June, 
1898, he was the recipient of a congratulatory illuminated address 
presented by the congregation, together with a purse containing ^70. 

The town presents many other interesting and suggestive features, 
the old streets doubtless existing on the same lines as formed soon 
after the Anglo-Saxon conquest. Kirkgate, Westgate, Clapgate (now 
unfortunately changed to Court House Street ), Bondgate, Borough - 

.Sir liilhrou-h and Ha*lam's History of the liaptist Church nt Cil<iers<rg}t'. 

I .S'<v the author'* Old /ii>iffle\\ pp. 209-10 (with portrait of Mr. Flesher). 

:;: \'ule MS. History of Wharfedale (1807). 

is C'lapgate is no great distance from the river and an old ford-house may have 
*tood somewhere in the vicinity. The A-S. claf>pan means to clap, and clepan, to call 
or cry out as a warning- to travellers that the waters are out. I have met with thi?. 
Clapgate near becks and rivers in other parts of Yorkshire. 



7 6 

gate,* and perhaps Gay Lane, being the oldest thoroughfares, and it is 
in these localities we must look for vestiges of "old Otley." There is 
now however, probably no building in the town, save the Parish 
Church and the Black Bull inn, that can claim an antiquity of three 
centuries. The oldest domestic tenement I have noted is a low mullion- 
windowed cottage, dated 1637, on Cross Green (where the markets 
were held a century ago)f ; but there are a couple of low thatched 
cottages near the Manor House inn, that are equally, if not more 
ancient the last remaining links between ancient and modern Otley. 




OLD THATCHED COTTAGE, OTLEY. 

A century ago, the Court and Sessions were held in the old Assembly 
room in Bondgate, which was afterwards used as a ball-room, and 

* Perhaps A-S. Rurgeat. There is a Burgate Street in Canterbury, and Mr. 
Maitland thinks it may imply the existence of a principal house (Domesday and 
Beyond, p. 190). Though Mr. W. H. Stevenson ( ' Eng. Hist. Review, xii. 489) suggests 
a "manorial burh, with or without jurisdiction." 

f They were then removed to the present Market Place, where the old brick and 
timber "Shambles" stood up to 1867. The first Fortnight Fairs, established in 1806, 
were then held in the present Market Place; as many as 400 beasts and 1,300 sheep 
being at that time brought together on the Friday Fair Days, 



77 

occasionally a band of strolling players would engage it for a night's 
entertainment of the bucolic mind. In and about Bondgate (where the 
servile tenants of Norman times no doubt resided) we have a number 
of old inns, the Wool Pack, Bowling Green, Ai'ig of Be/Is, A'osf and 
Crown, Cock and Hot tie, and Junction, all being within a bow-shot. 
There are also other old hostelries, the White Swan, the Half Moon* 
Black Bull, a picturesque Tudor building, having some coeval timber 
and plaster panels at the east end, where the upper chamber is corbelled 
out in characteristic ogee. Then there is the old White Horse (rebuilt), 
a sign based on that ancient emblem of luck which figures in the old 
Teutonic mythology, and whose counterfeit presentment appears on the 
cliffs of Kilburn, among the Hambleton Hills, which may even be 
seen on a fine day from the heights of Otley Chevinf. Gay Lane joins 
Bondgate, and as the road and name appear to be very old I should 
say they originated from the Anglo-Saxon geh, gd (pron. go], modern 
German geh (pron. gay) gehen (to go), as to walk, a walk-way, a path, 
whence A-S. gewaenan, to turn, to wind, as this old Gay Lane does in 
true Anglo-Saxon fashion, towards old Leeds road, and an ancient right 
of way from it up to the Chevin still exists close to the east side of 
Webster's Leather Works. I shall not pretend to trace the root of the 
word, but it is not unlikely it may have to do with the familiar words 
gee-Mj>, uttered to horses when required to urge their pace. The latter 
exclamation is undoubtedly as old as the Roman occupation; the 
Roman soldiers inciting their short stalwart ponies to quicken their step 
whilst dragging the military stores and baggage, would exclaim ur-gee; 
and the same word is even continued by carters and others at the 
present day, from the Latin urgeo, to go on. 

There are some very old roads about Otley, that over the Chevin 
used by the Romans travelling between Ilkley and Adel being no 
doubt the most ancient. It was also by way of the Chevin that the 
Abbot of Selby travelled to Skipton in 1345, as recorded a few pages 
back. There were no carriages then; one must either ride on horseback 
or walk, for it was not until the sixteenth century that waggons were 

* At the Half Moon in Westgate the Otley Lodge of Freemasons (one of the oldest 
in the world) used to hold its meetings about 1760. The first Yorkshire Lodge of 
which there is any authentic record was constituted at Scarborougli on August 27th, 
1729, as No. 59. See Riley's Yorkshire Masonic Lodges. 

\ White horses were much esteemed in former times, and are often referred to by 
old authors as types of pure breed. The old nursery rhyme "Ride a cock-horse to 
Banbury Cross, to see a fine lady ride on a white horse," may also be instanced. 
Chaucer's knight, Sir Topax, speaks of "Jennets of Spaync (of Arabian extraction) 
that be so wyght," and in an inventory, dated 142,3, of Archbishop Bowet, who often 
resided, as stated, at Otley, white horses are specially named. See also the author's 
Riclimondshir? p. 465. 



73 

used for travelling purposes, and then but occasionally. Stage-coaches 
began to run in the middle of the seventeenth century, but then only in 
and about London. The roads almost all over the country were 
dangerously narrow and wretchedly dirty, so much so that when Queen 
Elizabeth rode into the city of London from her residence in Greenwich 
sh was obliged to place herself on a pillion behind her Lord 
Chancellor. There was also another danger, and that was from the 
numbers of highwaymen and even highwaywomen who lurked about 
the roads, and especially after the closing of the monasteries, when 
thousands fell on a loose wayfaring life. One of these daring banditti 
was the well-known " Mall Cut-Purse," her proper name being Mary 
Frith (born 1585) who was as bold as any Turpin, a capital rider, 
fearless, and dexterous with sword and pistols. She was a staunch 
Royalist, and used to dress in male attire, in which guise we are told 
she once surprised and took 200 gold jacobuses from our Wharfedale 
veteran, Lord Fairfax, the Parliamentary General, on Hounslow Heath ! 

For centuries all traffic from Newcastle and the north in the direction 
of Manchester, Liverpool, and Wales came through Ripon and Otley, 
and then up the Chevin to Yeadon and Bradford ; the present road by 
Hollins Hill between Shipley and Otley being comparatively recent. 
An Act tor alterations in the latter road was obtained in 1830. In 
1754 an Act was procured for repairing and widening the road from 
Leeds to Otley and Skipton,* which was afterwards superseded by the 
present excellent highway through Bramhope, now so much frequented 
by cyclists, and in a former generation by the coaches. But it was not 
without considerable opposition that the first wor<c of improving and 
maintaining these roads was accomplished. The turnpike-riots of 
1753-54 indeed, read like a romance in these days when no one 
disputes the value of a well-kept highroad. But in June 1753, gangs 
of men and lads sallied out from Otley, Carlton, and Yeadon, and 
along with similar mobs from other places about Leeds, proceeded to 
demolish the toll-bars and commit much other damage. Ultimately 
the importance of the projected turnpikes was recognized, if not the 
justice of the tolls, and between 1762 and 1774 no fewer than 45 2 Acts 
were passed for the improvement of highways throughout the kingdom. 

Otley has many reminiscences of these bustling times though it 
was never a great coaching centre. The main driving road to the 
north ran by way of Doncaster, Ferrybridge, and Wetherby, while the 
coaches from Wakefield and Leeds to the north, travelled along the 
road through Harewood to Ripley and Ripon. Passengers, however, 
from London to Kendal, came up to Ferrybridge and thence to Leeds, 

See Leeds Intelligence', July iith, 1755. 



79 

( Hley, and Skipton. At Otley the coaching-houses in 1800 were 
ording to Gary's Itinerary, the Black Horse and the White Horse, 
the latter being the sign of the well-known old coaching-houses at 
York, Tadcaster, Leeds, and Bingley. In 1807 the famous Union 
( o;u:h entered the road from Leeds and Kendal, passing through Otley, 
and continued running till 1843, being then the oldest coach that 
passed through the town. A second Leeds and Kendal flyer was the 
well-known True Briton, which rattled through Otley for a long period, 
namely, from 1816 to 1843. There was also another Union coach which 
started running in 1842, between Leeds, Otley, and Ilkley. In May, 
1822, the Defiance commenced running between Leeds and Ilkley 
three times weekly, and went by way of Otley, stopping at the White 
Horse. It lett the road in 1838. The Commerce, which superseded the 
Hark Forward coach in 1833, ran for two short years between Leeds 
and Ilkley, doing the journey in a couple of hours, and returning from 
Ilkley in the evening. It went three times a week, but its route was by 
Yeadon, Guiseley, and Burley, and not through Otley. This coach 
was succeeded by the British Queen, which performed the same journey 
and by the same route from 1835 to 1841. 

In 1865, when the railway was brought to Otley, there were 1047 
turnpike trusts in England and Wales, with 20,189 miles of road 
supported by tolls. At this time there was a general suspension of the 
tolls, though it was not till November ist, 1873, tnat the toll-bars 
between Leeds and Otley were abolished, while those on the Leeds and 
Harrogate Road were freed on January ist, 1867. The Leeds and 
Ilkley railway was opened on August ist, 1865, and the line from 
Bradford by Esholt, connecting Ilkley, Otley, and Harrogate, was 
completed and opened in 1875. Mr. Jeremiah Garnett, of Wharfeside, 
Otley, who is now in his 82nd year, took a very active part in 
promoting the extension of the railway to Otley, and had many 
interviews with the North-Eastern directors ; but Mr. Fawkes had 
strong objections to the line passing, as it was proposed, through Caley 
Park. A petition was then got up in Otley and forwarded to Mr. 
Fawkes, but he declined to peruse it and wrote a spirited answer, to 
which Mr. Garnett replied in a skillfully prepared pamphlet. I may 
add that when the Otley Local Board was formed in 1864, Mr. Peter 
Garnett was its first chairman, and when he died in 1865, Mr. James 
Duncan succeeded him but retired the following year. The above 
mentioned Mr._J_eremiah Garnett, son of Mr. Peter Garnett, was then 
appointed chairman and ably discharged the duties of that office for 15 
years, and retired from the Board in 1885. 

The old Wharfedale capital, though now easily accessible by rail 
and road, has always been to a great extent isolated from the main 



8o 

arteries of public traffic. To the summer day rambler, who loves a 
quiet country town full of bygone memories, combined with the charm 
of outward rusticity, this must prove an attraction rather than otherwise, 
yet he must not expect to find the town a veritable ''Sleepy Hollow,'' 
basking in the sunshine of unchanging ways and wholly dependent as 
of old upon its agricultural renown. The old mother town has put 
forth her arms, and the sinews of her sons have shewn their strength. 
This is amply evidenced by the expansion of her trade, and in the 
increase of inhabitants; the population of the township being now 
about 8,000. Every acre of the parish is now productive ; a large 
portion of the waste having been taken in by Act of Parliament in 
1777. At the end of last century, when the population of Otley did 
not exceed 2,400 souls, a manufactory of cotton was established on the 
Wharfe ; another for weaving calicoes was carried on by a Mr. 
Merryweather, which together drew near a hundred workmen from 
other places. Later the wool-combing and worsted spinning trades 
were introduced, and the mills of Messrs. Duncan, Barraclough & Co., 
and Wm. Ackroyd & Co., now employ a large portion of the 
inhabitants. Tanning, currying, and leather-dressing, printing (intro- 
duced in 1813), and last but not least the paper-cutting machine and 
printing machine trades have also been established. The last mentioned 
has in fact long been regarded as the staple industry of the town, in 
which nearly 2,000 hands are at present employed. Messrs. Dawson 
\\vre practically the founders of this prosperous industry, which is still 
carried on by them, as well as by other well-known firms, whose 
turn-out is almost world-wide. In former times there was also a good 
business done in the bit, stirrup, and silver-plating trades, carried on 
principally at the old Silver Mills, near the East Chevin. 

It appears there were cloth-weavers in Otley long before the 
Parliament of Edward III. passed in 1328 the famous Measure and 
Assize of Cloths, and the export duty on wool was raised to 4o/- per 
sack. In some places, however, the trade was in the hands of certain 
firms who had bought a monopoly from the lords of manors, to the 
exclusion of others who could not engage in it without license of the 
lord or the monopolist. This was the case in the extensive liberty of 
the Duchy of Lancaster, where certain members of a family named 
Walker, in Bradford, had early in the i4th century secured the trade 
of dyeing and fulling wholly to themselves, so that no one might " carry 
on the said trades, neither within the town of Bradford, nor within the 
liberty of the lord Duke of Lancaster," without pain or penalty of 
heavy fines. The over-stretching of cloth upon tenters and other 
means by which the measure of cloth was apparently increased, led to 
the passing of the Act above mentioned. The rolls for fifty years 



Si 

previously arc tiill ot indit tnn-nts against Yorkshire manufacturers tor 
these fraudulent practices, and amongst them under the year 1275, 
appear the names <>t Thomas de Abberford and Robert Doune, of 
Otley, \vhieh shews that the woollen trade was established at ( Kley in 
the i 3th century. 

There were also walkers, or fullers, in Otley in 1378, and very 
probably the old street still known as Walkergate marks the scene of 
these early labours in the local cloth trade. I have not learnt that the 
present Otley family of Walker are descended from this stock, yet the 
grandfather of Mr. Edmund Walker, now of the Grange, was in the 
worsted trade as a spinner and woolstapler at the old Silver Mills last 
century, and his son William, who was born in 1795, laid the foundation 
of the extensive business now existing under the style of Win. Walker 
and Sons. 

The town, as I have said, is steadily increasing in importance and 
enterprise, and now issues two large weekly newpapers, the Wliarfedale 
and Airedale Observer and the Wharfedale and Airedale Standard, both 
of which are very widely circulated.* 

But Otley has always been pre-eminently an agricultural town, 
and its great farming-club, known as the " Wharfedale Agricultural 
Society," is the oldest existing society in the United Kingdom.! Jt 
appears to have originated trom a visit paid in 1804 to a model farm 
at Holkham, Norfolk, owned by Mr. Coke, afterwards Lord Leicester. 
The visitors were Mr. Jonas Whitaker, J.P., of Greenholme, Burley-in- 
Wharfedale, and the Rev. Jas. Annitage Rhodes, J.P., of Horsforth 
Hall, who took a great interest in all matters appertaining to farming, 
and the result of their inspection was the suggested formation of a 
society in Wharfedale for the encouragement and improvement of 
agriculture. The matter was brought betore Sir Henry Carr Ibbetson, 
Bart., of Demon Park, who entered heartily into the project. The late 
Mr. Henry Whitaker, son of the above Mr. Jonas Whitaker, who died 
September i7th, 1850, gives a lengthy account of the origin of the 
society, and I cannot do better than quote from what he says : 

My father went to Den ton Park and related to Sir 11. C. Ibbetson all particulars of 
the interesting' visit to Holkham. The baronet quite concurred vvitli my father's views, 
and it was arranged betwixt them that the largest landed proprietors in Wharledale 
should be waited on, and the particulars of the scheme should be put before them. 

11 Another Otley paper was tin Yorkshire Comet, first issued on Saturday, March 
i bth, 1844 (\Vm. Walker), now defunct and rarely met with. 

I " In our progress through the West Riding we could not learn, alter the 

minutest enquiry, thai a single society subsisted for the improvement of agriculture. 

We heard of three that were formerly established for that useful purpose, vi/., at 

Sheffield, Uawtry, and Doncaster, but these for some time past have been discontinued." 

Robert Hrown in the AYiwio of Agriculture in the MY.\Y Riding (ifyt)), p. _>^o. 



82 

This was done, and the result was the meeting which was held at the White Horse 
Hotel, Otley, on Jan. 2nd, 1806, when the first agricultural society was formed, the 
rules drawn up, and it was decided that there should be two shows held annually, the 
first on Friday in Easter week, and the other in the last week of September. Sir 
Henry Carr Ibbetson was appointed president ; Lord Harewood and Walter Fawkes, 
Esq., of Farnley Hall, vice-presidents. 

There were two shows held yearly for the first seven years, and since then only 
one, in the springtime of the year. The first show was held on Friday in Easter week, 
1806.* 

Mr. Whitaker, whose father was one of the vice-presidents of the 
society in 1812, afterwards proceeds to say: 

In my recollection there used always to be a dinner held in a long room up .some 
stairs at the White Horse hotel at Otley, on the day of the Wharfedale Agricultural 
Show. The chaigc for each person was gs. or gs. 6d., and this included the fee for the 
waiter, one bottle of wine, beer, &c. At these meetings some influential person acted 
as chairman, such as Vasasour of Weston, Fawkes of Farnley, Lascelles, Geo. Lane 
Fox, or Sir John Johnston, and in 1844 Lord Morpeth ; but the person who acted more 
generally in that capacity was the Rev. James Armitage Rhodes, and it used to be 
delightful to listen to the appropriate language in which he addressed the successful 
candidate who had gained a prize. He gave two prizes for ploughing, in which he 
took great interest, especially about the boys. 

I well remember on one of the occasions going to the field to watch the 
competitors. One of them was a little lad scarcely sufficiently tall to reach the stilts ot 
the plough, and although he had to guide his team with reins as well, he carried the 
head prize in the premium amongst the youngsters, so he did the year following, and 
the third year as well. The Rev. J. A. Rhodes had made particular enquiries about 
him, and found that his father was dead, that he lived with his grandmother, or his 
widowed mother, and that he bore an excellent character, so he took great interest in 
him. I shall never forget the kind address he made about him when he presented the 
prize. He spoke so pathetically and in such telling language, that tears were coursing 
down the cheeks of many persons who were at the table. The second time that this 
boy gained the prize, Mr. Geo. Lane Fox was chairman, he mounted the lad on the 
table and then exclaimed. "Look at him ; it is of such lads that Old England may well 
boast, and of such we may well be proud!" 

Many other incidents and anecdotes might be related of these 
famous annual gatherings at Otley, but more particularly of former 
times.f I have heard the following amusing story, which is a fair 
sample of many more : 

The chief officer of a Yorkshire yeomanry regiment while congratulating one of 
the troops on its appearance, made a stirring allusion to the medals worn by some 
armv veterans in the ranks. One of the men, a native of Wharfedale, afterwards went 
home in a very thoughtful frame of mind, and next morning he came on parade with 
several medals on his breast. Said the officer : "I didn't know you had been in the 
regulars." "No, I ain't," said the man. "Well, how about the medals then, my good 
fellow, they can't be yours?" The man promptly answered : "Can't they! Aye but 
they be. My old coo won 'em all at Otley Show." 

* Mr. Cobley says that for several years before this shows had been held by a few 
farmers in the district 

f An almost forgotten old local farm book is entitled "The Complete Cow Leech 
or Cattle Doctor, being a treatise on the Disorders of Horned Cattle." By J. C. 
Knowlson, who has been fifty-seven years in full business, "twenty at Skipton and 
twenty-three at Otley." Printed and published at Otley by T. F. Bristow, Kirkgate. 
1820. Demy 8vo, 120 pages. Price 4/6 






The annual shows were formerly held in April but now take place 
in May. and on May 5th to ytli, 1898, the centenary show was 
celebrated, when the entries numbered 3,903, and the prizes offered 
amounted in value to ,1,625. In the November following, Mr. 
Ayscough Fawkes, of Farnley Hall, who had been president of the 
society since 1871, was presented with a handsome illuminated address. 

Many a present or bygone event and custom might still be 
discoursed upon had space permitted. There were the old horn- 
blowing,* Easter and wedding customs, statute hirings, Valentine's Day 
(Otley used to be a leading emporium in the manufacture of valentines), 
Christmas and New Year's masquerades, riding the stang (the effigy 
being usually burned in Cross Green), bull-baiting, cock-fighting (in 
which the neighbouring gentry took great delight)!, badger baiting, 
otter hunting, and the old fun of May Day. No one knows how long 
Otley has commemorated the ushering in of blooming May, but certain 
it is there was a May pole here in the days of the Merry Monarch, and 
one of the finest May poles in England still graces the old Cross Green. 
I have- mentioned the Anglo-Saxon gallows-tree at Otley, and among 
the many attributes of that tree-of-sacrifice was the May pole in some 
places in Germany it is a living tree associated in aftertimes as the 
freer of evil and the emblem of gladness and plenty.^ But the 
traditions of May indeed are mostly those of evil 

Married in May, 
Ye'll soon decay, 

is one old proverb, older even than Christianity. It is mentioned by 
Ovid. It was written, prophetically enough, on the gates of Holyrood 
Palace, when Mary, Queen of Scots, married Bothvvell. 

But to turn to our Otley May pole. The present shaft is the 
fourth that has been erected on the site within the last century. Its 
predecessor was shattered by lightning on June i2th, 1871, but the 
people of Otley having a wise regard for old traditions, raised the 
present pole in the year following, making the occasion a general 
holiday, that will long be remembered. It was the ist of May, 1872, 
when farmers from the country and folks from the town, traps, 
waggonettes, and people afoot came into Otley by hundreds and 

* Among the Phillips MSS. (No. -10143) are abstracts of Deeds, c., relating to the 
close ot land called Bugle lug, situate on the Hurley side of Otley, between West Bu.-k 
Lane and the Wharte. 

I Sir Walter Calverley, of Ksholt, writes in his diary : "8 May (1699). 1 went to 
the Cocking* at Otley, whither Sir Walter Hawkesworth came the night before and 
stayed there three days. We lost the main battell to Mr. Vavasour." But on July 
jjiid, 1700, they won the main at Otley against Mr. Vavasour. 

See Keary's Vikings in. Western Chnstendvm (1891), pp. 36-39. 



thousands. The day was bright, sunny and warm a perfect May- 
Day and the old town looked its brightest, gay with flags, banners, 
and festoons. Everybody seemed in the best of humour, and when 
Mr. Fisher, chairman of the celebration committee, got up and 
exclaimed : " I declare this May pole well and truly raised," a ring of 
applause came from the assembled multitude and the band of the Otley 
Engineer Volunteers struck up a lively tune. A grand procession was 
then formed, headed by Superintendent Croft and a detachment of 
police, followed by the band and the charming May Queen (Miss 
Croft) attired in flowing white garments, wearing a gilded crown, and 
mounted on a handsome pony gaily caparisoned. Then followed a 
wherry bearing a platform which held thirty-three young girls, all 
dressed in pure white and carrying garlands of flowers. Next came 
the fire engines of the town, the carts and horses of the Leeds 
Corporation (which were at that time engaged at the new reservoirs in 
the Washburn valley), a number of other vehicles and horses with their 
riders followed, each decorated with streaming ribands and banners. 
As the procession passed through the principal streets and approached 
the Parish Church, a hearty and merry peal rang from its time-stained 
tower (O ! old church bells, what notes of gladness and of sadness have 
ye not oft proclaimed !), and the mind was insensibly drawn, as one 
linked the present with the past, to that silent God's Acre where 
thousands of all ages lay entombed, who had in their day and 
generation participated in the dear old May Day rejoicings. The 
following beautiful poem pertinently recalls those happy scenes, and 
is from the pen of the late Mr. Thomas Gregory, a native of Sheffield, 
who was called to his rest only a few months ago. He was father of 
Mr. Ernest E. Gregory, of Bingley, whose photographs of the old 
crosses in Otley Church are engraved in this work. 

LINES WRITTEN ON MAY DAY. 
The breeze is fresh, the morning- keen ; 

You'd hardly deem it merry May ; 

And yet the apple trees are gay, 
And all the fields a tender green. 
They've crown'd the little maiden queen, 

And made her beautiful with flowers, 

Just moulded under April showers, 
With gleams of sunshine shot between. 
And she is lovlier to-day 

For all that has been done and said 

For all the blossoms garlanded, 
And all the innocent display. 
And when her eyes are dim, and gray 

Her locks, this picture will appear 

In colours marvellously clear, 
In bright and brilliant array ; 



85 

And she will tell ot one ran- Ma\ , 

\Vhen (Hit upon the village J^rci I), 

They ^athered to proclaim her queen 
'Mill rustic spurt ami holiday. 
Sweet maid ! and yet a^ain most - W ect ! 

Fair (lower! by Beauty's soil lips kissed ; 

1 would not have your charms increased ; 
They're tor the proud occasion meet : 
Finnish that the same skilful Hand 

Hath fashion'd each to suit the hour, 

The maiden innocent ; the llower 
All heart could wish tor, or demand ! 

These happy events are now things of the past, and one can but 
reflect with fond regret that this should be so, especially when other 
historic customs are fast dying out, and little remains to picture in our 
humdrum daily lives the Merry England of long ago, 

A whole volume might be written on the old Otley families from 
the Conquest forward, many of whom are now extinct in the parish 
and many have got dispersed in various and distant places. The old 
local family called De Otley, which I have already mentioned, was an 
influential one in bygone ages, some being freemen of the city of 
York in the i3th and i4th centuries. A John Irenside, of Otley, 
mercer, (a mercer at this time meant a dealer in all kinds of silk, linen, 
cloth and canvas goods, but the Act of 1378 restricted mercers dealing 
in nothing but "small goods," such as haberdashery and silk wares), 
also appear in the list of freemen of York in 1333. The subsidy rolls of 
Edward II. and Edward III., and the poll-tax lists of Richard II., also 
furnish us with the names of many local families, some of whom are 
represented in the parish at this day. Coming down to more recent 
centuries we find among the names in the parish registers, those of 
Fairfax (of Civil War fame), Fawkes (of Farnley), Ward, Thackray 
(ancestral connections no doubt of the great novelist)*, Clarkson, 
Wilkinson, Dawson, Walker, Maude, Barker, fThomas Barker in 1724 
left money to the poor of Otley), Barber (James Barber, of Otley, voted 
at York in 1741), Clapham, Jennings, Stubbs (most likely connected 
with the Stubbs of Nidderdale, ancestors of the present Bishop of 
Oxford), Benson (Dr. Wm. Benson, of Otley, 1778, of the same family 
as Robert Benson, ist Lord Bingley), Garnet!, Fairbank, Longfellow 
(of the same West Riding stock as the eminent poet). The subsidy 
roll for 1523-4 mentions Richard Longfellow, of Otley, who contributes 
2os. or more than double anyone else in the town. The Longfellows 
were in Otley in the i4th century, and in the tower of Otley Church 
there is a tomb-slab of this time, bearing an incised cross and a partly 

* See the author's \idderdale, page 385. 



Kr 
C^J. 



86 

obliterated inscription commencing : Orate p' a'ia [IIen]rici (or Ric[ard]i) 
Langfelafw]. It is evidently the oldest existing memorial of the famous 
American poet's ancestors. There were Longfellows also at Ilkley, a 
little higher up the valley, and at a sale of old oak furniture at the 
late Mr. Buckley Sharp's, in Bradford, May 1882, a carved oak chest 
from an old farm-house at Ilkley was offered, which bore the following 
inscription : 

We once were two we two made one, 

We no more two through life be one, 

while on the first panel was cut: ION LONGFELLOW AND MARY ROGKKS WAS 

MARRYED YE TENTH DAYE OFF APRIL ANNO DM. 1664. 

Then we have in the Otley Registers, Curtis and Hird. Christopher 
Hird, of Otley, married Mary, daughter of Robert Leach, who built 
in 1695, (the year she was born), the picturesque ivy-clad house at 
Micklethwaite, in the parish of Bingley. ' 

Mr. Justice Barker, of the family above mentioned, resided in 
Kirkgate, and laid the foundation of a family of considerable distinction. 
One of his daughters, Caroline, married Charles Wood, of Bowling 
Hall, an eminent naval officer, who died in 1872 of wounds received in 
action. He was grandfather of Sir Chas. Wood, Bart, 33 years M.P. 
for Halifax, Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1846, First Lord of the 
Admiralty from 1855 to 1858, and subsequently Secretary of State for 
India. He was created Viscount Halifax in 1866. Mrs. Wood (nee 
Barker) was also aunt to the late Win. Busfeild Ferrand, Esq., M.P. of 
St. Ives, Bingley; her daughter, Caroline, having married in 1800, Wm. 
Busfeild, Esq., of Upvvood, who for 14 years was M.P. for Bradford.* 

Mr. Robert Tennant, formerly M.P. for Leeds, was born at Otley 
in 1828, his mother being a daughter of Mr. James Shaw, also a native 
of Otley. He was the second son of Mr. John Tennant Stansfield 
Tennant, J.P., D.L., of Chapel House, Kilnsey, of a family long 
resident in the Craven Dales. Mr. Tennant in addition to his 
Parliamentary duties, in past years took an active part in other spheres 
of public life and held many important offices. He took an especial 
interest in the Sardinian question as it affected international trade, and 
wrote a volume entitled Sardinia and its Resources, published in 1885, 
and dedicated to the King of Italy. He also wrote a valuable little 
book entitled British Jamaica and its Resources, based on a personal 
visit, which contains a map and a chapter on the Venezuela boundary 
question. He was at one time a very large landowner in his native 
county, being possessed ofjiye or six estates in Yorkshire, including 
three or four parishes in the North Riding. In Scotland, too, he owned 
an extensive estate at Auchnashellach, in county Ross, where he once 

* See the author's "Old Bingley." 
v \A-V/\/A/AA4*>*_>v- CH/wt^, - 



8? 

entertained tin- Print < of Wales lor a couple of days' shooting; and his 
possessions also included a large property at Rose Hall, Sutherlandshire, 
and the Ballochulish Slate Quarries. In conjunction with Sir Theodore 
Martin he promoted the Callander and Ohan Railway, and was himself 
one of the directors. Mr. Tennant. who died in March, 1900, married 
in 1850, Henrietta, daughter of the late Mr. Jeremiah Oarnett, of Otley 
and Manchester. She died May 9th, 1899, and was interred at Forest 
Church, Horsham, Sussex. 

Otley claims to be the birth-place of another eminent worker in 
the public service, namely the Rt. Hon. Wm. Lawies Jackson, now 
Conservative M.P. for Leeds. He is the son of the late Mr. Wm. 
Jackson, of Leeds, of the well-known firm of tanners and leather 
merchants, and was born at Otley in 1840. He has filled several 
important Government offices, including the Chief Secretaryship for 
Ireland. Though striving with untiring xeal in the cause of his party, 
Mr. Jackson is by no means blind to other interests, and his liberal 
and broad-minded views are recognized by all parties. 

Mr. John Hope Shaw, also a native of Otley, was one of the most 
useful and prominent men in the city of Leeds in recent times. He 
was uncle to Mr. Robert Tennant, M.P., and was three times Mayor of 
Leeds (1848-53). He was worthily honoured by laying the foundation- 
stone of the Leeds Town Hall on August tyth, 1853, which noble 
building was completed in 1858 and opened by Her Majesty the Queen 
on September yth. Mr. Shaw died in 1864, aged 72. The Shaws 
were an old race of surgeons, and I have already had occasion to 
mention Dr. Thomas Shaw, whose little book on Wharfedale was 
published in 1830. Dr. Shaw in his old age, developed a good 
deal of dry humour, and I have been told that on one occasion he was 
very anxious to obtain a human skeleton, and it was ascertained that he 
was prepared to pay a fair price if one could be obtained. Three or 
four well-known Otley topers resolved that the doctor's wish should be 
gratified. After getting their skins full they began to wager who should 
be the corpse. The bad luck fell on one Toby Ramshavv, a local 
lamplighter. Toby, in a very fuddled condition, was put into a sack 
and told not to move a muscle or they would lose the reward. It was 
late at night when they arrived with their burden at the doctor's. The 
doctor met them in the surgery and seeing the sack containing the 
"corpse" realized their business at once. They sat down and for a few 
moments they looked blankly and silently around as if they w^ere at a 
funeral. The doctor thought he saw a slight movement of the bag and 
in order that he might be fully convinced ordered his servant to bring 
the men a bottle of whisky. They drank it leisurely and Toby did as 
he was bid and never stirred a limb, But at last when the doctor called 



for a second bottle, poor Toby could stand the incarceration no longer, 
and boldly forcing his way out of the sack, stood up and exclaimed with 
an oath, "I mun hev my sup," when there was rare merriment in which 
the shrewd old doctor joined heartily. 




DR. JOHN SPENCE. 

At the same time as the Shaw's, the Spences were surgeons at 
Otley. Dr. John Spence is still well remembered, and had more than 
a local reputation. He was a very skilful operator, and was the first 
man in England who performed the operation of excision of the elbow 
joint. His son Dr. Wm. M. Spence, was for many years connected 



8 9 

with the old Ilkley Bath Charity. Many other native worthies might 
IK mentioned whose names are written on the scroll of fortune or of 
tame. Spare cannot be found for all. Mr. John McLandsborough, 
whose death occurred on February 24th, 1900, was born in the town on 
May 3rd, 1820. He became a civil engineer and railway contractor, 




D, RICHARD GARNETT, C.B. 

and was proficient in many sciences, being C.E., F.R.A.S., F.R.M.S., 
F.G.S., &c. His father, Mr. Andrew McLandsborough, for some 
time kept a draper's shop in Kitkgate. 

Probably one of the best known Otley worthies was the_Rey. 
Richard Garnett, who died in London in 1850, and belonged to 



J-j-ft/^rx^' 

Vww- vb+Jj <* 

is^e<^ti*^\ "d y^. ^^- nn 

9 

the Otley family which has been for a long period connected with the 
old Paper Mills. Mr. Garnett from being usher in a school at Southwel 
rose to the important position of keeper of printed books in the British 
Museum. He was a distinguished linguist and possessed an exceptionally 
wide knowledge of English and foreign literature. The same post was 
eventually obtained by his son Richard Garnett, L.L.D , C.B., whc 
resigned the position early in 1899, after forty years honourable service 
in our great National Library. Dr. Garnett, who is descended from the 
Garnetts of Faweather, near Bingley, is a vice-president of the Librarj 
Association of the United Kingdom, and has contributed numerous 
Important articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica and Dictionary oj 
National Biography. He is also a linguist and poet of excellent repute 
and author of several volumes. In 1862 he published Relics of Shelley 
and in 1880 and 1882 Selections from Shelley's Poems and Letters. Dr 
Garnett's knowledge of poetry, literature and languages, is so extensive 
that he may almost be regarded as a modern Milton. He wrote the 
important biographies of Carlyle, Emerson, and Milton, in the Grea, 
Writer series, and more recently has contributed the article on Professoi 
Blackie for Kaye's Leading Poets of Scotland. For other informatioi 
respecting the Garnett family, see Annals of Yorkshire vol. 2, page 46c 
and vol. 3, page 339, &c. A portrait of Dr. Garnett accompanies thi; 
notice, and for which I am indebted to Mr. W. M. Jackson, of th< 
" Library of Famous Literature," London. 



CHAPTER IV. 




AROUND OTLEV. 

Delightful scenery and associations Bishop Tunstall's praise Local geological 
formation View from the Chevin Otley Bridge Newhall Old Hall Local 
families Interesting relics at Xewall Hall Otley Union A centenarian. 

HARMIXGLY situated in a broad and rural vale is the 
old Saxon town of Otley. Proudly rise the rocky heights 
of the Chevin, forming a noble background to the 
scene, otherwise the aspects of the place can scarcely 
be described as romantic ; they are rich and pastoral. 
When the hawthorn is in bloom, and the golden meadow-bolts or lush 
marsh-mat i golds gild the greening pastures, and the lark's voice 
is heard from afar in the bright sky ; while quickening field and 
woodland echo the winsome notes of the cuckoo and all Nature is 
filled with a joyous hope, then is the time to view the beauties of this 
historic vale. Here around us are swelling pastures, hedgerows and 
woodlands, winding old lanes full of life and joy to the naturalist ; 
noble parks with maivy_ a grand old mansion, the type ot English 
aristocratic life, on which Old England founds her great traditions, 
ancient farmsteads standing amid their paternal acres, the nurseries of 
many a strong and broad-minded dalesman who has honored his family 
and the State, while many a hoary fane with dark stone tower marks 
the story of life in the past. It is not surprising, therefore, that this 
ideal English landscape, which poet and painter have so much praised, 
should be pronounced by the good Bisjiop Tunstall, who visited Otley 
in the time of j-Ienry VIII., to exceed in beauty everything he had 
seen during his travels in France and Italy. 

In order that we may obtain a comprehensive idea of the 
surrounding country let us first climb to the summit of the Chevin 
(925 feet). This we may do by way of Gay Lane, a thoroughfare that 
I have already suggested as being a very ancient egress of the town, 
Otley people are proud of their Chevin, and well they might be 
considering it has a human history that dates back full two thousand 
years, while the view from it is absolutely unrivalled in this part of the 
kingdom. I have explained the ancient Cymric origin of the name 
(pronounced Keven in Wales) and there is also a Chevin in Derbyshire, 
of like meaning. Now let me say something of its still earlier history. 



92 

of the rocks that compose it. We are here on the millstone-grit 
formation which runs along the Pennine Chain from Derbyshire ; its 
lowermost bed, the Kinderscout Grit when it reaches the neighbourhood 
of Skipton, dips in a south-easterly direction under the Third or 
Middle Grit of Addingham and Ilkley Moors. Northwards the Kinder 
Grit crosses the Wharfe and occupies all the high ground around 
Beamsley and the uplands about Denton, Askwith and Stainburn to 
the conspicuous eminence of Almes Cliff. The Third Grit forms the 
grand scenic escarpment on the south side of the Wharfe from 
Addingham onwards to Otley, and is overlaid by the Rough Rock 
which forms the summit (at over 1300 feet) of Rumbalds Moor. The 
intrusion of this bold massive grit into Wharfedale, which in places has 
almost the hardness and character of granite,* is the cause of the 
deflection of the river from a north and south direction to an easterly 
flow towards Harewood and York. This Third Grit, forming the ridge 
of Otley Chevin and locally known as the " Bramhope Grits," keeps 
along the south side of Wharfe eastwards as far as Harewood, and at 
the old historic castle of Harewood it turns northward, and then 
making a south-easterly clip is lost beneath the magnesian limestone 
to the west of Collingham. The regular sequence of these rocks, 
rising from the Kinderscout Grit to the Rough Rock, or topmost bed of 
the millstone grit series, proves that the valley at Otley is not formed 
on a line of fault, but is a valley of denudation, worn down by the slow 
action of rain, frost, and the atmosphere, in a word it is the result of 
Time. The beds of shale form a base for the drainage of rain-water, 
and there are several excellent springs on east Chevin ; the water 
being collected in two small reservoirs from which for a long period 
it was conveyed into the town by means of elm-wood pipes. 

Since the tumbling of the rocks brought about the sudden 
alternations of sun and frost at the close of the Ice Age, little change 
must have taken place in the appearance of this grand old Chevin 
down to thirteen hundred years ago, when the keen-eyed Celt, in his 
garment of deer-skin, f kept a sharp look-out for the pirate Saxon who 
seized the native tilth, and pitched his tent in the valley below, and 
save for some enclosure and planting, the Chevin remains almost the 

" Much of this rock has been sent to London for foundation work. It was 
employed for the foundations of the present Houses of Parliament. 

f Perhaps Pelstone Crag-, situated on the estate of Peter Musgrave, Esq., at the 
east end of Chevin, has something- to do with ancient kins-dressing-, as pcell, \-< 
A.-Saxon for a pelt or skin, though its presence in Celtic territory rather suggests an 
origin in the Celt, pil (pile), a defence or fortress, whence the peel-towers of later days. 
Chaucer, in the House of Fame, uses the word pell in this sense. The crag here forms 
a precipitous face with a tract of saddle-shaped land at the top, naturally well adapted 
for a defensive site. 



93 

s;une to-day. During the threat of the French invasion a century ago 
it was our of the chosen beacon-signals, and a beacon was erected in 
1803, which was to receive its warning from Bi-;misk-\ la-aeon and 
send it on to Scarcroft Moor and Almes Cliff. 

What a glorious view is revealed as we stand here on a fine day, 
and how tiny seem the houses and passing carriages in the roads far 
below ! Sometimes at starlight I have stood on this old British 
promontory and looked down into the Saxon town and have been 
reminded of the night-view from the Swiss Righi on the distant lights 
of Lucerne. Xo one passing over the Chevin could forbear admiring 
its grand far-reaching view. Even Thoresby, writing in 1702, at a 
time when little interest was taken in scenery, speaks of the "noble 
prospect" from this point. The poet Gray, in 1769, admired the scene, 
too; while Edward Dayes, in his Tour Through Yorkshire (1825) says 
" my mind revelled in perfect voluptuousness, and all the faculties of 
my soul were absorbed in the contemplation of this most delectable 
spot." Some idea of the varied prospect may be gathered when it is 
stated that not less than 2,000 square miles are embraced within the 
area of vision. Looking almost due east we may sight the twin-towers 
of York Minster twenty-five miles away,* whilst with the aid of a 
field-glass the famous White Horse of Kilburn on the Hambleton 
Range (seven miles south-east of Thirsk) may be plainly descried, 
thirty-two miles distant as the crow flies. For this interesting object 
you should look to the east of the Beckwithshaw Road, about 
one-fourth of the distance between that road and the Great Almes Cliff. 
To the south-east the clock of the Leeds Town Hall, and the Grammar 
School and spires on Woodhouse Moor may be detected, while more to 
the east, looking down the luxuriant vale, the noble mansion of 
Harewood and the long Arthington Viaduct are conspicuous. Turning 
to the west we have the heathery heights of Rumbalds Moor, with the 
singular cone-like summit of Flasby Fell beyond Skipton. Further 
north rim the craggy fells of Craven, terminating in Great Whernside, 
above Coverdale, which is frequently covered with snow in late spring, 
and for this reason may be readily distinguished when all the 
surrounding hills are clear. Below us through the far-extending vale 
gleams in the bright light the silvery Wharfe, while here and there an 
ancient family seat the homes of Vavasour, Fawkes, and Fairfax 

* The late Mr. John McLandsboroug-h informs us that when he was a boy he 
ascended the Chevin in the night time in company with his father, both bearing- lanterns, 
in order to sec York Minster on lire, which was distinctly seen. The rhnirof the noble 
minster had been purposely set on lire by the lunatic Jonathan Martin, and by midnight 
ol February jnd, (829, the whole of this portion of the building was atlame to the roof. 
The loss sustaineil amounted to ^65,000. 



94 

with many another stately mansion and homestead, appears in the 
wide and beautiful landscape. 

After this entrancing view we shall certainly be tempted to know 
more of the surrounding neighbourhood. Let us, then, descend to the 
bridge over the Wharfe, which we may cross, and either proceed to the 
left to Weston, Askwith and Denton (five miles), or to the right in the 
direction of Farnley and Leathley (two miles), or northwards to 
Lindley and " Washburn's lovely valley " (three miles). Then, on this 
side of the Wharfe we are also within easy walking distance of Burley 
(two miles), Poole and Bramhope (three miles), the present and bygone 
life of each of which will be duly chronicled. 

Otley Bridge, as we learn from Leland, was a stone structure 
before the Reformation, and doubtless a bridge has existed here from 
before the Conquest for the convenience of those parishioners living on 
the north side of Wharfe, who had to attend the church and markets 
at Otley. The frequency of floods, however, and the long distances 
many had to travel, no doubt led to the erection of the church at 
Weston, in the tenth or early part of the eleventh century, followed by 
the Norman one at Farnley. But the bridge continued to exist, as 
appears by the order, stated by Tanner, that the lepers of the twelfth 
century Otley Hospital (see p. 50) had to keep the bridge in repair. 
In Anglo-Saxon times the Church was responsible for the maintenance 
of bridges, but on the See of York founding the Hospital at Otley that 
obligation seems to have been relegated to the lepers.* This must 
have been a serious and eventually unsupportable tax on the Hospital 
owing to the unavoidable liability to injury and destruction by floods. 
A more substantial erection seems to have been proposed early in the 
thirteenth century, for I find that Archbishop Gray in 1228 granted an 
indulgence of thirteen days to those who would contribute to the 
building of the bridge, in the same form as that granted for the bridge 
at Elvet.f The Archbishops, aided by private benefactions maintained 
the bridge until the sixteenth century, when the first Act of Parliament 
was passed for the repair and maintenance of roads and bridges of 
public utility. In 1673, as before quoted from the Otley registers, the 
bridge was swept away by the heaviest flood on record. Doubtless 
the eastern half of the present handsome bridge of seven arches, with 

* See Thorpe's Ancient Laws and Instittites of England \ Record Commission, 1840) 
vol. L, page 432 &c. 

-( In wide parishes, such as were common in the nest of Yorkshire, the need of 
bridges was much felt, yet we find many privileged places were exempt from 
maintaining them. "No city nor free town shall be distrained for making good any 
bridge which is not by custom and law so kept up from the time of Henry I." Magna 
Charta, cap. xv. 



95 

its projecting ribs beneath, is the structure next erected, which was 
afterwards, about 1756, widened on the west or up-side. 

A little beyond the bridge and we arrive at the ancient little 
village of Newhall, which is mentioned along with Farnley in the 
Nomina Villarum of 1315, as the property of the Archbishop of York, 
In 1378 there were about a score families living here. The old Hall, 
now a farm-house, is believed to have been originally a peel-tower, 
though the oldest or central part of the present four-story building is no 
doubt a foundation of one of the Kighleys of about the time of the 
Reformation. There is a large pointed doorway into the cellar, while 
the arches of the fire-places are depressed ; one on the third floor 
having moulded spandrils. The uppermost chamber-roof is open to 
the rafters and the windows throughout are debased Gothic. The east 
and west wings of seventeenth century date, were rebuilt in 1827 out of 
the old material. We have no knowledge when the first house was 
built, but in 2ist Edward I. (1292) Wilelmus filius Falcasius, alias 
Fawkes, is described as of Newall, near Otley, but how long it remained 
with this family is uncertain. Robert de Newall was vicar of Otley in 
1432 and died in 1449. Early in the sixteenth century it was in 
possession of Thomas Kighley, who married a daughter of John 
Vavasour, of Weston, living in 1505. About this time there was 
living at Xewhall a family named Craven, and in 1520 the will was 
proved ot a John Vicars, iconomus, of Newhall, near Otley. Laurence 
Kighley succeeded to the ownership of Newhall, and his son, Edmond 
Kighley, who married Anne, daughter of William Goldsborough, 
inherited the property. According to Torre, John Kighley, of Newall, 
gent, died in Feb. 1542, and was buried on the north side of Otley 
churchyard, near his ancestors. Edmond appears to have left Newhall 
and resided at Pool, where he died in 1602, leaving a son, Laurence 
Kighley, who was born in 1586, and inherited his father's lands. In 
1590 Newhall had been transferred to the Procters, and here we are 
able to link the descent of the property with the present lords of 
Farnley, which has not hitherto been explained. It may be well to 
state that the property should not be confused with another ancient 
Newhall, the home of Edward Fairfax, the poet (d. 1635),* which is 
in the parish of Fewston, and was removed in 1876, when the Swinsty 
reservoir was begun. 

I have just said that the Otley Newhall passed to the Procters, 
and by them it was sold about 1660 to the Wilkinsons. Anne, daughter 
of Michael Fawkes, of South Duffield and Farnley (the unfortunate 

HI- \va-~ married to Dorothy Laycork, of I.i-rds, in 1600-1. .Sir '/'/nnrs/ir \<n; 
1'uli. iii. 17 




9 6 

Royalist) married, for her first husband, Henry, son and heir of Henry 
Procter, of Newhall ; her second husband being Ralph Fincham, of 
Caton, near Lancaster. She died in 1682, aged 44. Her grandnephew, 
Francis Fawkes, of Farnley, who was born in 1707, married, April 
loth, 1733, Christiana (then in her i7th year), daughter and heiress 
of William Wilkinson, of Newhall (the last of the male line, who 
died in 1731, aged 75), whose family had then possessed the estate 
about seventy years. Thus having been sold by the ancestor of 
' Fawkes, it returned to the family in this interesting manner, and still 
forms part of the Farnley Hall estates. According to Warburton, 
Somerset Herald, who made a rough sketch of the hall on the occasion 
2, of his visit in February, 1718-19, the hall was then in the occupation 
of Edmund Barker, Esq. 

On the death of Francis Fawkes in 1786, the house, according to 
Hargrove, was occupied by Thomas Clifton, Esq., barrister-at-la\v,* 
and afterwards for some years by a Mr. and Mrs. Smith and a Mrs. 
Windsor, who had retired from long service at Farnley Hall, besides 
a family who had the farm attached to it. The old house at that 
time was fast going to decay, and Dr. Shaw, a surgeon at Otley, 
gives the following amusing anecdote about the shaky condition of 
the old wings of the dwelling, some time about 1820. 

I well remember attending an invalid there ; it was in winter, and the night rainy, 

with a strong wind. About ten o'clock Mrs. Windsor called on the servant to bring 

her clogs, cloak, umbrella, and lantern, for she would go to bed. I was a little 

surprised to hear the old lady give such orders, and enquired it" she was going out of 

.the house to sleep. " No," she replied, "but the long east passage that leads to my 

/ room is so very dark, windy, and wet, that I always take these precautions in such 

nights as this, for fear of losing my light or getting cold." Upon examination I found 

all these things necessary, for the long east gallery was in bad repair, water was 

dropping from the ceiling, and the wind driving the rain through the broken window-. 

The old house, indeed, before its restoration, was just the kind of lonely 
mansion to cry out as haunted; the dark, howling corridors, loose 
casements, and creaking footways must often, I opine, have conjured 
thoughts of things uncanny in the minds of the half-slumbering 
inmates, particularly on stormy nights. Dr. Shaw also refers to the 
fine grove of old trees near the house ; one of them, an oak growing on 
the north side, must have been a majestic object, for he thought it "the 
finest in the valley." 

The beautifully-situated mansion below, known as Newall Hall, 
was in the early part of the century occupied by a family named 
Ward, whose descendants, the Billams, long resided here. The late 
Mr. Francis Billam, who was an active county magistrate from the year 

" ); Hargrove evidently confuses the two Newhalls, and this observation may apply 
to the N'ewhall in Fc-wston. 



07 

1833 to the time of his death in June, 1867, was well known and highly 
respected in the neighbourhood of Otley, being a gentleman of 
generous sympathies and of a charitable disposition. At \e\vall Hall 
he had a fine collection of mounted birds and other natural history 
objects, besides a great many other curios, including works of art, 
autographs, &c. Amongst the autographs were letters of Cromwell, 
several of the Stuart monarchs, and some interesting letters written by 
the celebrated evangelist, John Wesley. The hall has since been 
occupied by the Wilkinsons. 

Not far from here are the large buildings of the Workhouse of the 
extensive Otley Union. The old Workhouse was in Cross Green, 
Otley, and a century ago there were on an average from 30 to 40 
paupers always in the house, who appear to have been well cared for. 
One of the inmates, Martha Dixon, an unrecorded centenarian, died in 
the house in 1802, aged 106, and retained her faculties to the last. Up 
to the final year of her life she maintained her bodily activity, and used 
to go about the town soliciting alms, which were freely given to her on 
account of her great age. At this time law and order was maintained 
by the old parish constables, but Otley had its refractories and 
notorious characters, who well knew the gruesome " black hole " under 
the old workhouse. 



CHAPTER V. 




FARNLEY. 

Farnley I lall and the Fawkes family The family muniment- Historical -ketch The 
late Mr. Ayscoug-h Fawkcs and the Rev. Frederick Fawkes The hall and it- 
trca-ures The Turner drawing- Relics of the Civil War -The park Sale ol 
pedigree stock -The church Discovery ol a lead coffin. 

EAUTIFUL and retired is the neighbourhood of Farnley, 
2/Jjk \ v 'th its handsome old manor-hall associated with the 
name of Fawkes uninterruptedly for nearly seven 
centuries. The family is said to have come from 
Avignon, in France, early in the reign of Henry III., 
and to have settled at Newhall and Farnley soon afterwards. But 
there are at Farnley Hall no original records of the Fawkes family of 
so early a date as this. There are about a dozen large boxes of deeds, 
at least four of which contain numerous documents of the middle of 
the seventeenth century. There are about a score deeds and charters 
of no earlier date than the fourteenth century relating to affairs of the 
Hawksworths. Also among the early deeds is a release by the 
Templars, which names as witnesses several of the Order. I have also 
seen here about forty early deeds relating to properties in the 
neighbourhood of Silkstone and Barnsley. Likewise a number of 
charters concerning grants of land, chiefly about Stainburn, to 
Fountains Abbey. The only one apparently foreign to the present 
owners and district is a bond of Walter de Hurthworthe, parson of the 
moiety of the church of Sedbergh, dated at Sedbergh, fourteenth year 
of Edward II. (A.D. 1320). But in this deed reference is made to a 
William de Siggeswikes, and this is, I believe, one of the Fountains 
Abbey family, and is, I should say, the earliest mention of a Sedgwick 
in Lonsdale that has been discovered. There was a Thomas de 
Sigeswik and wife living at Kirkby Malzeard, near Ripon, in 1379, 
who are conjectured to have been the progenitors of the Sidgwicks 
connected with Fountains Abbey about this time.* The Farnley deed 
may have got here with the other charters concerning that monastery. 

In 1312 William de Fawkes de Frenale is witness to a deed of 
Wm. Vavasour, and in 1320 he attests by the name of William de 
Fernelay a deed of Agnes, daughter of Sir Richard de Storkheld.t In 



See ihc author's Cran-n //i^/i/aiif/, paj^e 4^1. | Vorks. (. '</. .!///., iSqi, p. no. 



too 

1315 the Fawkes' held the manor of Farnley of the Archbishop of York 
by knight service, and the Archbishop of the King.* In 1378 
Johannes de Fawkes paid i2d. tax for that he and his wife kept an 
hostel at Farnley. At this time Farnley was more populous than now ; 
there were then at least thirty separate families in the village. In the 
reign of Henry VII. John Fawkes, of Farnley, was steward of the 
Forest of Knaresbro', a post that had been lately filled by Thomas, 
son of Geoffrey Chaucer, the distinguished poet. This John Fawkes 
had three sons,f (i) Nicholas, of Farnley, (2) William, buried at St. 
Michael-le-Belfrey, York, in 150 r, and (3) Henry, a merchant of York, 
who died in 1570, leaving, according to Mr. Davies,| a son named 
William Fawkes, who married Ellen, daughter of William Haryngton, 
Lord Mayor of York, and by whom he had a son Edward (whose 
widow married Dionis Baynbrigge, of Scotton, in Nidderdale), father 
of the conspirator, Guy Fawkes. The latter was baptised at St. 
Michael-le-Belfrey, York, i6th April, 1570, where his three younger 
sisters were baptised. It is also noteworthy that Nicholas Fawkes, of 
Farnley, had a son John, who married a daughter of William 
Arthington, of Castley, in the parish of Leathley, by whom he had 
issue Anthony Fawkes, of York, who died in 1551, and whose widow, 
a Vavasour, of Weston, married secondly Peter Bainbridge, of Scotton, 
father of Dionis Baynbridge (a staunch Roman Catholic), who married 
the widowed mother of Guy Fawkes. ^[ Anthony's younger brother, 
Richard Fawkes, of Farnley, left a son Thomas, who died unmarried 
in i627,|| consequently the Farnley estate went to Marmaduke, son of 
the above Nicholas Fawkes, whose son Marmaduke, of Woodhall-cum- 
Brackenholme, South Duffield, and Farnley, is named in Peacock's list 
of Yorkshire Papists in 1604. His son Michael, of Woodhall, in the 
parish of Hemingborough, who died in 1647, na d to compound for his 
estates during the Civil War, and was fined ,360. He was thrice 

" .Sin-tees Soc. Pub., vol. xlix., p. 349. 

I Richard Fawkes, who was a foreigner by birth, is stated to be the .second son of 
John Fawkes, of Farnley, near Otley. He was a printer at the Lyon monastery in 1535, 
and Herbert states that Wycr was his servant. 

;[: There seems to be no direct proof that William Fawkes was the son of Henry, 
but Mr. Davies in The Fawkes of York, thinks it very probable he was. Of course if 
this is not so the connection of Guy Fawkes with the Farnley family falls to the ground. 
Clay's Dugdale, iii., 205. 

She died in 1575, and by will left to her young grandson, Guy Fawkes, the future 
conspirator, " my best whistle, and one ould angell of gould." 

IT See the author's Nidderdale, pp. 341-3. 

|| Thomas' mother was a daughter of Sir Thomas Johnson, of Lindley (see footnote 
on page 63), and he was buried within Otley Church, near his seat in the choir, and he 
bequeathed two messuages in Otley to the churchwardens for the list- of the poor 
widows <>!' Farnley for ever. 



married; the second thru 1 , in 1634, at Add, to Jane, daughter of 
Cyril Arthington, Esq., whose wife Rosamond, daughter of William 
Hawkesworth, Esq., of Hawkesworth, in the parish of Guiseley, also 
appears as a recussant at Adel in 1604, having absented herself from 
the Parish Church then two years. Michael's youngest son, Francis, 
by his third wife, it may be noted, was baptised in March, 1643-4, at 
the same font in York as the conspirator, Guy Fawkes, above 
mentioned. His brother Thomas succeeded to Farnley, and was M.P. 
for Knaresborough, 1688-1695 ; he married (i) Sarah, daughter and 
heir of Francis Mitchell, Esq., of Arthington Grange, and (2), Mary, 
daughter of Wm. Welby, Esq., of Denton, co. Lincoln. 

The last lineal heir of the Fawkes' was Francis, only son of 
Francis Fawkes, who died unmarried in his father's lifetime, when his 
father who died in 1786 left the bulk of his estate to his relative Walter 
Ramsden Beaumont Hawksworth Esq., who assumed the surname 
and arms of Fawkes, pursuant to the will of the testator, Francis 
Fawkes Esq., of Farnley. He was High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1789, 
and died in 1792, and a monument before mentioned is erected to his 
memory in Otley Church. His eldest son, Walter Ramsden Fawkes 
Esq., who died in 1825 and was M.P. for the county of York in 1806,* 
was a gentleman of broad political views and generous sympathies. 
He was one of the pioneers in the abolition of slavery, and his political 
activities had " the applause of the friends of the Africans and clothiers, 
although a very clamorous and violent party pretends to question his 
loyal integrity, yet the childish efforts of this silly faction rather 
enhance the worth than tarnish the character of this great man/' t He 
was the friend and patron of the great artist J. M. W. Turner, R.A. 
The distinguished painter was a frequent visitor at Farnley, and the 
large collection of his drawings preserved at the Hall have given a 
fame to Farnley far beyond our own dominions. To this subject I 
shall return presently. Mr. Walter Fawkes was twice married, but 
had no children by his second wife. By his first wife he left a family 
of four sons and seven daughters ; the last surviving daughter being 
Miss Harriet Esther, who died in London, December 29th, 1893, in her 
goth year. The youngest son, the late Major Richard Fawkes, who 
was born in 1809 and died in December 1896, had served some 
years in the 27th Foot. He married a daughter of the late Mr. 
Archibald Paris, and had seven sons, at least five of whom are officers 
in either the army or the navy. Another daughter, Amelia, married 

* He wrote the Englishman's Manual or a Dialogue between a Tc.ry and Kft'iunu-i-, 
Leeds (1817). 

T MS. History <>f \Vharfedale (1807). 



102 



Digby Cayley Wrangham Esq., Q.C., M.P., second son of the 
celebrated Archdeacon Wrangham. He died in 1863, and was the 
uncle to Ayscough Fawkes, Esq., the recent owner of Farnley, who 
succeeded to the estates in 1871, on the death of his father, the Rev. 
Ayscough Fawkes, rector of Leathley. 

The late squire of Farnley, whose portrait is here presented, took 
an active interest in the district, and was widely known in many and 
various capacities. He was for nearly thirty years Chairman of the 
Otley Bench of Magistrates, and was a D.L. of the West Riding. 
He was particularly interested in all matters appertaining to the farm 
and field, and since 1871, up to the time of his death, was President 
of the Wharfedale Agricultural Society, as well as President of the 
Wharfedale Chamber of Agriculture. He was also a member of the 
Council of the Yorkshire Agricultural Society and a life governor of 
the Yorkshire College. Locally, in out-of-door pastimes Mr. Ayscough 
Fawkes was always ready to lend a helping hand, and though himself 
naturally infirm and unable to endure much vigorous exercise, he 
loved occasionally to handle a gun on the grouse moors and was 
accounted a very fair shot. To the Otley Angling Association, of 
which he had been President twenty-one years, he rendered exceptional 
service, particularly in regard to ova and the breeding of fish. With 
most, if not all the local institutions and charities his name was long 
associated, and though constantly hampered by all sorts of claims he 
gave generously to all deserving objects. He was a great patron of 
music and to the Otley Philharmonic Society he rendered valuable help. 
In 1883 when the late Duke of Albany and his then bride attended 
the Leeds Musical Festival, they were entertained at Farnley Hall 
from October gth to the i3th, the occasion being marked by much 
rejoicing by the people of Otley. Mr. Fawkes in 1865 married his 
cousin Edith Mary, a daughter of the late Sir Anthony Cleasby, a 
Baron of the Court of Exchequer, by whom he left no issue. He died 
on June 2ist, iSgg^aged 68 years ; his successor to the estates being his 
brother, the Rev. ^Frederick Fawkes, vicar of Escrick, near York. 
This gentleman had been in possession of the estate little more than 
six months when he was taken suddenly ill and died at Farnley on 
February 3rd, IQOO^ aged 66. He was born at Caley Hall and in 
early life had been curate at Stainburn. During his late brief residence 
in the neighbourhood he had taken great interest in the varied concerns 
of the estate, and by his cheerfulness, energy and tact, had already 
made himself very popular. To his kindness the present writer is 
indebted for an inspection of the old family papers previously alluded 
to. His successor is his eldest son, Frederick Hawksworth Fawkes, Esq.. 
J.P., who received his educational training at Eton and Cambridge. 







AYSCOUGH FAWKES, ESQ., J.P. 



io 3 

Farnlev Hall is a fine mansion well situated on a slight eminence 
in the midst of a noble domain (jvr plate). The extensive addition^. 
to the old Elizabethan house were carried out by Mr. Walter Hawksworth 
Fa \\kes a.-, before stated, in 1786, under direction of the eminent architect, 
John Carr.* The interior adornments of the house are of the most 
beautiful and costly character, the handsome staircase, wall-decorations 
and ceilings being all executed by the first artists. There is some very 
fine old oak furniture, also a chimney-piece \vith quaint overmantel of 
oak made from an old bedstead, traditionally believed to have been 
occupied by King James I., when on a visit to Hawksworth I fall. f 
The large chimney-piece in the dining-room is of Italian marble, 
beautifully designed and wrought bv Fisher, of York. Another notable 
object is the ancient stained glass window, most of which was brought 
from Hawksworth Hall. On one square appears the initials of John 
Hawkesworth who served under Richard Pons, a Norman lord, at the 
battle of Hastings, and on another the principal quartering*, in heraldic 
colours, of intermarriages with the families of Hawkesworth and 
Fawkes. The walls of the rooms are adorned by a great number of 
choice paintings by the great masters, including works by Vandyke, 
Cuyp, Guide, Carracci, &c. But the chiefjflory of these exhibitions 
is the unrivalled collection of drawings by J. M. W. Turner, which 
have been so eloquently described and criticised by John Ruskin in 
Pre-Raphaelitism, and other of his books. There are or were no fewer 
than 170 of the great master's drawings at Farnlev, all carefully 
arranged, a priceless and unique set, unequalled by any other collection 
of his works in the kingdom, and which as time rolls on must become 
ever increasingly valuable.:}: They range in point of date from 1806 
to 1820, during which period the artist spent some of the happiest 
years of his life as the guest of Mr. Walter Fawkes in Wharfedale, 
"days so happy that after his friend died in 1825, he would 
never return there, although he kept up a correspondence with Mr. 
Francis Hawksworth Fawkes, to whom Mr. Ruskin dedicated his 
Pre-Raphaelitism^ For Mr. Walter Fawkes's book, Chronology of 
Modem Europe (York, 1816), Turner drew the frontispiece, and when 
at Farnley he would amuse his friend by making drawings of different 
parts of the hall, the lodges, the trees, and even of the game he shot. 
From a long and spirited notice of the Farnley Hall "Turners" 
furnished by a writer in the Athenaum for 1879, I w ^' quote what 
is said of the splendid display in the principal room : 

In the saloon at Farnley Hall hang not fewer than fifty-out- superb drawing-, in 

* For a long notice of Carr and his works see Yorks. Anhl. //., J V., p. 200, et \K/. 

t See the author's Romantic Richnionilshirc, pp. 466-7. 

A few years ago a portion of the collection was sold at Christie's. 



, 

' 

2u- Ctt^WZZ*C /2x.AfrCtA~ r] *(.AM4^J-f4<^*^C / 



T04 

water-colors by Turner, nearly all of which are masterpiece 1 ; in the treatment of light, 
shadow, clouds, water, rocks, and trees ; the}' furnish a perfect treasury of various 
studies of these complex and difficult subjects, and looking at the whole as illustrating 
that stage in the painter's career to which they owe their existence, doubtless no room 
in the world, not even the National Gallery, nor the collections of Mr. Ruskin and Mr. 
Kingsley, is richer. Within the limits of production, which are thus indicated, these 
drawings vary in their dates from 1800 to the famous " Mont Cenis " of 1820 ; each one, 
however, marks the attainment of a step in knowledge and skill, a distinct achievement, 
and the consolidation, so to say, of countless foregone studies, directed by the utmost 
devotion, and guided by consummate art. Here are instances of stringent training of 
the most skilful of human hands, the widest and most exact observation, and 
indefatigable industry. On looking round the sumptuous room, it is impossible to 
avoid feeling that any amount of time, labour, and intelligence might be devoted to an 
examination of its contents, nor can a visitor escape the conviction that it is hopeless to 
try to do more than give a faint idea of such wonders as these. That Turner's 
accomplished, eloquent and devoted prophet has already dealt with many of the 
examples is at once an encouragement and a deterrent to the writers who follow him. 

In addition to the numerous paintings there is a large and valuable 
library, and a variety of rarities and bric-a-brac from almost all 
quarters of the world. There are also many interesting trophies of the 
great Civil War, in which the Fawkes family with other local gentry 
was greatly concerned, including the three swords used by Cromwell, 
Fairfax, and Lambert, and a cup made out of one of the boots worn 
by Fairfax at Marston Moor in 1644, a l* Fairfax's drum. The 
following is a list of the Cromwelliana sent from Farnley to the great 
exhibition at York in 1846. The collection is unique of its kind, some 
of the objects having at one time been in possession of the family of 
General Fairfax : 

1. A sword well authenticated as having been used by Oliver Cromwell. It is 
double-edged, straight, with a guard formed of a single bow ending near the blade in a 
sort of quarter basket, resembling such as were generally used in the time of Charles II. 

2. A broad-brimmed hat, low in the crown, of clrab-colored felt, worn by 
Cromwell. It was preserved for many years at Denham Place, Bucks., and given by 
the late Benj. Way, Esq., to Thomas Lister Parker, Ksq., by whom it was presented to 
Mr. Fawkes. 

3. A watch used by Cromwell. It is a small repeater, bearing the name of the 
maker, Jaques Cartier ; the outer case is formed of leather, studded with silver. 

4. A sword, used by Sir Thomas Fairfax. It is a straight broad-sword, with a 
basket hilt, in the Scotch fashion, richly inlaid with silver. On the blade is the name of 
the maker, Andrea Ferara, and the forge-mark, a mound or globe, surmounted by a 
double or patriarchal cross. 

v A sword which belonged to General Lambert. It is a hanger, serrated at the 
back, the handle formed of gilt brass, representing a lion sitting on his haunches, and 
holding with his fore-paws the guard, which consists of a single bow. The blade bears 
the forge mark of a dolphin, and date 1648. 

6. Silver matrix of the seal prepared during the time of the Commonwealth, for 
the approval of ministers ordered to travel through England to preach. In the centre 
is the book of the Scriptures, opened and inscribed thus : THE WORD OF GOD ; on 
either side is a palm branch, and the following legend runs around the verge : THE 
SEAL FOR APPROBATION OF MINISTERS. A representation of it is given in Whitaker's 
Whalley, page 89. 

7. Square brass candlesticks known to have been used by Sir Thos. Fairfax. 



Thf massive antique oak furniture and Kli/abethan paintings, 
together with the armour and relics above described, give a real historic 
grandeur to the fine apartment. 

The park at Farnley, as I have said, is very extensive and in 
common with similar domains of the Wharfedale gentry, was once 
famous for its stock of shorthorn cattle. Former squires also kept a 
pack of hounds at the Hall, but the kennels have been transformed into 
farm-buildings. In September, 1899, shortly after the death of Mr. 
Ayscough Fawkes, the Farnley herd, so long celebrated in the history 
of pedigree stock, was disposed of by auction, and the following may 
be placed on record as a summary of the sale : 

Average. Total. 

30 cows and heifers ... ---,27 o o ;8i6 18 o 
IT bulls and calves ... ... 20 i o 220 10 o 

9 thorough-bred horses ... 23 6 8 210 o o 

4 half-bred ,, ... 33 r 6 132 6 8 

Among the purchasers were the Earl of Harewood, Col. Ramsden, 
Messrs. E. W. Stanyforth, Kirk Hammerton ; W. H. Hutchinson, 
Beverley; F. J. S. Foljambe, Osberton, Notts.; John Brown, Otley; 
W. Robinson, Bolton Abbey, &c. The highest price realized for a 
single animal was ninety-three guineas, paid by Mr. H. Williams, of 
Moor Park, Harrogate, for the pedigree cow, Majors Bracelet, calved 
in March, 1896. A good deal of interesting information on this subject 
and on the shorthorn wonders of Farnley and Burley (whence the 
Farnley stock really originated) will be found in the late Mr. H. H. 
Dixon's Saddle and Sir/oin, published in 1870. 

The church at Farnley is not like that at Weston, mentioned in 
Domesday, though it is a Norman foundation. The church, however, 
was almost wholly rebuilt in 1851, and at this day one cannot but wish 
that the "much-needed restoration" had been of a more conservative 
character. Little save the lower wall of the north side* is visible to 
bespeak its centuries of past history, while as a chapel-of-ease to the 
mother church at Otley, it must also be said the records of its peaceful 
ministrations to unnumbered generations of worshippers are very few. 
The east end had Early English windows, and the present church has 
been built in that style, while the old arch separating the choir from the 
nave had Norman billet mouldings certainly not later than the time of 
Henry I. An inscription beneath the west window states that the 
chapel was erected in 1250, but this date needs correction. The 

* The north wall was left standing- and is of nidi- Karlv Knglish character, without 
base-plinths as in the rebuilt portion. MOM of the old wall-stones were u--e<l in the 
rebuilding-. 



io6 

foundation, judging by the remains of its architecture, was distinctly 
late Norman, of the time of Henry I. (A.D. 1100-1135). ^ n tne 
Certificates of Chantries &c., published at the Reformation, it is stated 
that the chapel was founded to aid the curate of Otley, and that the 
then (A.D. 1548) incumbent, one Christopher Wade, was sixty years old 
and "full of sickeness," and that he had no other living but the profits of 
the said chapel, which amounted to ,3 per annum. The Commissioners 
recommended that owing to the distance from the parish church, the 
chapel should be continued, which was permitted. The living has since 
been augmented by Parliamentary grant, &c., and the patronage is in 
the hands of the lord of the manor of Farnley. 

There was a large farm-house near the church yard steps on the 
north-east side, which was tenanted for a long time by the Monckmans. 
Then it was converted into kennels, but the noise made by the dogs 
during divine service soon led to its abandonment, and the kennels were 
removed to their present station. Before the old house was pulled 
down, now about forty years ago, it was tenanted by a William Freeman, 
who had a couple of fields, and I am told that whilst ploughing one of 
them on the south side of the present burial-ground, an old lead coffin 
was turned up, and the lid was also discovered a yard or two away. 
The coffin contained no remains and it was hammered up and sold. A 
conspicuous oak tree marks the site where it was found, but no burials 
are known to have ever taken place in this field. 



CHAPTER VI. 




TITF. PARISH or LKATIII.F.Y. 

Heautilnl scenery 'I'lic XVashluirn Meaning ol' ilic name -Local field-names Pre- 
Conquest I.calhley Manorial history Meaning of I.eathley The De T. clays and 
oilier families Warburton's visit to I.eathley The Pilgrimage of GraceThe 
Church Architectural description Comparison with Celtic churches Historical 
reconU The old rectory Curious old stocks and whipping-post Ancient trades 
.it l.i-athlcy boundaries of the common The school and almshouses Mrs. 
\Vatson, centenarian I.eathley Hall C.i-tlrv, the hall, &r. Historical notes 
Chapel Field -Ancient manor-house -A rural solitude. 

ONTIGUOUS to Farnley yet separated from it by a 
natural and very ancient line of demarcation the rustic 
\Vushburn-is the picturesque parish of Leathley, with 
its delightful old village of that name, laying on the 
opposite side of the Wharfe to Pool and Otley it is most 
frequently approached from these places, and visited it often is, for its 
attractions offer too tempting a bonne louche to be omitted from the 
rambler's holiday menu. Here he may feast himself on the beautiful 
pastoral scenery, on the well-laden orchards with the eye only ! 
wonder at the many natural history objects and varied antiquities, or 
turn to whatsoever his mind honestly listeth. He may wander beside 
the prettily-verdured banks of Washburn by the old Domesday mill, 
getting perchance a glimpse of the stout old hall at Lindley (now 
however, a good farmhouse) and so reach the Leeds "Lake District,'' 
as the upper part of the valley may be called. Here the long bright 
expanses that supply that famous city with pure water may be viewed, 
gleaming in the distance, lake-like for many miles. Many a ram avis 
may be seen too, about the surface or upon the winding shores, while 
in the woods and lanes around in the budding spring-time, when 
orchard garths are laden with the rich promise of later days, there 
bloom the sweet violet and "dancing daffodil," with many another 
wild floral gem. 

But this beautiful little upland stream, the Washburn, sometimes 
swells into a great rushing torrent, ravaging the country on its banks, 
as it often has done, but more particularly in former times. The 
heaviest flood recorded occurred on August 4th, 1767, when the water 
rose six feet in the space of an hour, cattle and sheep being carried 
bodily away, two houses at Beamsley swept down, and the Dob Park 
and Lindley bridges completely destroyed. As I have said tin's 



io8 

Washburn forms a very old boundary, perhaps as old as the Cymric- 
Celtic settlement of the district, or as far back as our proofs of local 
occupation go. It is indeed doubtful whether the suffix b^lrn, which 
occurs in Washburn and Stainburn in this neighbourhood, has anything 
to do with the Northumbrian name for a stream. Throughout 
Scandinavian Yorkshire the word beck is invariably used to describe a 
stream and never burn.* Yet as I have explained in the early history 
of Otley, this district became on the Celtic conquest or withdrawal, 
such an important and populous centre of Anglo-Saxon power that one 
may be tempted to believe the term burn was applied as a stream- 
name when in other less Anglian localities the name had perished. 
But whether this be so or not, I may observe that there are two becks 
at Stainburn, the West Beck and the East Beck ; not a single burn, and 
as will be presently seen the Teutonic burn has another meaning. 
Most of our river-names however, are thought to be Celtic, and this 
may be the same, yet I must doubt it, for in such case it would carry 
us back to the Goidelic or first Celtic occupation of modern Yorkshire, 
as from the Goidelic iiisce (water) whence the A.-S. wcesc (a washing) 
we derive such names as Esk, Ouse, Wisk, Eska, Etsch, &c.; Wisbeach, 
for example, being named from its situation on the Wysg or Wash, 
now some miles from the beach by the gradual advance of the land.f 

But the affix burn or burne may be also Celtic, as it appears as 
a Norse loan-word from the Irish boireann, a stone heap or ruin, or a 
place abandoned. :{: Probably Stainburn in this locality has such a 
meaning, from the neighbourhood of the rocky Almes Cliff having been, 
as is well ascertained, occupied by Celts and abandoned on the 
Teutonic irruption. At any rate the stream there is always spoken of as 
Stainburn Beck and never as the Stain burn. Still the word burn taken 
in the sense of stream, whether Celtic or Anglo-Saxon, has much the 
same meaning as the prefix Wash, and may be a reduplication. I feel, 
however, impelled to the conclusion that the whole word is Teutonic 
compounded from waesc and borran, meaning a wash or stream bounding 
or bordering a place abandoned and in ruins. And this I have proved 
to be the case so far as the Washburn at Leathley is concerned. 

That Leathley, like Otley, owes its origin as a permanent 
settlement to the Anglo-Saxons, there is no possible doubt. Whoever 
had been on the ground before either disappeared or became absorbed 
in the Anglian population. Such field-names as Briffa Butts, Elmast 
Acre, and Carlshaw, all tell of Anglo-Saxon possession, and these 
particular fields, it is interesting to note, were, until recently, long narrow 

* See the author's Old Bhigley, p. 391. f See Blackie's Place Names, p. 199. 
J See the discussion on the words "burn 1 and 'borran" in the Yorkshire Weekly 
Post (Notes & Queries) for March and April, 1900. 






109 



snips, tlu- survivals of the Teutonic MMrm of culture. These strips or 
ix-ins \\ere formed by the unenclosed boundaries of unploughed land, 
lying contiguous to large cultivated areas, abundant evidences of which 
still exist in the terraced reins higher up the dale. There is no doubt the 
Anglo-Saxon possessors built up the place, extended cultivation, and 
remained a strong force in the neighbourhood, in spite of the Norse 
irruption, long after the Norman usurpation. This fact must be 
remembered when I come to discuss the origin of the church. 

Little indeed seems to have been said about Leathley, but with the 
material I possess, a hundred or more pages on this interesting old 
parish might be written, with perhaps less trouble than the following 
necessarily condensed account must entail. I have just spoken of the 
pre-Conquest occupation of Leathley, and between the bridge and the 
almshouses there is a noticeable avenue of fine old trees striking across 
the park and up tne hill northwards. It is not now a roadway ; the 
present road through the park cuts across it at right angles. The 
avenue extends for several hundred yards, and at its termination on 
Scale Hill somewhat extensive foundations of buildings of unknown 
origin were dug up many years ago. Several querns, or hand corn- 
mills, were also found on the site, which are now in the rectory garden. 
There is a very artificial look about this hill, which has the appearance 
of having been thrown up in several still well-defined rampart-like 
scarps. The discovery of old housesteads on this ground may lead one 
to suppose that this was the site of the original village commune, 
occupied until perhaps after the Norman usurpation, while the name 
Scale Hill, like the Scaleber, near Burley, already explained, and other 
Wharfedale "Scales," is an obvious derivation of the Scand. scale, skali, 
huts or homesteads. 

In the reign of Edward the Confessor (1042-66), Leathley had 
been in two manors, one of them containing four carucates for the 
plough, a mill, and two acres of meadow, belonging to Archil ; while 
the other consisted of one carucate for the plough and two acres ot 
meadow, belonging to Ulchil. On the partition of the lands by the 
Conqueror, Archil's manor went to William de Percy, who feud it to 
one Ebrard, while Ulchil's manor passed to Giselbert Tyson, who had 
it farmed by three villanes and one border. Robert de Bruis had also 
two carucates here. On the Domesday readjustment, about A.D. 1086, 
William de Percy is stated to hold three carucates and seven bovates ; 
the King, two and a half carucates (two of which had belonged to Bruis), 
and Giselbert Tyson, one carucate, all in Leathley. The taxable value 
of the whole lands before the Conquest in 1066 was 505., and 
afterwards 29^5., such had been the effect of the Norman depreciation. 
The union of the estate in one township (for the parish apparently was 



110 

not formed, nor the church built) in the manner described has perhaps 
to do with the name of Leathley, which in every instance in Domesday 
appears as Ledelai ; the slight change in spelling being an evident 
attempt on the part of the French Commissioners to interpret the 
Anglo-Saxon th, unless we are to accept the Anglo-Saxon lead (the 
people), as the version. The true name I take to be, as generally 
pronounced (though sometimes Lealey), Leathley, from the A.-S. lael/t, 
a district or division. This laeth, according to Sir Francis Palgrave, is 
a synonym of leet, sometimes used as an equivalent to a hundred.* 

The place gave name to an ancient and notable family, 
descendants doubtless of the pre-Conquest owners. In my Chronicles 
of Old Bingley I shew how Simon de Montalte, lord of Riddlesden, 
&c., in 1165, was descended maternally from Archil, living in the time 
of Edward the Confessor, and this family became mesne lords of 
Leathley under the Norman feudatories. The same Simon de 
Montalte in conjunction with one William de Lethelia and Robert and 
Hugo, his sons, were witnesses to the charter of Gundreda Haget to 
Bilton, temp. Henry II. In i2th Henry II. (1165) William, son of 
Hugh de Leeleia (note the omission of the Saxon th, so difficult for the 
Norman to pronounce), renders an account of iocs, debt, and in 1205 
we find a Sir Hugh de Lelay claiming an estate in Newton Kyme and 
Nun Appleton against Walter de Faukenberg. A daughter of Sir 
Hugh de Lelay, f Isolda, married Roger Poictevin, descended from the 
celebrated hero of the Conquest of the same name, who possessed all 
the land between the Ribble and the Mersey, and was the builder of 
Clitheroe Castle, the head of his great fief. Isolda gave to the nunnery 
at Appleton an estate in Castley, in the parish of Leathley, and she 
also bestowed the neighbouring village of Stainburn on Fountains 
Abbey, to which the Montaltes had also been benefactors. Her son, 
Thomas Poictevin, gave the mill of Saxton to Nostal Priory, temp. 
John,} at which time also the church at Leathley was given to the 
same Priory. The church at Leathley apparently followed that 
portion of the manorial property held by this family. 

* An example will be found cited in the Bradford Antiquary, vol. i, p. 192. See 
also The Commonwealth of England, by Sir Thos. Smith (1633), first published in 1583, 
and containing chapters "on the Parts of Shires called Hundreds, /.allies, Rapes, and 
Wapentakes, &c.," quoted by Gomme, Local Institutions (i.S86), p. 15 ; sec also Furley's 
History of the Weald of Kent, vol. ii., pt. ii., pp. 770-6. 

f A Hugo de Lelay is witness to a charter of land at Farnley granted to Archbishop 
Walter Gray, ca 1220 ; and Robert de Lelay grants land in Farnley to the same prelate. 
Surtees Soc. , Ivi. 279-80. 

See the Kirkstall Abbey Charters, published by the Thoresby Society. 

See Burton's Ecclesiastical Hist. 



1 1 1 



Ac voiding to Kirkby's Inquest (1284-5) one-third part of the 
manor ot" Leathley was held for one-third of a Knight's Fee by Galfrid 
de Montalte, of the Earl of Albemarle, who held it of the king in 
capite, and another third part was held by the master of St. Leonard's 
Hospital, York, who had it of the heirs of Percy.* The earldom of 
Albemarle terminated in the reign of Edward I.,f when their lands 
lacking heirs were escheated to the Crown. The earls had been lords 
of the honour of Skipton-in-Craven up to this time, and under them 
Thomas de Leathley had held the important post of Constable of the 
Castle.j John Leathley was sheriff of the city of York in 1468,$ but 
at this time the family must have been long estranged from the place 
of its nativity. The line of Montalte expired in heiresses, according to 
Dods worth, towards the end of the thirteenth century, and in 1315 
(vide the Noniina Villaruni) Leathley is returned as held by the heirs of 
Percy then in custody of the king. Their badge (a crescent with 
fetterlock) is cut in stone in the nave of the church. 

How or when the Lindleys came into possession of the estates at 
Leathley is not exactly known. Robert de Lyndley, armiger, was 
evidently living at Lindley and not at Leathley in 1378.^ They took 
their name from the adjoining township, and as already pointed out, 
William de Lindley was lord of Farnley, temp. Henry III. For many 
generations they resided at the old hall at Leathley,|| and the pre- 
Reformation chapel in the north transept of Otley Church, with its 
curious old brass, previously alluded to, was their property. The last 
male heir of the Leathley family was Arthur Lindley, J.P. in 1634, 
whose wife was a daughter of Sir John Garrett, Lord Mayor of London, 
and by whom he left two daughters, co-heiresses.** One of these was 
married to Sir Edward Loftus, of Ely, and the other, Helen, became 
the wife of (i) Sir Ingram Hopton, of Armley, who died in 1643, 



\Vith some few exceptions the estates ot Roger de Foictevin in England were 
given by Henry I. to Count Stephen, his nephew, who, when king, granted nearly the 
whole of them to Ranulph, Earl of Chester (ob. 1129); while Robert de Rumeli and 
Alan de Perci appear to have acquired the lands of his fief in Craven. Yorks. Arch. JL, 
xiv. 300 n. Cecily de Rumelli, daughter and heir of the said Robert de Rumelli, 
married William de Meschines, younger brother of Ranulph, Earl of Chester. Their 
daughter Alice married William Kit/- Duncan, nephew of David, King of Scotland, 
whose daughter Cecily was wife ot William, son of Stephen, Earl of Albemarle 
(ob. 1179). 

1 See the author's Airedale, \>. .2,31 

i \V hi laker's Craven, 3rd ed., p 417. j Drake's Eliorai inn, p. 363. 

" l7(/c Poll Tax 2nd Richard 11. Whitaker's 1'nwn, 31-4 1 ed., p. 163. 

for pedigree of Lindley, of York, see Dugdale's I'isitalimi / York (1665-6); 
l'a\ cr\ /'filiifi-trs of families <>/' llic Citv <>>' York (1X42), p. i ^ ; and Thornton's Xntts , 
II., 301. 



112 

(2) of Robert Brandling, of Leathley,* by whom she had five daughters, 
all of whom, except Alathea, seem to have predeceased their mother, 
who died i5th March, 1664. Alathea married Henry Hitch, Esq., son 
and heir of Dr. Robert Hitch, rector of Guiseley and Adel, and some 
time Dean of York, who died in 1676.! By this marriage Leathley 
came to the Hitches. Henry Hitch died January loth, 1701, and 
according to a memorial of him in Leathley Church, he left two sons 
and two daughters ; one of the sons, Robert, succeeding him at 
Leathley, where he died October 2yth, 1723, aged 53. One of his 
daughters, Alathea, married William Lambert, who was sheriff of York in 
1729-304 In the Journal of John Warburton, F.R.S., the celebrated 
antiquary, and Somerset Herald, is an entry, dated February i3th, 




1 ! .?-& '. 3 FIJI 

mi 




. 



LEATHLEY HALL Two CENTURIES AGO. 

1718, recording a visit Warburton made on that day to Leathley, 
where he was the guest of Mr. Robert Hitch. Describing his journey 
from Harrogate by Pannal and Stainburn, he says he " left Lynley 
village on the right, situated on the point of a hill, and at half-a-mile 
yet further came to Leathley village, church, town, and seat of Robert 
Hitch, Esq., representative in Parliament for the borough of 
Knaresborough [1715-22], a large and convenient edifice as at present 
improved by the worthy owner, who hath been at great expense in 
adorning and beautifying it with a new south front, a wing to the east 

* \cc Siirtees Soc. Pub., vol. 36, p. 28, &c. 

f A biography of Dr. Hitch is preserved among the Kenneth MSS. (vol. 52, No. 
686), in the British Museum. 

Yofks. Aich.JL, xv., 171 n 



H3 

;ind outhouses, and offices, gardens, and otlier embellishments, where I 
staved all night."' lie also sketched the old house, which is here 
reproduced from the original in the British Museum. 

This Robert Hitch, M.P., is interred in the family vault at Leathley 
Church, where a monument records with what honour and integrity he 
served his king and country. Of his family of two sons and three 
daughters, Henry, who was registrar of the West Riding, died March 
2nd, 1765, aged 62 ; and Alathea, the youngest, married John Jordan, 
colonel of the gth Regiment of Dragoons. She died in 1741, leaving 
one daughter and eventual heiress, who married a Maude, and by this 
family the Leathley estates were sold to Walter Ramsden Favvkes. 

Richard Fawkes, of Farnley, who died in 1585, married Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Johnson, Kt., whose family had an estate at 
Farnley and Leathley. Henry Johnson, I find, was implicated in the 
Catholic rebellion, known as the Pilgrimage of Grace, and in 1570 his 
estates at Leathley were surveyed, but the commissioners report that 
il his lands are much entangled, and he has sold the greater part his 
father left him, and what he has left he has conveyed by line to himself 
and his wife and their heirs.' He built the old Elizabethan mansion 
at Walton Head, in the township of Follitbot, where he resided. But 
how or where he died I have not ascertained. Gallows and gibbet 
were busy in many a Yorkshire village at this time, and there was 
many a heart that felt for the sufferers, but the mouth dare not open, as 
the blood-stain reddened upon the downthrow of the monasteries, and 
the wreck of many a Wharfedale home. 

The most notable object at Leathley, the church, which does not 
appear ever to have been described, occupies a well-chosen site on a 
piece of rising ground formed by the Kinderscout grits, and commands 
a wide and beautiful view southwards. It is not mentioned in Domesday t 
although the parish, which is but the township in an ecclesiastical 
sense, is not unlikely, from what I have already adduced respecting the 
old tribal boundaries, to have been like its neighbour Otley, the scene of 
a zealous attachment to the Christian faith long anterior to the Norman 
Conquest. There are indications about the present church which seem 
to shew that that zeal extended so far back as the days of the early 
Celtic ministry, though we have no positive knowledge that the parish 
was formed until after the Norman settlement in the eleventh century. 
Consequently it is pure conjecture to assume that a preaching-cross, or 
even a wooden fabric^ stood here in the Saxon era, as at Guiseley, tor 

)'rX-v. Arcli.Jl., xv., 7-j. | ( )tlier local churches are mentioned in this record. 
\. The churches and domestic buildings in Saxon times \\-ere built chiefly of wood, 
a circumstance that may be noted in the use of the. Saxon verb, to build, sfctimbriait, 
i.e., fa timber, 



U4 

example, dedicated to the Saxon Saint Oswald, to which the church 
at Leathley is also generally ascribed.* 

The original Norman churches when they possessed towers, had 
them invariably placed over the centre of the building ; if they were 
without as at Adel these were afterwards placed at the west end, so 
as not to interfere with services in the church. The original church at 
Leathley, however, seems to have been an uniform structure ; the west 
tower with the angles of the nave, converted into buttresses, a portion 
of the north wall and the chancel arch, being the only remnants of 
the original building. They are similar in construction, and may be 




LEATHLEY CHURCH, 

even of late Norman date, though these features are often asserted 
to be Saxon. The appearances may be due to the fact already explained, 
of the thoroughly Saxon population lingering throughout this locality 
and but little affected by any foreign influence for a long period after 
the Conquest. I need only point out how the lateness is indicated by 
the height, position, and solidity of the tower (it was originally built 
not so much for the bells as for habitation and refuge), the small, 

* This is very likely the true dedication, determined probably by the ascription to 
St. Oswald, ot the Priory of Nostel, founded early in the reign of Henry I. (Dugd., vi., 
i., 91), and to which monastery the church of Leathley was afterwards given. 



"5 

round-headed lights, without baluster shafts, and splayed on the inside 
only : the angle quoining of dressed stones, and at twenty feet from 
the ground there is a horizontal course of the same masonry ; the 
absence of long and short work : the thickness of the walls (at the west 
door they are 50 inches thick, becoming thinner as they ascend*) all 
proclaim its Xorman age. The rough rubble masonry with its widely- 
plastered joints, is a characteristic of both the Saxon and Xorman 
builders. A> the extent of the Norman church is still definable, it may 
In- useful to give the actual dimensions of the exterior and interior parts 







LEATHLEY CHURCH TOWER, SHOWING ANGLE BUTTRESS. 



of the present building. The measurements were taken by myself about 
a year ago, by permission (and with the kind assistance) of the rector. 

Length oi exterior oi north (Norman) wall of chancel ^ tret S inchc-. 

''" do. nave ... ... ... 36 ,, 6 ,, 

Lenyth of nave (interior) from the front of the tower-arch to the front 

of the chancel-arch ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 31 ,, 

Width of tower (west front) outside ... ... ... ... ... 19 ,, 2 ,, 

do. of angle buttresses (west face) ... ... ... each 3 ,, 

Saxon wall- are rarely more than 30 inches thick. At St. Patrick's Chapel, 
lley-ham, near Lancaster, they are jy in. thick, and the doorway (main entrance into 
the Chapel), is 32 inches wide, a little wider than the average of Saxon doorway-. 



n6 

Thickness of tower-arch (bricked up behind door) ... ... about 3 feet 4 inches. 

do. chancel-arch, north side ... ... ... ... ... 3 ,, 4^ ,, 

do. do. south side ... ... ... ... ... 3 ,, ^ ,, 

Width of chancel-arch below imposts ... ... ... ... ... 8 ,, (> 

do. tower-doorway (inside), at step (.see plate opposite) ... ... 3 ,, 4 ,, 

do. do. at springing 1 of arch... ... ... 3 ,, 3^ ,, 

Height of tower-doorway (inside) ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 ,, 2 ,, 

do. from present floor-level to tower-step ... ... ... ... 3 ,, 

Length of choir from back of chancel-arch ... ... ... ... 21 ,, 6 ,, 

Width of chancel at altar ... ... ... ... ... ... ... i^ 2 ,, 

do. nave between the north and south piers ... ... ... 19 ,, 6 ,, 

do. north aisle from pier ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 ,, 7 ,, 

do. south aisle from pier ... ... ... ... .. ... 9 ,, 5 ,, 

Diameter of octagonal piers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... i ,, 10 ,, 

A remarkable fact in connection with these measurements is the 
truly Celtic plan of the original Norman church, the nave being thirty- 
one feet long, and the chancel including the thickness of the arch, about 
twenty-five feet. Note also the decided Celtic feeling in the inclination, 
albeit slight, in the jambs of the tower doorway. There were probably 
no aisles until the additions were made in the fifteenth or early sixteenth 
century. The total length outside, excluding the tower, is noteworthy, 
being sixty-one feet two inches.* 

There is a remarkable and very interesting rough-hewn oaken 
door, six feet two inches high, filling the tower arch, inside the church, 
which judging from the elaborate scroll-pattern of the hinges and 
stanchions appears to be of scarcely less antiquity than the tower itself. 
(See plate.,) The material forming the hinges is of rude-wrought 
hammered iron and the scrolls cover almost the whole surface of the 
door. The principal hinge is in the form of a reversed letter C (the door 
being hinged on the north side) while the nailed bands have double 
curls arranged along the top and bottom edges; the design being not 
unlike that upon the ancient door of Maxstoke Priory in Warwickshire.! 

Above this tower-door is an original semi-circular opening forming a 
window to the second chamber of the tower, which latter was doubtless 
occupied by a hermit, watchman, or sacristan, who could command a 
view of the altar from within. It is about 4^ feet high in front and is 

;; The usual length of the larger Christian Celtic churches was sixty feet, and this 
seems to have been the case both in Kngland and Ireland. William of Malmesbury 
gives a minute description of the original British church at Glastonbury, founded 
A.D. 63, and this is said to have been sixty feet long anil twenty-six feet wide, almost 
exactly the size of the original church at Leathley. This apparently proves what 1 have 
before advanced that Christianity in Wharfedale owes more to the Celtic St. Columba 
than to the Roman St. Paulinus, and a careful examination along with measurements, of 
many of our early churches, would, I think, tend to confirm this. Such for example 
as Stainburn, Kirk Hammerton, and Kirkdale. 

f See also Plate liv. (an example dated 1 160-80) in Sernirere on les Oiw rages en Per 
Forge die Moyen-Age et de la Renaissance, par I. H. de Hefner-Alteneck. 




NORMAN DOOR AND WINDOW, LEATHLEY CHURCH 



ri8 

splayed to a depth of about 40 inches, diminishing downwards to the 
inner opening which is not more than 30 inches high and 18 inches 
wide (see plate). The semi-circular chancel arch is perfectly plain, 
excepting that the square imposts supporting the arch have a simple 
line moulding, chamfered beneath. In the chancel on the south side 
is a piscina having a triangular canopy with crockets and finial. The 
east window, a late Perpendicular insertion, has consisted formerly of 
three trefoil-headed lights, the stanchions of which have been broken 
off. The south doorway into the chancel has a square head with 
hood-moulding terminating in bearded faces, and the Spandrils are 
decorated. The adjoining three-light windows are of the same early 
sixteenth century character. The columns of the nave are octagonal, 
supporting pointed arches, on the capitals of which are various raised 
designs, hitherto not explained. There is the rose (emblem of the 
Virgin), the fleurs-de-lis (the Holy Trinity), a quatrefoil, and the sacred 
monogram IHC. The crest or badge of the Percys (a crescent*} 
appears on one of the capitals, while upon another is their fetter-lock 
badge (looking like a pair of eyes) within the horns of the crescent (as 
in the church at Hubberholme). The crescent is a very ancient 
bearing and is claimed by the Percys probably by reason of the 
prowess of some early member of the family during the wars with the 
Saracens. Speaking of the heroic deeds of an early Percy an old 
ballad says : 

In his soliekl did schyne. a Mont- veryfying her lyght 
Which to all the coste gave a perfytte syght 
To vaynquys his enemys and to deth them persue 
And there fair the Perries the crescent dotli renew. 

The fetter-lock alone occurs on the seal of Hotspur, while the earliest 
known example of the two combined is for Henry, fourth Earl of 
Northumberland, who died in 1489, a descendant of whom, Eleanor, 
daughter of Jocelin Percy, married William Ferrand, gent, of West 
Hall near Addingham, of whom I shall speak later on. The Tau-cross 
also appears on the south pier, in a similar position to that in the old 
church at Weston. It is also sculptured on a Norman capital in the 
White Tower, London. This crux ansata, out of which is evolved 
Thor's hammer, is an emblem of security and may serve to illustrate 
the old saying: "Destroy not them on whom ye shall see the letter 
T."f There are two brackets on the centre piers on the north and 

* This crest (a crescent, arffent} of Henry Percy, who was killed on Towton Field 
in 1461, appears in the window of St. Dyonys Church, York. 

f The critx ansata or " key of life," the primal cross " of life everlasting-," is a very 
ancient Egyptian symbol, and its appearance in England is probably traceable to the 
westward migration of the Aryan races. From Egypt it is believed to have spread first 
among the Phoenicians and thence throughout the whole Semitic world from Sardinia 
to Susiana, I have not seen it noted on anv church in Yorkshire. 



H9 

south sides for statues, or possibly to hold lamps. In the east window 
a memorial to the late rector, the Rev. .\\smu-h Kawkes are three 
shields of arms inscribed with the names of Hitch, Brandling, and 
Aldburgh, indicative of the Hitch family connections, previously 
alluded to. There are also several mural tablets here to the sam>- 
family. A more recent one commemorates a sadly remembered event. 
It is inscribed 

To the memory of Avscough Hawksworth Fawkes, 
Midshipman, R.N., who sank with 1 1. M.S. I'ictnriu, 
June 22, i Rg.'?, aged 17 years. "The sea shall give up her dead." 

There are stone seats in the porch, which suggest a time when it 
was usual to pay rents or discharge other obligations within the porch 
of the parish church. The door-step in the porch is formed of a 
thirteenth century sepulchral slab ; it bears an incised floriated cross, 
with the points of the shaft turned downward (emblematic of humility).* 
There are also some interesting mason-marked stones. One of the bells 
bears a design of three lions, two and one, the two uppermost crowned. 

In 1869 the church underwent a very thorough and careful 
restoration, and was re-opened for service by the Bishop of Ripon, on 
December i yth of that year. An entirely new roof was put up and two 
new windows were inserted, one at the east end and the other on the 
south side. The old high-backed pews were replaced by low open ones, 
Some of the old pews had carved panels, bearing various owners' 
initials and dates, the oldest being marked "R.A., 1621." A new organ 
was also placed in the north aisle. These substantial improvements 
are stated to have cost not less than ^2000, which was defrayed entirely 
by the then munificent owner of the estate, Francis Hawksworth Fawkes, 
Esq., of Farnley Hall. 

That the ancient structure originated as I have stated through the 
liberality of the mesne lords of the manor after the Conquest, appears 
further confirmed by their holding five geldable carucates, or six 
hundred acres, a tenth part of which was as usual, assigned for the 
exclusive endowment of the priest. f These sixty acres still represent 

* Mr. I.angdon in his Early Crosses of Cornwall (1890), gives about thirty purpose-- 
for which he found these valuable Christian memorials were being used in Cornwall, 
including gate-posts, pig-troughs, rubbing-stones, door-steps, c. One has continually 
to deplore the base service to which these early and often beautiful sculptures have 
been put. 

f There were in addition, as we have seen, something over two carucates held by 
the Crown in 1086. The manor must for a long period previously, have been in three 
open fields, with a three year rotation of crops, consequently the carueate consisted of 
60 acres in each field, or 120 acres for geld, while the third lav fallow. That this locality 
\vashighlvfavoredinpointofcultivationatthisearlv period is evident from the fact 
that the whole township contains, according to White's Directory, only 1,160 acres and 
the parish i,64o~acres. But*Kelly~gives'"2io5""acres"as'the>xtent"of the'parish'and i S4'> 
acres for the township, while the 6 in. Ordnance Map gives 1^69 acres for the township 
I.eathley and 519' ' acres for Castley. 



I2O 

the precise extent of the glebe, the irrevocable gift of the squire. But 
the benefice was originally held in medieties, a practice formerly 
common in Wharfedale, and one not to be approved in parishes that 
were small and poorly endowed. The priors of Nostel presented to a 
mediety from their obtaining the advowson, sometime after the founding 
of the Priory about 1112, until 1389 when they presented to the whole 
church, and continued to do so up to the dissolution of the house in 
1539.* The registry of the see of York commences only with the year 
1215, and in 1229 it is recorded that Nicholas de Lelay, clerk, was 
instituted to a mediety of the church of Leathley, which Robert de Lelay 
held at the presentation of the Prior and convent "de Parco;" 
reserving the pension of four shillings to be paid by the parson. From 
that time to the present we have a complete list of the rectors. In 
1291 the church was taxed at 6 133. 4d., and in the new taxation, 
consequent upon the disastrous raids by the Scots after Bannockburn, 
when all Wharfedale was ravaged, and many of the churches ransacked 
or destroyed, it was reduced to 2. The living, entered in the King's 
Books as worth ^7 as. 8d., is now declared to be of the nett annual 
value of 220, and the patronage is vested in the Bishop of the diocese. 

The Rev. Henry Canham is the present respected rector, whose 
twenty years' incumbency will always be remembered with affection and 
advantage in any future estimate of religious work in the parish.! There 
is much probability that the Rev. Peter Langfellow, who was rector of 
Leathley from about 1500 to 1520, and (apparently the same person) 
vicar of Calverley from 1475 to I 5 IO > was lineal ancestor of the 
celebrated American poet.j There is also a fifteenth century tomb-slab 
to a "Langfelaw" in Otley church which I have mentioned on page 85. 
The old rectory (long since pulled down) stood in a field a little north- 
west of the almshouses. It was a quaint Tudor building with central 
hall open to the roof of old well-bodied thatch. There were no upper 
chambers, merely a central hall with small west and east wings, 
respectively the kitchen and study with bedroom of the priest. In 
recent times the central hall was partitioned in two apartments and 
occupied as a farm house. To the courtesy of the present rector, Mr. 
Canham, I am indebted for the accompanying sketch of it. 

Close to the churchyard gate is a curious example of a town 
stocks, having five apertures in the oaken fall-slide, or as a native 
humourously put it to me "for two an' a hawf pair o' legs." It is 

""" A chartulary of the house was in 1632 in possession of C. Fairfax, Esq., of Menston. 

f Mr. Canham in former years was an enthusiastic g-eolog-ist, and has done valuable 
work among 1 the Tertiary rocks. He has an excellent collection of fossils. 

J See the English ancestry of Long-fellow in A'otes atid Queries (1882) sixth Ser. 
vi. 421 &c. ; also Margerison's Calverley Registers, and Leeds Mercury Supp. (N & Q.) 
for April and May, 1882. 



121 

therefore to he inferred that provision has been made for the unfortunate 
owners of a single leg. One of the pillars of the stocks is about five 
feet high and has traces of old shackle-irons near the top. It has 
evidently been used as a whipping-post in those "good old times" 
when it was customary to flog wrong-doers publicly until the bared 
back became "bloodie by reasone of such flogging.'' The horseing 
steps adjoin. Public-houses, often tempting to much dissipation among 
the natives in rural villages, are now a thing of the past at Leathley 
(the old Sun having been long closed), and there is now no inn between 
Otley or Pool and Rigton, four miles beyond Leathley. But there is 
an ample supply of pure water which issues from springs where the 



*^%mst^^m. 




OLD RECTORY, LEATHLEY. 

rock rests on the shale. One such well is on the Stainburn road, a 
litMe below the rectory, where I copied the following admonitory 
inscription, cut in front of it and bearing the date 1879 : 

Reader, Hear what Jesus Christ says: "Whosoever drinketh of this water shall 
thirst again. But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him, shall never 
thirst." John iv. i.V'4- 

" If any man thirst let him come unto ME and drink." John vii. 37. 

The Poll Tax of 1378 shews that Leathley was at that time a 
famous place for clothes-making, there being no fewer than four tailors 
in the village, who probably obtained the cloth from Otley and made 
up suits for soldier, monk, and farmer. The village had also its arrow- 
maker, who made bows and finished arrows for disposal in the market 
at Otley. Many a Leathley-made arrow has doubtless shot the wild 



122 

game in Washburndale and on the surrounding common. Early in the 
reign of Elizabeth there was a dispute as to the bounds of the 
common of Leathley, and an action was entered against the Rev. 
Thos. Holme, rector, and the inhabitants of Leathley, touching the 
boundaries, as some encroachment appears to have been made on the 
Royal Forest. In 1575 the depositions of some old men were taken 
at Lindley by Sir Wm. Ingleby, Kt, Chr. Mather, John Pulleyn and 
John Waterhouse. The following are the particulars which I find 
among the Duchy of Lancaster Pleadings. 

BOUNDARIES OF LEATHLEY COMMON. 

Robert Brodebelt of Letheley husdandman 72, saith that Leathley Common 
beginneth at the north end of the town of Letheley and so g-oeth to a place called 
Dunyngheathwayte and from thence up Westbecke to Lansheysyke and from thence 
to Cocklakes and from thence to Blacklowe and then to the Queens gate and then to a 
stone called Hawray stone standing north east from Lanshay grene and from thence 
to a stone north from Little Almoscliffe and so to a meare stone standing north west 
from Little Almoscliffe and then to Whitnal stone standing westward from Little 
Almoscliffe which by a bounder that he sawe shewed by the Earl of Northumberland 
three score years since did declare the stone to be a bounder between the bondes of 
Knaresborough Letheley and Lyndley. And from thence to a place called Thackslade 
being south from Sandwith Bridge being a bounder between Letheley and Lyndley 
and from thence to Blackpottes and from thence to a great stone in the lower end of 
Guberslade and then following an old eastern dyke over Knapesyde to a mere stone 
called Cable stone which is a bound between Leathley and Lyndley. And then west 
to a little syke called Purle syke being at the end of the lane coming into Lyndley 
towne and so following Purle syke to Ashdib and so to the water of Washburne. And 
from thence to Letheley town. Humphrey Hoclgshon 77 Thos. Bradeley 60 husband- 
man Richard Jenkinson husbandman 56 depose as above. 

In 1752 an Act was obtained for enclosing the waste. The local 
occupations now are purely agricultural, and there are some large 
farm-holdings ; one of the tenants, Mr. Wm. Newby, being assessed to 
the Poor Rate at ,638, and another, Mr. Abm. Hudson, being rated 
at ^504. In 1807 I find five Leathley men voted at York in the 
election of knights of the shire. Their names were John Booth, 
yeoman; Jeremiah Booth, jun., miller; Jeremiah Booth, gentleman; 
Matthias Stead, farmer; and Francis Todd, farmer. 

There is an interesting book of briefs preserved among the 
Leathley records, which if they provide little information of local value, 
tell us at any rate of events that were stirring England at the time. 
They begin with the year 1680 and run through the period of the 
Great Revolution. Under the year 1693 I find this entry, which serves 
as a reminder of old-time trading difficulties with Africa and the East. 
For a long period the North African sea-pirates plundered every 
English and foreign merchant vessel they could lay hands on, taking 
the men prisoners and demanding heavy ransoms. 

Collected in ye parish of Leathley 6th and 7th October, by vertue of their Maj 1 ^ 8 
Letters Patent for ye redemption of poore distressed captives in Algiers, Sallay, and 
other places in Barbary and ye coaste of Africa ye sum of i6s. and 3d. paid by Thomas 



123 

Kradlrv, pn -( lit rhurrluvardrii, to \r hand ot mi- Thomas Holmes (official to \ < 
KVvtTcnd Dr. Chrtwood, An-luli-aron ol' vc \\Vsi Riding n( Vorkc) who hath ffivon 
acquittance tor vr -aim-. 

Then ,-igain in 1700 the sum of 2 is. 91!. was collected at Leathley 
for " the redemption of poore Protestant captives under the Empire of 
Fez and Morocco," and in 1703^2 55. id. was collected "for and 
towards the support and maintenance of the poore distressed Protestants, 
late inhabitants within ye principality of Orrange, and by Popish 
cruelty banished from thence." In 1684 there was collected in the 
church the sum of 4s. nd. towards the relief of the inhabitants of 
Runswick in the North Riding, who had lately suffered by flood and 
earthquake. Is anything further known of this "earthquake"? 

The old school and almshouses at Leathley are on the opposite 
side of the road to the church. They were founded in 1769 by Mrs. 
Ann Hitch, who left 12 a year for the master, and 4 each for four 
almspeople, out of lands at Felliscliffe, appointing trustees, among 
whom were the lord of the manor and the rectors of Leathley and Adel. 
An interesting inmate of one of these dwellings was the late Mrs 
Elizabeth Watson, whom I visited on Sept. 27th, 1898, or about a 
month before her death, which took place on Oct. 26th. She was then 
in her 1041)1 year, and to all appearances in the best of health; she 
told me she had not got over the effects of a fall some months 
previously, yet her freshness and vivacity were astonishing. She was 
rather a little woman with small features, black hair, (with scarcely a 
trace of grey) and a fresh, ruddy complexion, heightened somewhat 
by the scarlet shawl she was accustomed to wear while sunning herself 
at the door of her humble dwelling ; a little ruse, excusable enough, to 
attract public attention. Her hearing and sight were wonderfully 
good, and she could pick up a pin or thread a needle without the aid 
of spectacles.* In answer to my enquiry whether she had walked 
much lately, she said that the accident above mentioned had prevented 
her from venturing far from home, but in the summer previous (then 
aged 102) she had walked with her "baby" (her youngest daughter, 
aged 63) with whom she lived, to Otley and back, a distance of about 
five miles. Like all long-livers she was partial to outdoor life and 
exercise. She was blessed to the end with a clear memory, and 
amongst the singular recollections she related was that of seeing the 
last man gibbeted on Attercliffe Moor, near Sheffield, for robbing the 
mail. Presently I approached her on her general habits of living and 
remarked, " Well, I suppose Mrs. Watson you will like a drop of gin in 
your tea, aye?" "Gin!" she exclaimed quite wrathfully, "I've been a 

* In this respect she resembled another Leathley centenarian, one John Proctor, 
who when in his second century was able to read without spectacles, 



T24 

teetotaller all my life. Them 'at wants to be ailin let 'em tak to drink," 
she went on to say, "but them 'at wants to keep reight they mun stick 
to waiter, there's nowt like gooid watter, thank God." I quite agreed 
with the old lady that temperance and regular exercise are to be 
counted the main factors to longevity, yet what are we to make of the 
case of the man Whittington, of Hellingdon, who died at the age of 
104, and who attributed his length of years to the astounding fact that 
he drank daily a full pint of the best London gin ! 

Mrs. Watson was born at South Hampole, near Doncaster, on 
Sept. ist, 1795, and was christened at Hooton Pagnell church, when 
about ten years old. Her father, George Cut (who seems to have been 
blessed with a steady, unperturbed nature), was coachman for nearly 
forty years to the Rev. Geo. Allott, rector of South Kirkby, and died at 
the age of no. He had a brother, an army pensioner, who had been 
wounded at Waterloo, and who lived, it is said, to be 115. Mrs. 
Watson was the eldest of a family of ten, and she herself was the 
mother of thirteen children. Her husband, George Watson, who had 
been a hind in the service of Lord Mexborough, lived to be 99, and 
his grandmother is stated to have attained the age of 107. Altogether 
the family longevity seems to have been contagious. 

Some little distance from the village stands the old manor-house 
of Leathley, the seat of Thos. Lister Ingham, Esq. It is an interesting 
Elizabethan edifice, but as before remarked, with extensive additions 
made principally in the early part of the last century. For many 
years after the Hitches left it, the hall was tenanted by farmers. The 
surroundings are beautifully rural and retired, which the summer 
rambler will appreciate as he passes the vicinity of the hall into an 
old green lane that leads to the highway for Pool and Otley. 

It is also a pleasant walk past Riffa* Wood hill and by briery 
lanes, banked with wild flowers, to the old Domesday vill of Castley, 
in the parish of Leathley. A more retired and secluded hamlet than 
this it would be difficult to find, yet in its hey-day it has been a place 
of no small importance, boasting of an ancient earthen camp or castle- 
hill, a manor-house and a hall. The latter I gather from Thoresby, 
writing in 1702, was built shortly before that time by "Mr. Robert 
Dyneley, the second son of my late good old friend, Robert Dyneley, 
Esq.," who was buried at Bramhope, in May, 1728. The hall is now 
a farm-house and is raised on an older structure, once the home of the 
Arthingtons. Since the Leeds and Harrogate railway was made, 

* Riffa, from the Norm. Fr. rive, Ital. riva, Lat. ripa, a river or stream-bank. The 
Riffa Beck here bounds the old Forest of Knaresbro', doubtless on an old tribal 
boundary. Riva, on the bank of Lake Como ; and Rief, on Lake Garda, have the same 
meaning ; so has Ripon on the Yore. 



rutting through Castley and necessitating huge embankments which 
half conceal it, the village has steadily declined in population. In 
1831 (the top year of its modern prosperity), there were between 
twenty and thirty houses in the place including an inn, (the old Malt 
Shovf/,} with a census return of 118. Now the population is less than 
half that number while the inhabited houses are about a dozen. 

Castley, in Saxon times had been in two manors, which in 1086 
were farmed by a homager of William de Percy, one Ebrard, the same 
who held the Percy lands at Leathley. In 1284 the manor was held by 
Richard de Goldsburgh and William de Castellay, for the fourth part of 
a Knight's Fee, of the heirs of Percy. In 1315 the same William de 
Castellay, or his son of that name, was returned as lord of the manor of 
Castley, but the Goldsboroughs continued to hold some land at Castley 
down to the time of Queen Elizabeth. The family of De Castley was, 
like the De Leathleys, in all probability descendants of the pre-Conquest 
owners, and their names appear in early land transactions and as 
witnesses to local grants and quit-claims from an early period.* On the 
south side of the railway, near the old manor-house, is a piece of ground 
known as Chapel Field ; doubtless the site of a small oratory 
founded by one of these Castleys. A stone coffin, I am told, was found 
here some years ago. A similar oratory still exists at Downholme, 
near Richmond, and there was one at Hartlington, near Burnsall, and 
others in Yorkshire, of whose history nothing is known. f A John de 
Castlay and Richard de Castelay appear in the Poll Tax of 1378, and 
a Richard de Castelay gave lands at Bingley to the monks of Drax.J 
Members of the family were liberal benefactors to Fountains Abbey 
William, son of Gilbert de Castelai gave two oxgangs of land here, with 
his share of the mill and its pool, and the services of Henry de 
Westcoght for the said mill, reserving the right of having his corn 
ground there mulcture free ; they, the monks of Fountains, paying three 
shillings to the canons "de Parco." 

The canons of Bolton Priory had the mill at CastleyH" but where the 
old mill stood or when it was demolished no one now seems to know. 
The manor afterwards followed the fortunes of its neighbour, Leathley, 
passing through the hands of the Lindleys, Hitches, and Maudes, to 
the present lord of Farnley. The Maudes appear to have been 
connected with Leathley at an early date, for among the deeds at 
Farnley Hall is one relating to Fountains Abbey lands in Stainburn, 

* See Pedes Finium Ebot (A.D. 1224) Surtees Soc. Pub. xciv. 85. 

f See the author's Richnmndshire, pages 218, 347, 368, &c. 

.SVr the author's Old Bingley p. 1 15. Burton's Mon. Ebor. p. 191. 

S,, ( 'ompotus of Bolton Abbey for i 290 : Whitaker's Craven, 3rd ed., pp. 449, 4=55. 



witnessed by " William Mohaut de Litheley." The old manor-house has 
not been occupied since 1896, and is now fast falling to ruin; yet what 
a grand situation it occupies, high above old Wharfe, commanding a 
charming sweep of woodland and river. 'Tis a beautiful natural picture, 
and a perpetual feast, one would think, to the tenant of this historic 
place ! When I last visited the spot a year ago, it was a bright autumn 
morning, and the gray old ruined mansion looked calmly beautiful in 
its loneliness, with its ancient bit of garden-ground run wild with still 
blooming marigolds and bed of sweet violets. An air of old-time poesy 
breathed about the whole place, and fixed me to the spot enraptured 
for many moments. How the mind of the poet and the antiquary 
fondly turns to scenes such as these, recalling the many changes of the 
place and of faces and forms that have vanished, and of the fleeting 
works of man, while Nature alone is ever young and fair. The same 
rivers do run, the merry becks do sing, the green fields are renewed, 
and the hedge-rows put forth the sweet scent of May-bloom, just as they 
did in the days of Norman and Saxon and Dane. Perhaps the old 
hedged camp (which may have originated the name of Castle-hay) close 
to the railway a short distance to the north, may link the lords of 
pre-Conquest ages with the owners of the old Castley manor-house now 
ebbing away ! 




CHAPTER VII. 



ROUND ABOUT POOL. 



Pool Bridge A rare It-rn History of Pool Local monastic possessions -Old families 
Old trades and inns -The church Picturesque aspects Local mansions Leeds 
and Otley turnpike Cycling scenes Caley Hall, an old hunting-lodge of the 
Gascoignes Park stocked with deer, zebras, &c. 




GREEN and flowery lane leads from ancient Castley, just 
described, over Pool Bridge to the pleasant village of 
Pool, still in the old parish of Otley. The fields on the 
river adjacent to the bridge are called Street Closes, a 
name that suggests the vicinity of a Roman road, but 
the Roman road from Adel to Illdey passed a good mile to the south 
of the river. Pool Bridge is a fine broad structure, well-known to certain 
naturalists up to its being re-pointed some years ago, as harbouring in 
its crevices a very rare fern, Ceterach officinarum, or scale-fern, though 
how it became fixed in such a spot and continued there year after year, 
has always been a mystery. The fern is now almost extinct in 
Yorkshire, though quite recently I have seen it wild in two places 
between Dent Head and Sedbergh, and I have also found it in profusion 
in the limestone tracts about Loch Corrib in Connemara. In the Act 
obtained in 1 793 for widening and repairing certain roads &c. in the 
parish, it was ordered that "there shall be a convenient bridge for 
carriages, erected over the river Wharfe at or near Pool, and the roads 
repaired from thence over the west side of a field called Becklands, 
through the village of Leathley, and over the west end of Leathley 
Common to Stainburn Beck" &c. 

In Domesday, Pool appears as Pouele, doubtless from the A-S. pol, 
cognate with the Celt, pwll, a pool or lake, like the famous Poole in 
Dorset, associated with the Danish ravages, and Blackpool, the well- 
known Lancashire sea-side resort, named from a large marsh, now 
drained. Poulton, near Blackpool, and Poulton, near Morecambe, 
have the same significance. Our Wharfedale Pool was included in the 
original grant to the see of York, and was held at an early period by 
the Goldsburgh family of the Archbishops. It is mentioned in Kirkby's 
Inquest (1284-5), and in the Nomina Villarum (1315) Ricardus de 
Goldesburgh is returned as lord of the manor of Pouill. The manor 
continued in possession of this family till 1596, when Richard 
Goldsborough, Esq., and Elizabeth, his wife, sold the same to Michael 



128 

Wentworth, Esq., of Creskeld, who in 1599 purchased Woolley from 
their kinsfolk, the Woodroves.* Sir George Wentworth, who married 
a daughter of Thomas, Lord Fairfax, and who died in 1660, left the 
manors of Pool, Creskeld, Maltby, Arthington, Wadlands, and Bracken- 
holme, to be divided amongst his three daughters. The manor of 
Pool is now held by Fred. Hawksworth Fawkes, Esq., J.P., of Farnley. 

The monks of Arthington and Kirkstall had lands in Pool.f Also 
Malger, son of Wm. de Pouella, gave all his land in Castley, being 
three acres on the east side of the way or ford, called Haldwadford in 
Poolholme, in Castley, to the monks of Fountains, which was confirmed 
by Robert, son of Wm. Bram de Powel. The name of this old family 
of De Pool or Pouil, occurs in local deeds of early date, but the first 
dated mention I find in the Great Roll of the Exchequer, where Hugo 
de Pouilla renders account of five marks due from lands, nth Henry II. 
(1164). The family had also property in Farnley in the reign of 
King John, as appears by fine entered in 1202 between Thomas fitz 
Hugh and Serlo de Pouele and others, respecting a quit-claim of thirty 
acres of land with appurtenances in that place. The name is not 
found in the Pool poll-tax of A.D. 1378, although it was then surviving 
in the neighbourhood at Lindley. For fully a century following this 
dat , we have little knowledge of either people or events in Pool. In 
the Subsidy Roll for Pool for the year 1523 appears the names of John 
Yngland, William Smethe, Thos. Rawlynson, Henry Laghelyn, John 
Tomlynson, Henry Myrghefeld, and Wm. Skachard. The Wentworths, 
who obtained the manor of Pool in the reign of Elizabeth, were of the 
same family as of Wentworth Woodhouse, and progenitors of the 
eminent but unfortunate statesman, Thomas, Earl of Strafford, who was 
born on Good Friday, 1593, at the London house of his maternal 
grandfather, Mr. Robert Atkinson, a Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. Sir 
Thomas, afterwards Earl, it may be noted, had in 1620-1 by some 
means got possessed of the patronage ot Kirkby Malham Church, and 
the family had also at this time various relationships with families in 
Wharfedale and Upper Airedale. 

The Atkinsons, who were originally seated in Westmorland, and 
afterwards at Leeds, also appear as landowners at Pool in the 
seventeenth century. Among the Norcliffe Evidences at Langton 
Hall are a number of deeds relating to the Atkinsons of Leeds and 
Creskeld, near Pool. William Atkinson, of Creskeld, by his will dated 

*See Yorks. Archl.JL, vol. xii., p. 5, 17. 

f Burton's Mon. Ebor. p. 89, 295. In 1459 James Cawdray paid 2s. rent t<> Kirkstall 
Abbey for a little meadow in Poell field (Thoresby Soc. Pub. ii. 12). The meadow 
evidently described in the original grant as Dipe-Ker. 



I2Q 

Dec. 5th, 1682, desires to be buried at Adel, and leaves his son and 
heir, Henry, lands in Pool called Hardcastle Farm, besides certain 
property to other of his children.* In 1694 the family sold to the 
Garforths certain messuages &c. at Pool, called Dawcroft, Red Ing, 
Sun Ing, &c. Henry Atkinson was living at Caley Hall at this time 
and married in 1722 a daughter of Francis Fawkes, M.P., of Farnley, 
by whom he had a son, Henry, who died without issue.f 

About a century ago the woollen cloth trade was somewhat 
extensively carried on at Pool, until in the winter of 1795, the fulling- 
mills of Messrs. Close & Co. were almost wholly destroyed by fire, and 
damage was done to the extent of about ^2,000. They were soon 
afterwards run as paper-mills by Messrs. Weir & Co.J Subsequently the 
woollen manufacture was carried on by Messrs. Millthorp and Burnley, 
and there was also at the time (now about seventy years ago) a good 
trade done in the manufacture of washleathers, as well as in paper- 
making and in the making of paste-board. There were then three inns 
in the village, the White Hart, the Craven Heifer, and a beer-house. 
The Rev. A. E. Meredith, vicar of Pool, about six years ago purchased 
one of the inns and converted it into a temperance-refreshment house, 
and the old beer-house he has leased and since used as a Parish Room. 
In 1898 Mr. Meredith was succeeded by the Rev. H. A. Woodhouse, 
who had been senior curate at Otley. Pool Hall, at the west end of 
the village, is a last century erection, built on the site of an older 
mansion, the home of several notable families alluded to in other parts 
of this work. 

The church at Pool, formerly a small building with belfry, and 
prior to 18 79 'when the parish was formed, a chapel-of-ease to Otley, 
stands very pleasantly about the middle of the village. It was enlarged 
in 1840 and the tower was built at the same time. Its walls and the 
surrounding graveyard are a picture of luxuriant rusticity, clothed and 

* Yorks. Anhl. Jl. iii. 76. 

f For Pedigree of Atkinson w Burke's Landed (ientn 1 . 

t A singular and forgotten incident may here be mentioned. In 1793 while three 
workmen were doing- .some repairs to the cotton-mills on the Wharfe at Otley, the river 
suddenly rose and overthrew the platform on which thev were --landing-. All three men 
were drowned, and two of the bodies were immediately afterwards recovered, but that 
of the third, one Wm. Standeven, could not be found, nor was it discovered until 
fourteen years afterwards (May, 1807), when the completely skeletoni/ed body wa- 
found lodged between two stones in Pool Walk Mill dam. This remarkable discovery 
was made while searching the river for a notorious character named William Lamb, 
who was thought to have been drowned after a drinking bout when on his way home 
to Stainburn. Lamb had only three weeks before been whipped in Otley Market Place 
for theft. His body was afterwards found near Hare wood Bridge. 

>j A complete list of the curates of Pool has not been published. In 1675-6 John 
riiomlinsoti was licensed t<> the curacy of Pool, Yarks. Anhl.Jl. ii. i 10 



covered as they are with trailing ivy and roses, tall, climbing fuchsias, 
ferns, and a variety of other sweet emblems of mortality. There are 
also some particularly fine weeping ash-trees in the burial-yard. The 
chancel was added in 1891 as a memorial to Mrs. Francis Meredith, 
mother of the late vicar. It is built after the manner of early Christian 
churches in the form of a Roman basilica, and has three single colored 
lights at the sides. On a small brass on the chancel floor is inscribed : 

John Pullein, April 5, 1842; Ann Pullein, March 17, 1851; Fanny Pullein, March 29, 
1856; John Pullein, March 12, 1866. 

There are also other memorials in the church to the families of 
Atkinson, of Caley, Stott, Fieldhouse, and Curry. In the churchyard is 
a handsome granite monument to the memory of George Wood, Esq., 
M.A., Oxon, of the Inner Temple, J.P., who died at Caley Hall, in 
the parish of Pool, in 1879, aged 54. Also a similar monument to 
Col. Wm. Child, late of Troutbeck, in the parish of Pool, who was 
founder and for twenty-seven and a half years Commanding Officer of 
the 2nd West York (Leeds) Engineer Volunteers. He died in 1889, 
aged 67. There are also other beautiful and noteworthy memorials 
in this pretty churchyard. 

Many of the houses of the gentry about Pool are most pleasantly 
situated, and have charming gardens around them. Troutbeck, which 
I have just mentioned, was built by Col. Child, and is now owned and 
occupied by Thos. Swallow, Esq., who has planted a remarkable thorn 
avenue reaching from the gateway for nearly a hundred yards towards 
the house, and forming a kind of triumphal arch, whose variegated 
bloom and delicious perfume are most attractive in the later days of 
Spring. In this neighbourhood, the common hawthorn, when growing 
alone, attains quite stately proportions, in contrast with the stunted 
specimens found in the higher and more elevated parts of the dale. 
Many of these trees in the fields about Pool, are from twenty to thirty 
feet high, and bulky in proportion ; in Spring they usually put on a 
lovely mass of snowy blossom, which later yield a profusion of crimson 
fruit. Beautiful looks the valley too when viewed from some convenient 
standpoint. From Pool Bank there is a charming prospect, and far 
down the richly wooded landscape we can just descry the old Castle of 
Harewood with the noble mansion of the Earls of Harewood rising 
proudly from an apparent jungle of foliage. 

Ascending Pool Bank we reach the Leeds and Otley turnpike at 
the Dyneley Arms hotel, where are pleasant tea-gardens, &c. This is 
a favorite rendezvous of cyclists, and often on the Saturday half-holiday, 
if the day be fine, it is astonishing to see this magnificent highway, 
broad and level as a table top, crowded with cyclists of both sexes, and 
clad in a variety of costumes, gliding rapidly to and fro, and reminding 






one of some Continental boulevard on a similar fete day. Tin- road 
towards Bramhope is bordered with lofty and well-grown trees, forming 
a splendid avenue, which adds not a little to the picturesqueness of 
thesr busy gathtjrings. This fine road, I may add, was surveyed and 
laid out about sixty years ago by the late Mr. George Haywood, of 
Ik-adingley Hall. 

Midway between Otley and Bramhope, but in the township of 
Pool, stands Caley Hall, a very old and interesting mansion, and in all 
probability the only survivor of an ancient hamlet of that name. The 
place gave name to an old family, and in the reign of Edward III., one 
John de Caylli de Poule appears party to a transaction concerning 
lands in Stockeld.* In the fifteenth century it was a hunting-lodge of 
the Gascoignes, and subsequently the Daltons, to one of whom there is a 
monument in Otley Church, occupied it. About the end of the seven- 
teenth century the Atkinsons, already mentioned, were living here, and 
they sold the estate to the Fawkes family sometime before 1750. The 
hall or lodge then consisted of the south room and kitchen only. The 
drawing-room was added by the Cloughs, and the dining-room, which 
now looks so old, was really not built until about fifty years ago. It 
was designed by Miss Charlotte Fawkes, of Farnley, and was lined 
with oak panels on which were depicted scenes of hunting and shooting, 
with portraits of the people then living in the neighbourhood. The 
pictures, or some of them, were drawn by George Walker, of Killing- 
beck, author of Costumes of Yorkshire, and were painted on the 
panels by a carriage-painter from Leeds, whose name I have not 
ascertained. The whole of the panelling is now at Farnley. 

Afterwards the hall was occupied for some years by Dr. John 
Raistrick, who had been in the navy and was a noted short-horn 
breeder. He made many improvements in the house and gardens. 
It was a charming retired place, and when the owners, about 
1820, made the park, they had it stocked with a numerous and 
splendid herd of red and fallow deer, besides goats and some 
not very approachable wild-swine. Mr. Fawkes also procured 
several beautiful zebra horses, and a handsome specimen of 
the axis, or wild jungle-stag of India, and these might have been seen 
roaming about the wide and fertile domain up to about the year 1840, 
when the road I have mentioned was made, which cut the park in two, 
and the animals were destroyed. 



* Yorks* Co. Mag. i. 34. For Pedigrees of Calr\ , Co. York., \ ( v .S'///Y<r.v .S'<-., 
vol. 36, p. 125, 196-7; Burke'.s funded Gentry; Yorks. Arch. Jl., vol. i. p. 232, 303, &c. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



BRAMHOPE. 

Mean in i, r of Hramhopc Situalion and wide view Roman camp I Ii-torical records 
Land cuhivated I'roin ancient tinu^ Tin- Dome-dav carucatc Dyneley family 
Local monastic properties Tenants in bondage Kramhope Hall The Rhodes 
and Darwin families The old chapel erected during the era ot the Commonwealth 
The old churchyard The new church of St. Ciiles The \\Ysleyan Chapel 
The Craven Institute. 




BRAMHOPE is an ancient and pleasant village, called 
' perhaps after some chief; one Braam being lord of 



Yeadon and Esholt after the Conquest ; though it is 
more probable to be derived from the A.-S. bram, broom. 
Mr. Francis Darwin informs me that the bank in front 
of his house in Bramhope is called Broom Bank, and that in his 
grandfather's time it had much broom growing on it.* The village 
occupies an open acclivity, commanding a wide view to the north and 
east ; on a fine day the towers of York Minster being distinctly visible. 
On the high ground about a mile to the south of the village ran the 
Roman road from Tadcaster to Ilkley, previously mentioned, which is 
still in evidence as a grass-grown raise in a wood near Marsh Plantation, 
a little west of this place Near an old farmstead called Camp House 
are the remains of what seems likely to have been a castra astira, or 
summer station, which is described by Thoresby in his Diary for the 
year 1702. "Upon Bramhope Moor in the place now called Stadtfolds 
[Latin, stativa; A-S. staede, modern German stadt, a station or town] we 
saw another large camp, but this has a double agger, though by its 
squareness and the leading of the via ricinalis thereunto, it seems also 
to have been Roman. "f The road from the camp goes westwards by 
Green Gates and may be traced near Carlton Workhouse and again on 
Guiseley Moor. 

That Bramhope was a well cultivated and populous territory in 
Anglo-Saxon times is evident from the Domesday testimony. It is 
recorded there were eight caruca'tes to be taxed before 1066, where 
the land was to four ploughs. There was also underwood half a leuga 

* A rather late glossary printed in Wright's collection defines the word "brame" 
by the Latin words tribulits and vvpres. The ordinary word "bramble" is a diminutive 
of "brame," the second "b" in "bramble" being intrusive. See the words "bramble" 
and "broom" in the New English Dictionary. 

f See also Simpson's Adel, p. 77. 



134 

in length and two quaranteens in breadth ; the whole manor being one 
leuga in length and one in breadth. The quaranteen is the "furlong," 
that is the side of the areal acre, and the square leuga of Domesday is 
demonstrated to contain 1440 statute acres. The township of Bramhope 
is now stated on the 6 inch map to contain 1396 acres. Here, then, is a 
manor providing a singular illustration of the intricate problems of 
Domesday. According to Cannon Isaac Taylor this would I suppose, 
be regarded as a three-field manor, worked as from pre-Conquest times, 
by a three-year rotation of crops. In three-field manors, he tells us, the 
Domesday carucata ad geldum was normally sixty acres, the land tilled in 
one year by one plough, while terra ad unam carucam was 120 acres, 
the land tilled in both fields in one year by one plough, and the whole 
carucate including fallow (which was not taxed, and is consequently not 
included in Domesday) was 180 acres, or 120 acres for taxation and 
60 untaxed fallow. In two-field manors, both the carucata. ad geldum 
and the lerra ad iinum carucam were 80 acres, and the whole 
cnrucate, including fallow, 160 acres, by the reckoning locally used, 
either the Norman hundred of five score or the English hundred of six 
score. There must consequently by this theory have been 1440 acres 
in cultivation in Bramhope in 1066, or 960 subject to the geld, while the 
rest of the manor must have been turned to profitable account. But the 
geld carucate, I take it, bears no constant relation to areal measurement, 
and what may be found to apply to some manors does not apply to all. 
Ploughs though normally of eight oxen were not always of this strength. 
The returns of Domesday are and were intended from the outset to be a 
return of the actual taxable value of the land, and what was of no 
worth was not taxed, and consequently does not appear. This is 
especially applicable, as I have before pointed out, to ecclesiastical 
property and in the case of Saxon churches now standing, which as they 
were then of no value are not mentioned in the Domesday inquest. 
The Domesday geld carucate was therefore meant to be essentially a 
unit of assessment rather than a certain measure of the extent of a 
manor.* 

Bramhope before 1066 had been worth forty shillings, but when 
Gilbert Tyson had the estate granted to him together with ten others in 
the West Riding, it was "all waste;" the people had either died or fled 
or were suffering from extreme poverty: Uchil, the pre-Conquest owner, 

* The elaborate calculations made by Mr. Pell in the Doomsday Commemoration 
volumes (1888) (pp. 227-326) must surely fall to the ground so far as this part of 
Yorkshire is concerned. The kernel of Fleta's carucate it is true was the geldable unit 
of 120 acres of sown land, but how are we to reconcile a manor which seems never to 
have contained as much as 1400 acres with the assumed square leuga of 1440 acres. 
Granting- even that the woodland was not taxed, it was still parcel of the manor, 



must have sorrowed at seeing his fair acres ' wasted '' before him, hut on 
the Norman adjustment he was permitted to hold the manor as a vassal 
of the foreign conqueror. Though afterwards taken into the ancient 
parish of Otley, Bramhope I should state, formed no part of the 
Archbishop's liberty of Otley. Tyson had extensive possessions in 
Lincolnshire and Notts., but in 1095 he was deprived of his barony, and 
his estates were divided between Nigel de Albini and Ivo de Vesci.* 
Margaret, only daughter and heiress of Henry, Lord Vesci, married 
John, Lord Clifford, "black-faced Clifford," or "bloody Clifford" of 
Shakespeare's Henry VI., whose grandson Henry, Earl of Cumberland, 
sold the manor of Bramhope to William Dyneley of Bramhope, in 
1546. He died in 1586 and was buried in the chancel of Otley church, 
where many of the Dyneleys are laid. This family was descended from 
the Dyneleys of Downham, co Lanes temp, Edward II. and they have 
continued in possession of Bramhope until the present century, f The 
land is all freehold and is now held by various owners. 

It is interesting to note that to the north of the hall is a tract of 
flat ground called Lammas Field, which, when the lands were common 
lands was closed until Lammas Day for the purpose of hay- 
making. It was then open to the common stock. For this information 
I am indebted to Mr. Darwin, of Creskeld. It affords a very interesting 
and late instance of the survival of the ancient common-field system, 
the fields jacetitfs in communi of a medieval manor, the existence of 
which is recorded in the preambles to many of the Enclosure Acts of 
the time of George III. By the Statute of Merton (1235) it was 
enacted that every tenant on a manor should have a proportionate right 
with the lord over the waste lying near the fields, and only when the 
waste was larger than what the tenants required, could the lord 
encroach upon or enclose any part of it. Here at Bramhope these 
ancient Lammas Fields were thrown open in August to all tenants and 
villagers on the manor after harvest-time, a very wasteful method 
surely, since the land after cropping could rarely be manured, or 
sufficiently manured, before next seed-time. The tardy progress of 
enclosures kept agriculture in a very backward state, and even after the 
restoration of the Stuarts, when England had greatly recovered from 
the effects of the Civil War, half the land in England lay unenclosed 
and uncultivated. 

The abbey of Kirkstall and the priory of Arthington had lands in 
Bramhope,| an d the monks of Kirkstall also had the water-mill here, 

.Sir Yorks. Archl.Jl. xiii. 117 n. 

f For pedigree of Dyneley of Bramhope, s<-i> Whitakrr's Loidis and Elmete, p. 198, 
and Foster's Visitation of Yorks. (1875). 
* Hurt oil's ,1 fini. Ebor. p. 88 and 291, 



i 3 6 

which they let to the hospital of St. Leonard's, York, at an annual 
rent says Burton, of 45., but 405. is the amount entered in the Kirkstall 
Abbey rent roll of 1459.* As appears by one of the thirteenth century 
grants to this monastery, there were then tenants in bondage at 
Bramhope, over whose bodies, born and unborn, as also of his cattle, 
the lord had power of disposal by gift or sale. To the monks of 
Kirkstall we find this gift by Roger, son of Hugh de Leathley and 
Christian, his mother, viz.: of eleven oxgangs, with tofts, crofts, and 
all the men in the village, with their families and cattle ; a grant which 
Hugh's grandson, Adam de Leathley, fully confirmed. In 1226 Emma, 
widow of Henry de Morton, gave the Abbey half a carucate of land in 
Haldefelde, in exchange for a like area in Bramhope. This no doubt 
has reference to the Kirkstall Abbey estate at Morton, in Bingley 
parish, where the monks had a grange, probably the old farm known 
as Elam Grange. In 1285 the Abbot of Kirkstall for himself and 
successors, obtained a charter of free warren in their demesne lands at 
Bramhope, Collingham, Bardsey, &c. 

Bramhope Hall, the old manor house (of which I give a view from 
a photograph by my relative, Mr. John J. Stead) was long the home 
of the Dyneleys, and at the entrance to the kitchen is a shield bearing 
the fess and mullets of the family. About 1808 a Leeds merchant named 
Christopher Smith purchased the estate. He died in 1846 and his only 
child, Ann, became the wife of William Rhodes, into whose hands the 
property then passed, and whose family are still the owners. He was 
formerly Captain of the igth Lt. Dragoons, and died in 1869, aged 77. 
He left a family of four sons and two daughters, one of his sons 
being Lt.-Col. Wm. Rhodes, 68th Lt. Infantry, who was for some time 
Minister of Agriculture for the province of Quebec, Canada, a member 
of the Provincial Parliament and a Justice of the Peace. He was born 
at Bramhope Hall in 1821 and died at Benmore, Quebec, in 1892, 
aged 71, and was buried there. The hall has been tenanted now some 
years by James Burnley, Esq., J.P., of Bradford. 

Near the hall stands the old chapel (not used since 1881) which is 
interesting as being one of the very few edifices in this country erected 
for public worship during the unsettled period of the great Civil War. 
(See also BURLEY). It was founded by Robert Dyneley, Esq., an ardent 
and unswerving Puritan, together with the freeholders, in 1649, or 
almost immediately after England was declared a Commonwealth. An 
estate of about 130 acres, taken from the wastes and commons at 
Bramhope, was vested in trustees, and the proceeds were to be applied 
"towards the maintenance of an able and godly minister," as well as for 

* Thoresby Soc. ii. 4; also viii. 15. 



137 

the erection of a minister's residence. The chapel is said never to have 
been consecrated, and at the Restoration in 1660 it fell under the 
jurisdiction of the Church of England.* Oliver Heywood, the eminent 
Puritan divine, was a frequent visitor at Bramhope Hall, as related in 

his Diaries. 

The chapel possesses no architectural merit, being a plain stone 
building in the poorest style of post-Reformation Gothic, with rough- 
cast walls, and a bell-turret at the west end. The interior has been 




THE OLD CHAPEL, BRAMHOPE 

neatly restored, and partly re-pewed, though some of the old square 
pews remain. There is also a quaint pulpit, with sounding-board, and a 
font dated 1673. There are some neat memorial tablets on the walls to 
the families of Dyneley, Smith, Rhodes, Silvester, Driver, and Leyland. 
The registers are at Otley. In the churchyard at the east end are a 
couple of fine old beech-trees, whose ample and spreading branches 
cast a sombre shadow over the old building. Here are two beautiful 
tomb-stones (shewn in the engraving) placed over the graves of the 
above William Rhodes, who died July i5th, 1869, and Charlotte Maria 

* See Taylor's Churches of Yorkshite (1875) pp. 210-14; a ' so 'he Bradford Antiquary 
(1X98), pp. 325-34, and Miall's Congregationalism in Yorkshire, p. 24.^. 



Cooper Darwin, first wife of Francis Darwin, Esq., of Creskeld Hall. 
She died June 22nd, 1885. 

The new church at Bramhope (St. Giles), dedicated after the old 
chapel which stood behind the hall in a field now called Chapel Garth, 
was erected in 1881, and stands picturesquely at the junction of the Leeds 
and Cookridge roads. It is a handsome and substantial building and is 
particularly noteworthy for its superior stained glass. The colored 
east window is a very chaste and rich example of the art, and there are 
several other beautiful stained windows dedicated as me'morials to 
members of the family of Mr. Francis Darwin, of Creskeld Hall, and 
also to the families of Rawson, Craven, North, and Wm. Myers (Mr. 
Darwin's steward). The handsome reredos in the church is a memorial 
erected by her sisters to Frances Elizabeth Ellershaw, who died in 
Central Africa, July gth, 1897. 

Bramhope also possesses a handsome new Wesleyan Church, 
which occupies a prominent site, and is a conspicuous landmark for 
many miles round. It is in the decorated Gothic style, with nave, 
transepts, chancel, and organ recess. The east window is filled with 
beautiful stained glass, and is a memorial to the late Mr. Henry Fawcett, 
The buildings, including Sunday School and caretaker's house, have 
incurred an expenditure of about ^3000. The opening ceremony was 
performed in September 1896, by Mrs. S. T Fawcett, of Leeds, and 
the Rev. Marshall Randies, President of the Conference, afterwards 
preached an appropriate sermon. 

The "Craven Institute" at Bramhope was founded by will (dated 
nth June, 1888, and proved at Wakefield 3ist May, 1889) of an old 
resident at Bramhope, the late Mr. Robert Craven, who left a 
considerable sum of money in the hands of trustee^. These were the 
vicar of Bramhope, the Rev T. R. Bruce, Mr. Thos. Whiiham, of 
Bramhope, and Mr. John Yeadon, of Otley, who were empowered to 
dispose of it at their discretion to charitable objects. A memorial 
institute was decided upon, and this was erected at a cost of about 
^2000, exclusive of the site, and was opened in May, 1897. 

The old school at Bramhope seems to have been founded by a 
township enclosure in 1809, and according to the Schools Inquiry 
Commission in 1869 the property was then vested with two trustees, 
namely, Francis Darwin, Esq., of Creskeld Hall, and R. D. Dyneley, 
Esq., of Bramhope. Mr. Darwin, however, informs me that he never 
was a trustee for this school. The report says that the Dyneley family 
property in Bramhope was at some time last century divided into two 
parts, and that the elder of two brothers retained Bramhope Hall, which 
was sold about 1808 (not 1820) to Christopher Smith, as before related. 
In 1866 the estate, with the manor, was bought by Miss Dawson. 




RIGHT HON. W. E FORSTER. 



CHAPTER IX. 




BURI.EY. 

I'ht- old cotton mill and how it was worked The new mills Burley in the van of 
progress Historical records Meaning- of Burley Local families Descent of the 
manor Monastic possessions The church The late Rev. Dr. Black The Maude 
family Notable houses Recent alterations Burley Great Pudding- Burley Hall 
Local Worthies Handsome memorial to the late Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster 
Greenholme Mills, a model factory Mr. Wm. Fison and the late Mr. Forster 
Local benefactions Anecdote of Mr. Forster--His death and funeral The poet 
Watson, 

URLEY, observes Dr. Whitaker, "is a delightful village, 
tfiough contaminated physically and morally by a cotton 
mill." Little else does he say, inasmuch as the learned 
author's notice of this interesting old place is contained 
in less than four lines. Cotton mills or trad in <* 

o 

concerns of any kind were especially repugnant to the refined feelings 
of Craven's century-old historian, but we in these later days have 
grown accustomed to such like factors of economic development , 
factors that have played a very important part in the civilising 
processes of the past hundred years. We have come to regard the 
erection of a mill in its proper place, not indeed as a retrograde 
movement, but as the sign rather of social progress and for the 
common good. The mill in question has a more than local and 
ordinary interest, being the primum stamen of the celebrated Green- 
holme Mills associated with such pattern owners as William Fison, J.P., 
the late respected "Father of the Village" and the Rt. Hon. William 
Edward Forster, the educationist, of whom more anon. The old 
cotton mill performed a truly charitable work, being almost entirely 
run, overlookers excepted, by children who were sent down from the 
workhouses in London, and who were apprenticed to the trade. 
When they had served their time many of them settled in the place, 
and their families afterwards became their own householders and 
were otherwise comfortably off. The old mill has since been entirely 
rebuilt, and now presents in its greatly enlarged aspects a model of 
symmetry and cleanness, while the firm has always been careful to 
avoid any interference with the natural beauties of the place or to 
suffer any pollution of the famous fishing river by its side. For some 
years now every particle of the mill-sewage has been conveyed to 
the district sewage works between Burley and Menston. 

Apart from recent residental development there are many older 
houses and cottages in the town that present a well-to-do comfortable 
appearance, thoroughly characteristic of the place. The village 



140 

has indeed taken the lead in many enlightened movements, largely 
through the encouragement of the cultured and liberal-minded 
owners of the mills. Burley claims the distinction of being the first 
place in the Wharfe valley where a flower-show was held. It had 
also the first Lecture Hall, and was also the first place in this part of 
the country where athletic sports were held. It had likewise the 
first Volunteer Corps in the district, and the late Rt. Hon. W. E. 
Forster was at one time captain of it. 

Influenced in the past by such able and enterprising chiefs as 
the Whitakers, Greenwoods, Fisons, Forsters, and Claphams, no 
wonder that Burley acquired a fame and reputation far outside the 
pale of the West Riding. As the home too, of Thomas Maude, the 
poet and early topographer of VVharfedale, and of William Watson, 
the present-day poet, whose work has won for him a high national 
recognition, Burley has a more than ordinarily distinguished literary 
fame. 

But to go back to remote centuries we find that Burley is 
mentioned in the great national survey of William the Norman in 
A.D. 1086. It is there written Burghelai and in the "Recapitulation," 
BurgeM, which as elsewhere explained, is named from some Anglo- 
Saxon or earlier fortified enclosure, the site of which cannot now be 
identified. It may possibly have been a Roman out-post situated 
near the road from Adel to Ilkley, and not unlikely at Stead, hereafter 
mentioned. Bury and borough have the same import, indicative of a 
fortified hill or raised fort, yet in the north of England there appears 
to be a distinction between the two. Bury in place names appears 
distinctively Saxon and borough Roman, as Aldborough, Richborough, 
Overborough, Addleborough, Littleborough, and apparently Knares- 
borough ; while the Saxon form of bury appears in Dewsbury, 
Horbury, Almondbury, &c.* These burghs also appear to have been 
often if not always associated with important ownerships and to have 
been the ancient seats and strongholds of royal or distinguished 
persons. 

At the Norman Conquest, Burley was taken into the Archbishop's 
manor of Otley, and in 1279, by inquisition held at York, the manor 
of Burley was stated to be held by Sir Ralph Maunsel and his heirs, 
of the Archbishop of York for the time being, by doing the service of 
half a Knight's Fee, and suit of the Archbishop's Court at Otley ftom 
three weeks to three weeks. The manor was stated to be then worth 
in all issues 26. This was an era of great prosperity. Next, we 
find that in 1312 Hugh, son and heir of Richard de Babington, held 
the manor of Burghley by knight service of the Archbishop of 
York, which answered for the fourth part of a Knight's Fee. In 1326 
Joh. de Calverley did his homage to the Archbishop for the manor 

*' See Whitaker's Loidis and El-mete, p. 374. 



lands and tenements which he held of him in Burley and Menston 
in Wharfedale for half a Knight's Fee, relief, ward, scutage, (a 
pecuniary payment in lieu of military service), and suit of Court at 

Otley. 

Afterwards the manor of Burley came to the Middletons and 
from them was purchased by John Pulleyn, who died in 1644. The 
Pulleyns long resided at the old Hall. They had already resided in 
this part of Yorkshire for several centuries, and their name occurs in 
Fewston parish as early as the Poll Tax of 1379. There are at least 
three distinct branches of the family, doubtless all of one stock, 
namely of Fewston, Killinghall, or Ripley, and Scotton, and from the 
last mentioned descends the Pulleyns of Burley. The celebrated Dr. 
Samuel Pulleyn, first Master of the Leeds Grammar School, and 
afterwards Archbishop of Tuam, was the son of the Rev. William 
Pulleyn, rector of Ripley (1583-1632) by his wife Joan, daughter of 
(ieorge Sheffield, of Bothams in the parish of Fewston. Archbishop 
Pulleyn married a daughter of the Rev. Alex. Cooke, vicar of Leeds, 
whose sister was the wife of Archbishop Bramhall, of Armagh, who, 
by the way, was born at Pontefract in 1593. A cousin of Archbishop 
Bramhall, I may add, was the Rev. George Walker, a native of 
Bingley. Co. York, and senior rector of Donoughmore, Co. Tyrone, 
who was father of the celebrated hero-priest, the Rev. George 
Walker, D.D., govenor of Derry in the famous siege of 1689, "against 
the enemies of William and the Faith," whose great monument, a 
fluted column eighty-one feet high, surmounted by a statue of Walker, 
stands in the centre of the Royal Bastion in the city of Derry.* 

The above John Pulleyn, of Burley, was son of John Pulleyn of 
Scotton, by Mary his wife, daughter of Henry Tempest. Thomas 
Pulleyn, grandson of John, who died in 1644, married Anne, only 
daughter and heiress of John Fairfax of Menston, and their son 
Thomas, who died in 1759, aged 58, was for many years Clerk of 
the Peace for the West Riding.f By his first wife, Frances Hammond, 
he left a daughter, Frances, who married the Rev. Thomas Mosley, 
M.A., rector of Stonegrave, in Ryedale, whose son Thos. Pulleyn 
Mosley, Esq., succeeded to the Burley estates. He led a very 
extravagant life and died at Hartlepool in 1813, leaving three 
daughters, all of whom married.:}: He was interred in Otley church 

* See the author's Nidderdale, p. 216. 
Surtees Soc., vol. 65. 

| The late $jir Thos. Phillips, Bart., <>t Middle Hill, Worcestershire, purchased 
troni the family part of his unrivalled collection of Fairfax MSS. which were sold at 
Sotheby's in June, 1898. The collection included twelve original letters of Cromwell, 
numerous letters of General Lambert, Sir Thos. Fairfax, Col. Fairfax, John Morris 
(Governor of Pontefract), Francis Hacker (the regicide), Col. Mauleverer, the famous 
Col. Paulden, etc., and also the original draft of the conditions of the surrender of 
Pontefract in 1649. .S',v note to vicars of Otley. 



142 

in a leaden coffin, which is reported to have been afterwards 
surreptitiously taken away and the body was shockingly mutilated. 
The marauders were however, traced and sent to York Castle. 

The manor of Burley was sold to Mathew Wilson, Esq., J.P., 
of the Manor House, Otley, who died in 1826. He sold it to his 
kinsman the Rev. Thomas Fourness Wilson, of Burley Hall, who 
died Oct. lyth, 1837, and was uncle to the late Sir Mathew Wilson, 
Bart., M.P., of Eshton Hall, Gargrave. Mr. Wilson was for some 
years incumbent of Silsden, and during his ministry the church at 
Silsden was rebuilt and the tower added in 1816. He resided at 
Burley Hall at this time and used to go on horseback to Silsden 
every Sunday morning, a distance of ten miles, returning in the 
evening. During the latter period of his life he resided at York. 




BURLEY HALL TWO CENTURIES AGO. 



A lease of Burley Hall, which I have seen, is witnessed by two 
servants living in Monkgate in that city. In 1841 the manor was 
next purchased by Thomas Horsfall, Esq., who died in 1861, and it 
is now owned by his daughter, Mrs. Crofton, who resides at the hall. 
Formerly there were a great many small owners in the neighbourhood, 
who lived in their own tenements, with a bit of land attached. These 
have now almost wholly disappeared, the plots having become 
absorbed in the larger ownerships. 

The monks of Kirkstall and the nuns of Esholt had certain 
lands and messuages in Burley*, and to Bolton Priory belonged at 

* Burton's Man. Ebor. pp. 139 and 192, and Thoresby Sor. Pub. vol. i. pp. 4, 5, 8, 
19, etc. 






143 

an early period the whole estate of Scaleberch or Scaleberg, as it is 
differently spelled, doubtless from the original huts or dwellings about 
the burgh above alluded to.* There is a Scaleber not far from the 
Roman camp above Settle. 

The church at Burley was anciently a chapel-of-ease to Otley, 
hut of the precise date <>f its foundation there are no records. With 
strict regard to ancient manorial custom, the original church, hall, 
and mill, lay close beside each other on the south bank of the river. 
Before the Reformation our forefathers used their churches seven 
days in the week, and as candles and torches were then used for 
illumination, these required continually replenishing, and bequests 
by will were frequently made for this purpose. In 1526 one Robert 
Wray, of Burley, left by will one torch to the chapel here, and it 
would also appear at this time that it had a bell-turret but that the 
old bell was out of tune or sorely wanted repairing, and accordingly 
he bequeaths 2od. for "amending the bell." The predecessor of the 
present edifice was a plain structure of stone, with bell-turret at the 
west end, and similar in appearance to the existing old chapel at 
Bramhope, erected a few years later as appears by deeds kept in the 
vestry. The chapel, which had not the right of sepulture, was 
re-erected by virtue of a grant to Lord Fairfax from John Browne, of 
Burley, in 1632, and in the Parliamentary Survey (vol. 18, p. 334) 
the value of the cure is stated to be ^22 per annum. In 1793 it 
was further endowed with ,200 by lot, and again in 1813 with 
^1,200 by lot from the Parliamentary Grant. Also in 1828 with 
200, granted to meet a benefaction from Miss Currer of lands 
worth ^400. -J- The minister's house in 1818 was returned as not 
fit for residence. Like the old parsonage at Leathley it had three 
rooms on the ground-floor, a parlour, kitchen, and another room 
unflagged, but there were two upper chambers whose roofs were open 
to the slates. 

The tithe of Burley was returned in 1838 as worth about 120. 
I have seen a number of deeds c., relating to the chapel, kept in 
the vestry of Otley Church, and amongst them is Valuation of 
Seats in the chapel, and an indenture dated i5th September, 1645, 
whereby Wm. Vavasour bequeaths Bowker's farm of the value of 4 
per annum (never to be raised) to Wm. Maud and Stephen Hartley 
and their heirs, as likewise to the churchwardens and overseers 
within Burley for the time being for the maintenance of a minister 
within that chapel, the inhabitants to add 16 thereto. There is 
also an order of Wm. Settle, dated 1835, he being the only trustee 
under the deed of appointment of an incumbent to the said chapel. 

* For an explanation of the term scale, skal, schal, and sliawl, see the author's 
Richtnondshire, p. 363. 

I So- Archbishop Sharp's .I/.T.S'., v<> i. p. 111. 



1 44 

The original endowment consisted of the garth or ground on which 
the chapel stood, conveyed for the better improvement of the minister's 
salary and maintenance. On the garth, adjoining the chapel, and 
occupying about half of the whole area, was erected a glebe-house, a 
cottage and a barn. When che old chapel was taken down to make 
room for the new church, these buildings were valued at ,64, which 
amount was added to the fund for building the parsonage. The 
whole ground, with a small addition, was then consecrated to be the 
churchyard. The fees were assigned to Otley, reserving half-fees to 
the chaplain of Burley for services performed, and no acknowledg- 
ment or remuneration it seems has ever been made to the living in 
consideration of the land thus permanently alienated from it. 

The chapel was taken down in 1841, and the foundation-stone 
of the existing large and handsome edifice was laid on October igth 
of that year by Jonas Whitaker Esq., of Greenholme, to whom and 
his wife there is a beautiful memorial window in Otley Church. 
Among the donations received towards the erection was one of 20 
from Her Majesty the Queen Dowager, and ^25 from His Grace the 
Archbishop of York. The new building was consecrated, June iQth, 
1843, by Dr. Longley, Bishop of the Diocese and afterwards 
Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1869 a faculty was obtained for the 
enlargement of the chancel, the enfranchisement of all seats, and the 
embellishment of the church. The walls and roof of the interior are 
beautifully decorated in a rich warm tone, and on the walls appear 
life-size figures of the apostles and evangelists. The windows, like 
the rest of the fabric, are Early Pointed in style, being glared with 
ground glass, and some of them are stained. They are memorials to 
Wm. Vavasour, of Stead (pb. 1642), to Wm. Maude, of Burley, (pb. 
1661) and Wm. Jenkinson, bom at Burley, who was an alderman of 
Boston (pb. 1642) ; these were benefactors to the old chapel. Also to 
the later families of Gill and Emsley, and one, beautifully conceived, 
to a son of E. P. Arnold-Forster Esq., who died January 2ist, 1887, 
aged 9 years. There are also neat brasses placed to the memory 
of Thomas Wade, lay-clerk of Burley from 1834 to 1871, and 
Thomas Clark, who died in 1898, and who for forty-one years was 
master of the Greenholme Mills School. Mr. Wade, whose portrait 
hangs in the vestry, was a benefactor to several local charities, and 
was one of the founders of the Parish Church Sunday School. The 
east window is also a beautiful composition of three lights, representing 
scenes in the life of Our Saviour. It is a memorial to Thomas 
Horsfall Esq., lord of the manor of Burley, who died in 1861, and 
who was a most liberal supporter of the church and contributed ^400 
towards the erection of the parsonage. There is also a handsome 
window dedicated to the memory of the Rev. Chas. Ingham Black, D.D., 
the respected pastor of the church for 41 years, who died in 1896, 
aged 74. The Rev. R. P. Stedman, the present vicar,, succeeded him. 



Dr. Black's memory will Ion- be treasured in the parish in 
which he M> long and assiduously laboured. He was born September 
ISt, iS^i, at Klsinore, CO. Sligo, ami was tin- second son of Mr. 
John Black, of Sligo, who was an intimate friend of Lord Palmerston. 
In 1856 the rhapelrv of Hurley was, largely through his efforts, 
erected into a separate parish with Menston. and he became its first 
incumbent. The new church of St. John, at Menston. was built and 




THE REV. DR. BLACK. 



opened in 1858. Many improvements were effected from time to 
time in the church and the parish, and the value of the living was 
greatly augmented. With the exception of two years (1867-8), when 
he did temporary duty as English chaplain at Darmstadt, where, it 
may be added, he was brought into very kindly and intimate relations 
with the late Princess Alice, he was rarely absent from Burley, even 
for a single Sunday. His sermons were always delivered extempore ; 
and, says one who knew him well, " his choice of language was 



i 4 6 

remarkable, and it was noticeable that he would pause for any length 
of time rather than use any but the most exactly appropriate word. 
Those who heard his In Metnoriam address, delivered from the 
chancel-steps on the Sunday morning following the death of his old 
friend and parishioner, the Rt. Hon. W. E. Foster, can never forget 
its rare discrimination and felicity, nor yet the tenderness of manner 
with which it was spoken." Dr. Black was appointed Rural Dean of 
Otley in 1891. He was a student all his life, an excellent theologian 
and classical scholar, and a writer of prose and verse. His Christmas 
carols evince a devotional feeling and melody far above the average, 
while his rendering into Latin verse of the well-known Rock of Ages 
stands before Mr. Gladstone's in Hymns Ancient and Modern. He 
was author of several volumes, amongst which may be mentioned 
Messias and Anti- Messias and The Proslytes of Ishmael. In 1888 he 
published a short historical Memorial of the Chapelry of Burley, which 
shews how active and versatile was his pen. To the last-mentioned 
little work I am indebted for some of the facts communicated in this 
chapter. 

Resuming my account of the church, the vestry is panelled with 
black oak from the Fairfax pew in the old chapel, and bears the 
initials and date, G. F., 1654.* In the vestry are many things of 
interest, including the old oak deed-chests of the chapelry; a 
painting of the old chapel by Miss Black, daughter of the late 
pastor ; a handsome oak chair, designed and carved by Miss Black ; 
a plan of the church and churchyard (the latter consecrated in 
1843), a collection of books and portraits; and a Milner's fire-proof 
safe, the gift of the Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster in 1862. The clock was 
put up at a cost of ^120, and set going by Mrs. Thos. Horsfall on 
December 22nd, 1855.! 

In the entrance to the church is a large oval tablet erected by 
Thomas Maude, the poet, in 1781, to the memory of his ancestors, of 
whom is mentioned William Maude, gent., born A.D. 1588 "in his 
paternal mansion at Burley, where he died in 1661. His pedigree, 
which I owe to the courtesy of a member of the family, is subjoined. 
Burley House (now occupied by Thomas M. Horsfall, Esq.), long 
the home of that worthy lady Mrs. L. Anderton, and Burley Lodge 
(Misses Outhwaite) were built by Thomas Maude, the poet, who died 
in 1798, aged 80. He was the author of Verbeia, or IVharfedale, a 
work of superior merit, as well as of an equally admirable 
composition in verse, with valuable notes, entitled IVensleydale, or 
Rural Contemplations ; the latter was published for the benefit of the 

* Mrs. Francis Fairfax, of Burley, was buried icth June, 1696, and Sir Walter 
Calveley records that he went to the funeral and had a pair of gloves presented to him. 
Surtees Soc. Pub., vol. 77, p. 69. 

f Mr. Fison, of Greenholme, has a clever model of the church executed by a self- 
taught local artist named Albert Walker. 






[H. Speight's I'fiprr 

to tare page i 



Richard Mawde Johanna, dan. and co-heir 
Hurley Manor ; of Walter Graver, of 

Rolls, 15^6-1543 ; Mensington, 

I.aiul in Bui lev m. before 1=511. 

and Mensington : Dods. MSS. 3 io. 145. 
Burlev Manor Rolls, 
1544-1547 



Bryan Mawde, of Steyde, in Hurley, 
Manor Rolls, 1541-1555 

William Mawde (junior), 

Burlev Manor Rolls, 

'545- '555 



Edmund 
bap. Otl< 

28 June, i 
bur. Otl< 

23 April, i 



William M. 

b. 15 May, 

1640 



Maude, dau. of Francis Pulle 
m. Otley, 6 Aug., i 



Edmund M., b. i68i=Priscilla, d. of M Gleadhill 
d. 3 April, 1744 j m. Otley, 30 Sept., 1708 



John Edmund Thomas Maude, b. 8 May,- Cordelia, d. ot M.Webley William M., of=Mary, d. of 



1718, burd. Wenslev 3 Sept. 

1798. Author of I Y/vV/tf and 

other poems. Rebuilt 

Hurley House 



b. 1730, m. St. Bennetts, 

London, 5 Aug., 1746, 

d. 9 Nov., 1802 



Downing Street, 

Westminster, 
b. 1733 



M.Webley, 

at 
Harewood 



Thomas AI., b. in Downing- Street, 1761= Margaret Eleanor, d. of Wm. Jemmett, two 

Colonel 2nd W.Y. Militia ol . \shford, Kent, d. 19 Jan , 1839, at daughters 

d. 4th April, 1809 I.angham, Essex, m. 12 May, 1801 



iam Jemmett M. 
>. 7 May, 1802 



Thomas M., b. 14 Nov., 1803- Sibylla Jane, d. of Wm. Green, of Stan way four other 
Clerk in Holy Orders | Hall, Essex, m. 13 Sept., 1831 children 



Thotna- Emily, Cordelia^ Eredk. Barlow Edmund = Margaretta d. of R. Arthur M. 



I William 

M. 

living in 
N.Z. 

(Sibylla 
Emilv 



d. ot J. 

Brown, 

C'h.Ch. 

N.Z 



d. Jan. 15, 1806 



I lussey 
M. 



Barter, ot St. Anne's 
Hill, Cork 



j sons 

3 daughters 



Mary Cordelia Dorothy Agnes 



Rector of 
Burgh, 
Wood- 
bridge 



Thomas dau. of 
in N.Z. Rev. 
(1899) Day 



Charles 

Edmund 



Cordelia 
Mary 



Eleano 



Arthur Andomar Dorothy 
Henry Ed wan! 



1 

Charles = Florence .< 
Ere wen d. o Rev. ' 
M. A. Orr, 

d, Jan. 
8, 188^ Eli 
Al 



Pedigree of Maude, of Burlcp in Wbarfedale. 



William Mawde (senior)- -Margaret, d. of 



Hurley Manor Rolls, 

1550-1555, land in Burley 

and Mensing-ton 



a freeholder of Burley. 
She is mentioned in the 
will of her son Thomas 



Thomas M., land in Burley = Elizabeth Christopher M. 

and Mensington, will of Burley 
5 May, 1568 



four daughters 



Kdmund M., ot Burley, Agnes, d. 



an infant at father'? 
death, m. at Otley 1587 

d. June, 1624, 

inq. p.m. Miscel. Ch. 

22 Jas. i. p. n. No.^82 



and co-heir 

of Stephen 

Hudson, 

of Stead 



William M. = Maria, d. of Henry Watkinson, 



b. at Burley, 1588 

d. 30 June, 1661 

burd. Otley, 

2 July, 1661 

will 9 March, 1661 



of Ilkley. She was a legatee 

under will of Thomas Mawde, 

of Holling Hall, Ilkley, 

dated 3 Feb., 1602 

m. at Ilkley, 10 Oct., 1609 

d. 2 Oct., 1654 



tf.=Martha, d. of Abraham 
Bynns, J.P., of 
Rishworth Hall; 
m. Bingley, 5 Feb., 1638 



John M., bap. 7 Sept., 1620, d. 7 March, 1657 Sarah, m - 



Officer in Cromwell's Army, Marston Moor. 

Legatee under will of his godfather, Wm. 

Vavasour, 3 Sept., 1642 



19 May, 
1644 



Elizabeth - 
d. of John 
Ampleford 
of Boston 



Ma 
b. \ 
162- 
Ot 
De< 



11, of Burley John M. Mrs. Margaret Rhodes, of Menston, four other 



72 buried Otley, 
25 July, 16X7 


m. Otley, n Dec., 1678, 


d. 1687 


children 


William M.=Mary, dau. 
of Otley | of 


of James Wiggins, 
Tadcaster 


1 
two 
daughters 



William M., of Otley Grace, dau. of Edward four other 



b. 30 July, 1715, 
buried Otley 



Heelis, of Skibden, 
m. 30 Dec., 1744 



children 



Edmund M., of Leeds=Mary, dau. of John Milthorpe seven other 
b. 8 Feb., 1749 of Pool, Yorks., children 

d. 12 June, 1829 m. 25 April, 1776, d. 1786 



William Milthorpe M., of Knowsthorpe House, Leeds, J.P., I). L. Sarah Maria, dau. of Jo 



b. 26th June, 1777, d. 29 March, 1863 



Both buried 



b. 1 6 May, 1782, m. 
at Roundhay 



ucia Elizabeth Maude M. Eliza, Maria, dau. of -Edward James M. Georgiana 



. an b. 15 Nov. 1810, d. at John Collis, d. July, 
ifant Knowsthorpe House, 1843, m. Nov., 18-58 
3 Dec., 1886 



of the Old Hall, 
Knowsthorpc, 

b. 15 Jul}', 1814, 
d. 16 Sept., 1805 



Catherine 

dau. of F. 

Natusch, 

Esq. 



Arthur M., of ROM- > 
Hill, Rotherham, 
J.P., b. is July, 

1815, 
d. 10 June, 1860 



zabeth Collis M. 

,'mer William M. Ella Sophia, Frederick Natusch M. = Mary Emily, Kate M. Ethel, wife of 

aoth d. infants wife of Colonel Lt. -Colonel R.E., dau. of F. H. E. F. H. 

Karl Limberger, b. 12 Nov. 1854 Boott, Esq., Parkinson, Esq. 

German Army, m. it Aug-., of Ilkley, 

d. 27 Dec., 1879 1875 d. May 24, 1891 



William Cas 

of Lincoln' 

Barrister-al 

and Brackei 

Bournerm 

b. 1 1 Dec. 



Aylmer Ar 
Joseph Prob 
b 27 March 




IKMS An;, a Hint rampant, 
r all ttin-c bars, ffemels, 



M. Jane, dau. of nine other 
m., Samuel children 

I'd. Hawkesworth 
24 ot 

t>8<) Hawkesworth 

A I/HO John Maude, of Fill ford Grange, York, father of Sarah Maria, wife of 
William Milthorpe Maude, of Knowsthorpe. 
Of this branch of the family also were 

(1) John Gcrvaise Maude, who married Harriet, d. of George Hartwell, of 
I.aleham, from whom were descended Mariann,-. Lucia, wife of General 
Win. Pattle, i yth Lancers, and Frederick Philip Maude, of the Inner 
Temple, Harrister-at-Law, joint author of Maude and Pollock's Law of 
Merchant Sliippiiiff. 

(2) Rear-Admiral William Maude, d 18 May, 184;,. 

(3) Post-Captain John Maude, whose son William Henry, called alter his 
godfather, the Duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV., d. 4 Sept., 
1800. 

(4) Captain William George Maude, R.N., of Holgate, York. 



Maude, Fulford Grange, York 
Jnne, 1806, d. 7 Aii}^., 1848 



.ha Matilda, ilau. ot Frederick 
issell, l-".--(|., of (irang'e Frin, 
Hildas, C'ork, b. 3 July, 1822, 
t Snaith, Yorks. , 25 J ; m., 18^ 
Q()ct., 1899, at Brackenwood, 

Bournemouth 
M., Sophia Dora, ^ 



n, 



dan. of Major J. 
W. (',. Spicer, 
of Spye Park, 
Chippenham, 

m. 16 April, 1890 



James M., Margaret, dau. of 





b. i s Nov., 


Rev. 1 1. Nicholson 


ck 


"784. 

d. _'T Nov., 
1852 


Rector of Adel 
m. 12 Aug., 1812, 
d. 25 April, 1818 


Edmund M., 


Pho?be, dau. of threeother 


2, of Middleton 


Francis children 


, Lodge, 
Beeston, 


Hulmer, Esq., 
of York, 


b. is Nov. i8K> 
d. 10 Oct. 1848 


m. Sept., 


1843 



six other 
children 



William 



James F.dnumd M. Annie Louisa, 
dau. of Rev. 
H. Gosse 



Fanny 

Elizabeth Henry M., of Moor Allerton, 
50 m. io April, 1890 of Middle ton b. 1847 

Lodge, 

Hertha Etheldreda Mary Beeston, J. P., Klsie Bertha 

d. b. 29 Oct., 1894 b. 14 Feb., b. Nov., 1886 

92 1846 



Charles =Geraldine, 



Bulmer M. 

Arch- 
deacon of 
Salop, b. 
29 April, 
1848 



dau. of 
Alexander 
Donovan, 

Esq., 

m. Dec., 

1876 



147 

Leeds Infirmary. He was for some time in the service of Lord 
Bolton, and resided at Bolton Hall in \\Vnslcydale, but the latter 
part of his life was passed at Hurley House, where it is said he died. 
I am privileged to present his portrait, admirably reproduced from a 
scarce miniature in colours. In the original the coat is blue and the 
waistcoat white with blue spots. I am sensible of the value of this 
portrait of an old Yorkshire worthy, as it is, I believe, reproduced 
from the only original known. Likewise in the larger edition is a full- 
page reproduction of a scarce old engraving of the house in 1770.* 




THOMAS MAUDE, THE POET. 

There are a number of substantial and beautiful residences in and 
about Burley, including Greenholme, the old home of the Whitakers, 
and for many years up to the time of his death of the before mentioned 

* According to a MS. in the Hailstone Collection, Burley House was built in 1783 
" upon the foundation of an old and respectable mansion which had stood 150 years." 
This would bring the date of erection of this homestead to 1633, whereas the 
drawing which was taken in 1770, or before the present house was built, shews it to 
have been in a style prevailing nearer the time of 1733 than 1633. The rooms of the 
later house, it is interesting to note, at this time were all papered and hung throughout 
with hells. In 1788 it was advertised to be let for a term of year^. 



148 

Wm. Fison, Esq., J.P., whose only son Fred. W. Fison, Esq., is 
at present the energetic M.P. for the Doncaster Division. The 
old house stands charmingly amidst sylvan surroundings down by 
the river, whose soothing murmurs are heard through the open" 
windows, mingling with the constant cawing of rooks, while the 
songs of birds and the notes of the cuckoo in Spring time are familiar 
and pleasant sounds. Hereabouts in the early part of the century 
were reared those magnificent short-horn cattle (see page 82) which 
were accounted the best breed of the kind in the north of England. 
Hard by in an equally delightful parterre, stands Wharfeside, late the 
J.M, Residence of that sturdy and able politician the Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, 

^vho died in 1886, and whose widow, Mrs. Forster, only daughter. of 
Dr. Arnold, of Rugby, of blessed memory, occupied the mansion up 
>JL/ to her death on October 2ist 1899. A little further away is Walton 
1 House, the seat of Captain Benson. Burley Grange (Mrs. Hodson), 
is in the town, and is a handsome mansion built about fifty years ago 
by J. Peele Clapham Esq., who had previously lived at Burley Hall. 
Burley Lawn is the residence of Mrs. Mumford. Cathedine, near the 
station, is a handsome modern residence, the seat of E, P. Arnold- 
Forster Esq., J.P., a son by adoption of the late Rt. Hon. W.E. Forster. 
He has recently succeeded to the chairmanship of the Otley Bench 
of Magistrates, vacant by the death of Mr. Ayscough Fawkes. 

There are also some notable old houses in and about the Main 
Street. The jojdest bearing a date stands opposite the Wesleyan 
Chapel, and is inscribed over the door M.S., 1613, A.S., and on the 
east side is a flat-headed doorway inscribed A.D. 1647. In this house 
was an old oak-panelled room, and there was a fine carved chimney- 
piece, which a year or two ago was removed to Greenholme. Further 
down the street is a picturesque Stuart house with characteristic 
splayed mullioned windows and continued string-course, now occupied 
by Dr. Hebblethwaite, in front of which is a sundjal inscribed _I.M_. 

^1685. Formerly there were some ancient thatched houses, single- 
deckers, built of cobbles from the river, which were removed a few years 
ago for street improvements. They were chiefly located at the top of 
Peel Street and in Back Lane, at the north end of Moor View. One 
of these, shewn on the accompanying engraving, stood on the site of 
Pickles' newsagent's shop. There are some good large inns in the 
Main Street, lately rebuilt or improved, including the Malt_hgUl , 
(near the church) and Queen's Head, and Red Lion higher up, on the 
road to Ilkley. It was under a large tre"e opposite the Malt Shovel 
that the now obsolete custom of serving the Burley Great Pudding 
took place. It was made every seven years and usually consisted of 
about thirty stones of flour and a similar quantity of other ingredients. 
A similar custom prevailed at Paignton in Devonshire, where a 
monster plum-pudding has been made at irregular intervals since 
1817, after the treaty of peace was signed in the year following 



149 

the great bread riots. The largest, made in 1859, weighed little 
short of a ton. 

Burley Hall, already mentioned, is the old manor house and 
former residence of the Pulleyns. Thomas Pulleyn, as stated, died 
at Hurley in 1759, (see page 66), and his widow Mrs. Mary Pulleyn 
died at the Hall in 1786, aged 82. She was great-granddaughter to 
Dr. Sterne, Archbishop of York, (ob. 1683) her father being Richard 
Sterne Esq., of Woodhouse in the parish of Halifax. Mrs. Pulleyn 
was also sister to the wife of Jeremiah Rawson Esq., lord of the manor 
of Bradford. The hall was almost wholly consumed by fire, through 
the carelessness of servants, in December, 1822, and was rebuilt by 




OLD THATCHED HOUSES, BURLEY. 

the Rev. T. F. Wilson, lord of the manor, who died in 1837. The 
view on page 142 of the previous Hall is produced from VVarburton's 
pencil sketch made in 1718 and now in the British Museum. In the 
distance are the picturesque heights of the Chevin, with a well-wooded 
foreground. The gardens contain some choice shrubs and trees, 
including a tulip-tree about fifty feet high. In the hall window is a 
coat of arms, dated 1725. 

The house in 1834, was next leased and occupied by John Peel 
Clapham Esq., J.P., a member of the ancient family of Clapham, and 
a. branch of the Claphams of Beamsley, whose lineage is set forth in 



Glover's Visitation of Yorkshire, A.D. 1584-5. Mr. Clapham, who was 
born in 1801, was a lineal descendant of Francis Clapham, who 
married in 1670, Ann, daughter of Byran Longfellow, of East 
Morton.* He was treasurer of seventeen County Courts in Yorkshire, 
and was a member of the Congregational body, and largely through 
his influence the church, school, and manse at Burley were erected, 
he giving the site, including the burial-ground. He also laid the 




JOHN P. CLAPHAM, ESQ., J.P. 

foundation-stone of the church in October, 1839. He was a gentleman 
of considerable literary attainments, being editor of the well-known 
Leeds Sunday School Hymn Book, and author of various hymns and 
poems, f From Burley Hall he removed to Burley Grange (which, as 
stated, he built), and afterwards to- Leeds, but returning to Wharfedale 
his last days were spent at his residence, Brookside, Ilkley, where he 



See the author's Old Bingley, p. 331. f See Andrews' Modern Yorkshire Poets. 



died in the ;5th year of his age. The following simple but effective 
lines from his pen seem to breathe of an affectionate attachment to 
the rural quietude of Wharfedale. 

MY HOMK. 

A MIDNIGHT THOUGH 1. 
Tell me, little twinkling star, 
Riding thy resplendent car, 
Do thy pale beams reach as far 

As my Home? 

Are thy rays with others blending, 
Not to Scotia only tending 
But in England, now descending 

On my Home? 
Yes ! and I behold in thee 
A golden link connecting me 
With a spot I long to see 

For 'tis Home! 

And thou nightly-playing breeze 
Soft and louder by degrees, 
Hast thou ever swept the trees 

Near my Home? 
Rustling through the poplars tall, 
Whistling on the pear-tree wall, 
As the loose leaves gently fall 

Round my Home. 
If thou hast, then welcome here. 
Shake my casement, never fear, 
For with keen delight I hear 

Aught from Home! 

One of Mr. Clapham's daughters is the wife of Frederick Wedmore 
Esq., the distinguished author and art critic, whose recent volume, 
the joint production of himself and daughter, Miss Milicent Wedmore, 
entitled Pi/ems of the Live and Pnde of England, is indeed a book to 
be prized. His second son, Mr. John Arthur Clapham, who was born 
at Barley Hall in 1835 was for many years corresponding secretary 
of the Bradford Historical and Antiquarian Society, and who at the 
present time occupies the position of president of that Society. The 
Hall was afterwards occupied by Thomas Horsfall, Esq., lord of the 
manor of Burley, and brother of the late Timothy Horsfall Esq., of 
Hawksworth Hall, who was born at Goit Stock, near Bingley,* and 
at the time of his death was senior magistrate on the Otley Bench. 
Mr. Thomas Horsfall died and was buried at Burley Church in 1861, 
and his daughter, Mrs. Crofton, a widow lady, now resides at the 
hall with her married daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Yorke. 
One noteworthy object in the Main Street is the very handsome 
Celtic cross, erected at a cost of about .250, by subscriptions 
limited in amount and restricted to past and present residents of 

.S'iv the author'-; Old Ii inkier, p. 384, etc. 



'52 

Burley, as a memorial to the late Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. The 
monument stands fittingly in front of the Lecture Hall that the firm 
of which Mr. Forster was a partner, erected some years ago for the 
use of the people of Burley. It is a splendid and imposing piece of 
sculpture fifteen feet in height, and is a facsimile of the ancient and 
celebrated Columba's Cross on the island of lona. It stands upon a 
platform of three spreading steps, and upon its base is the following 
brief inscription: 

To the honoured memory of 

\V. E. FORSTER, 

Horn 1818. Died 1886. 
This cross is raised by his fellow villagers. 

The cross was unveiled in June, 1892, in the presence of a large 
gathering by the Rt. Hon. A. J. Mundella, M.P., one of Mr. Forster's 
most intimate co-workers in the cause of education. 

The Greenholme worsted mills with which Mr. Forster's name is 
associated, I have already mentioned as models of cleanliness and 
good order. They stand some little distance outside the town and 
are separated from it by acres of the greenest of pastures. Tall 
trees raise their stately proportions above the steep banks of the 
Wharfe and partly overshadow the airiest and cleanest of mill-yards, 
while the cawing of rooks and the ceaseless flow of the river below, 
combined with the general aspects of quietude and rusticity, make it 
hard to believe that as you stand here on a working-day within these 
massive white stone walls some 700 to 800 workpeople are busily 
employed. The mill, as I have said, was originally a cotton factory 
and sixty years ago was run by Messrs. Greenwood and Whitaker. 
Mr. Jones Whitaker, who died in 1850, and was a noted short-horn 
breeder, (see page Si) retired from the business about 1849, an( ^ 
it was then that the property came into the market. Mr. Wm. Fison, 
who had married a daughter of Mr. Whitaker, then purchased the 
property in conjunction with Mr. W. E. Forster, who had up to that 
time been in partnership in the wool business in Bradford with Mr. 
Wm. Fison's elder brother ; the Fison's, I may add, being originally 
tenant farmers in Suffolk. How they obtained the Burley property 
and how the late Sir Titus Salt missed it and came to build Saltaire, 
is quite a romantic episode in commercial history, and is best related 
in Mr. Fison's own words, which I take the liberty of quoting from 
the Yorkshire Post of some years back: 

We applied to the solicitor to the estate, and received a letter stating that the 
property was on offer to the late Sir Titus Salt, who had not then founded his great 
works at Saltaire and received his title. The solicitor said that he could not negotiate 
until after one o'clock in the day, and that if the estate were not then sold he would be 
prepared to negotiate. We went at one o'clock, Forster and I, and the estate was not 
sold. We accordingly made an offer. It was not accepted, but ultimately we came to 
terms, signed the agreement for the purchase, and were just leaving the solicitor's 
office when who should we meet but Mr. Titus Salt coming up the stairs prepared to 
increase his offer and buy the property. Vexed enough he was, too, at his being too 



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'53 

laic. Had lie kept the appointment before one o'clock Saltairc works would have been 
here instead of where they are. That is how we bought Greenholme. Some may say 
it would have been better lor Hurley had Mr. Salt and not ourselves been the purchaser-, 
lie that as it may. I think every one will agree that the beauties of the Wharfe and 
the purity of its stream have not suffered at our hands. 

The old mill premises were then pulled down and the present 
ctunmodious buildings erected in their place in 1850. The business 
prospered, and while it did so neither Mr. Fison nor Mr. Forster 
neglected any opportunity of promoting their workpeoples welfare. 
They founded the old mill-school, the first of its kind in England, 
and for upwards of forty years the Greenholme firm, latterly in 
conjunction with the late Mrs. Forster and Mr. Fison, bore the whole 
cost of its maintenance. The firm was, it is believed, the first to 
start a dining-room for the hands, and they were also the first to give 
workpeople a holiday outing. This was in September, 1849, an d the 
idea at that time being a novel one, and greatly appreciated by 
those who took part in it, an address conveying their thanks was 
spontaneously got up by the workpeople and presented to the firm. 
This interesting souvenir now hangs in the library at Greenholme, 
and is worth quoting now that the importance of reasonable 
recreation has come to be so fully recognised. The address reads : 

To MESSRS. WM. FISON & Co. 

Gentlemen, We, the undersigned in your employ, desire to express our sincere 
and heartfelt thanks for the very great kindness shown by you to us in our Saturday's 
excursion. We beg to assure you that but one feeling pervades every bosom, and that 
is satisfaction. The comfort of the arrangements, the diversity of the entertainments, 
and the liberality and condescension of our hosts, shall ever be remembered by us with 
lively feeling's of gratitude and thankfulness. 

We hope that this party, combined with other arrangements which you are so 
nobly and generously making for our comfort, may all tend to stir us up to renewed 
diligence, and conduce to the general welfare of all. 

We are, gentlemen, with every feeling of respect and thanks, 

Yot'R GRATEFUL WORKPEOPLE. 
Bradford, September 3rd, 1849. 

Such are among the beneficial actions of the modern founders 
of Burley in the town of their adoption, whilst the latest gracious 
act the gift by Mr. Wm. Fison, J.P., of a recreation ground for the 
free use and enjoyment of the people of Burley for ever not only 
commemorates, as the generous donor intended it, the 6oth year of 
Her Majesty's glorious reign, but also the half-century of prosperity 
that has been attained since Mr. Fison first settled at Burley. The 
ground, which occupies a pleasant level site between the town and 
the Wharfe, and will henceforth be known as " Fison Park," was 
formally opened on Saturday, June 23rd, 1899, when the donor's 
able and indefatigable son, Mr. Frederick W. Fison, M.P., handed 
over the deed of gift to the chairman of the District Council (Mr. 
Edward Willis, J.P.), accompanied by a key in case, suitably 
inscribed, the gift of Mr. E. P. Arnold-Forster. Mr. Fison, M.P., in 
the course of an interesting address feelingly referred to his old 



154 

schoolmaster at Burley, the late Mr. Thomas Clark, who was master 
of the Greenholme School from 1856 to 1897. On the south side of 
the new park a fountain has been erected as a memorial to Mr. 
Clark, which has been subscribed for by 600 inhabitants of Burley, 
and handed over to the District Council, who will keep it in repair 
and supply it with water. 

From all this it will be apparent that the most amicable relations 
subsisted, and continue to subsist, between the Greenholme 
employers and their workpeople, and it is gratifying to record that 
never since the firm was established has a strike or serious dispute 
arisen between them. Mr. Fison himself has been a pattern 
employer. Unambitious of great wealth or of living on a large 
estate, he has modestly dwelt "amongst his people," and in the old 
house by the mill, has passed the greater part of his useful life. He 
has been identified with every philanthrophic and charitable movement 
in the town and district ; indeed, " charity " and welfare of others 
would seem to have been the guiding principle of his life. He has 
been connected with many institutions, and as long ago as 1845 he 
was associated with the old Ilkley Bath Charity, and was a member 
of the first building committee of the Home in 1859, and he has 
watched its interests as treasurer continuously since 1872. In 
educational matters he has been none the less active.* 

Mr. Forster likewise took great interest in the old mill-school 
at Burley, and it was no doubt here that this most eminent and 
progressive public servant which Wharfedale has given to the 
country, laid his grand scheme of national education. The present 
Marquis of Ripon, when Lord Goderich, was a frequent visitor at 
Wharfeside, and was not less interested than Mr. Forster in the 
successful work that was being carried on at the school at Burley. 
Mr. Fison tells a rather good story of one of his lordship's visits to 
Wharfeside. It seems his lordship was fond of a bottle of good port. 
There had been a sale of wine at a Mr. Gill's in Burley, and Mr. 
Forster bought a small stock of valuable 1820 port. Mr. Fison 
happened to be dining with Lord Goderich and himself, and Mr. 
Forster asked his attendant to bring up a bottle of Gill's port. The 
butler, looking very much astonished at the request, replied, "Please 
sir, you told me to send some wine to the Rifle's Corps' supper. I 
thought Gill's bottles seemed very old and dirty and not much 
worth, so I sent them all there!" Mr. Forster, of course, looked 
much vexed, but the company laughed. Thus the prime old port 
which they should have had was entirely consumed by the volunteers, 

* Since the above humble tribute was written a year agx>, Mr. Fison has been called 
to his rest. He died on the present writer's birthday, April 6th, 1900, aged 80, and was 
interred at Otley Cemetery. His useful and busy life has ended full of years and 
honour and his memory will ever be cherished with gratitude. 



and some of them were as they say in Yorkshire, "fair capt" (and 
well they might be) with the quality of the liquor and remember it to 
this day. 

Of Mr. Forster's life and work it is unnecessary to write here, 
it has been ably dealt with by man) pens. I may however mention, 
what I shall not soon forget, being present at the impressive 
ceremony of the great statesman's burial in the quiet Wharfedale 
cemetery in the spring of 1886. He died on April 5th and after a 
funeral service in Westminster Abbey, was interred at Burley on the 
Saturday following. Hundreds, if not thousands of respectful 
mourners, very many of whom were attired in black, gathered on 
that occasion about the old Wharfedale town, which Mr. Forster had 
loved and cared for through the best part of his days. At the grave- 
side were Mrs. Forster and many connections of the family, 
prominent amongst whom was the tall and striking figure of Mr. 
Matthew Arnold. The spot where the distinguished statesman lies 
commands a lovely view of the valley, of whose charms and rustic 
simplicity none had a greater appreciation, stern politician though he 
was, than Mr. Forster himself. 

It is the kind of wide and healthful scenery to foster the genius 
of a great poet, if scenery of this description can be said to exercise 
such an influence, as it seems to have done in Wordsworth's case.* 
At any rate Burley has in the present generation produced a poet of 
whom Wharfedale, and even England, may justly be proud, for in 
William Watson, who was born at Burley, we have a writer who has 
proved himself to be not only a deep lover of natural scenery, but a 
fervent patriot, and a singer who, I might say, in his own words 

Gathers fruit from every tree, 
Yea, grapes from thorns and fig's from thistle- he 
Pluck'd by his hand, the basest weed that grows 
Towers to a lily, reddens to a rose. 

Mr. Watson though he has written little, has done that little 
exceedingly well. He has pre-eminently the making of a great poet 
in him, and it is to be hoped that since the Civil List pension of 
;ioo a year has been conferred upon him, his sensitive mind will 
not be harassed by the bare necessities of existence, and that his 
true poetic bent and ripe scholarship may prove of real benefit to 
English letters. 



* Also in the case of J. M. W. Turner, whose views of art were, it is said, broadened 
and inspirited by the grand open sweeps of Wharfedale scenery. Mr. Ruskin was also 
equally charmed with the scenery, and paid several visits to Wharfedale, which 
impressed him much. In 1851 he was at Farnley with his wife, and again in 1884. 
Some delightful reminiscences of these two visits to Farnley from the pen of Mrs. 
Aysrough Kawkes appear in the April number for 1900 of the N'meteenth Century. 



CHAPTER X. 




ON THE EDGE OF THE MOOR. 

Burley Wood Head The Rumbalds Moor hermit Ancient stone circles The old 
hamlet of Stead The Stead family Remarkable instance of continuous residence 
in one spot Stead Hall The Twistleton family Picturesque aspects Probable 
site of Roman camp Prehistoric remains Old local families A moorland walk 
Hawksworth Hall and the Hawksworths Old Menston families Menston Old 
Hall The asylum. 

ET us now climb to the breezy heights of Burley Wood 
Head, with the spreading moors around, and here I 
shall have to allude to a character of a very different 
type to those lately mentioned. Everyone surely in 
the West Riding of Yorkshire, at any rate, has heard 
of old Job Senior, the Rumbalds Moor hermit, whose bent, uncouth 
figure, seeming half animal, half human, was such a familiar object 
to a former generation of residents about Burley, Ilkley, Steeton, 
Bingley, Keighley, and Otley. Old Job's " mansion " was near the 
Coldstone Beck on Burley Moor, and to this spot on holidays crowds 
of people used to be attracted for the purpose of getting a glimpse 
of the strange being or of hearing him render his stentorian " blast." 
The late Mr. Henry Whitaker, son of Mr. Jonas Whitaker, of 
Greenholme, knew the old hermit well, and had several times 
photographed him. I will give his description of him in his own 
words : 

At the top of the Moor Lane at Burley Wood Head you turn to the right and 
follow on the higher Ilkley road, passing over the bridge which crosses the 
Coldstone Beck. Here there is a steep ascent which winds around the upper side of a 
rounded hill, and on arriving 1 on the top of this path, the habitation of "Old Job Senior, 
the Wharfedale hermit," could be seen. It stood on a triangular plot of ground, which 
he had apparently grabbed from what belonged to the lord of the manor, for he had 
built a wall at the bottom of a field and enclosed the small triangle adjoining Coldstone 
Beck, the upper end (where his hut or dwelling was placed) abutting on the Ilkley road. 
On this plot of ground he used to plant potatoes, and he had a primitive gate or latched 
door which led into his sanctuary. At one corner he had placed some rough hewn 
large stones, which had been set almost upright, and these were crossed at the top by 
another rough unhewn stone which was obliquely placed and formed the top of the 
opening to the entrance of his home. He had slated it with irregular and undressed 
slates, and he had dug sods of benty sward and peat, and had left the heather still 
growing on the latter. These were placed on the roof, which sloped at a certain angle, 
so that the rain water ran from it, and he appeared to be comparatively dry as he laid 
with his legs bent at the entrance to his primitive domicile. Here he used to hold high 
court, but the grand levee used to take place on Sundays, when numbers of persons 
from Bradford and Leeds used to assemble in front of his hut, whilst he gave them what 
he termed his "Blast," which was a composition of his own, to represent sweet melody, 
but rather to gratify the delusion of those who were willing to be deluded by a 



'57 

designing old man, who tbund that his varied loud chant brought him a large store of 
copper-- as h<- lay singing on his bed of dried brackens and heather. When he made 
his ablutions I never heard, but there was plenty ot pure water in Coldstone Heck close 
to where he was living. lie had threat compass ot voice, and his lowest notes were most 
powerful. They sounded like the muftled tones ot a maddened bull when he is 
bellowing in a rage; and then he used to modulate the tones until they became a loud 
-lean and ended in a shriek as he gave his hearer-, the different variations ot his own 
sung, which he called " ("wedding Anthem i' twu voices." 

Often when we have been going up to Ilkley Moors to shoot moor-game at break 
ol day we have stopped to listen to old Job, who had then no audience but was generally 
singing the looth Psalm, and it was beautifully sung, his loud voice echoing amongst the 
rocks above, and sounding far down into the valley. Let us hope that this was genuine 
and sincere praise by the old man, for then he had no interested persons about him and 
must have been imbued with some sense of reverential feeling. 

A very fair representation of Old Job is to be seen on the 
sign-board of the Hermit Inn at Burley Wood Head. He died in 
1857, aged 77, and his burial in the churchyard at Burley was 
witnessed by crowds of interested onlookers. Such like eccentrics 
are now of the past, and are not likely to be seen again. 

On Burley Moor is a rude stone circle consisting of twelve 
upright blocks, and on Hawksworth Moor is a circle of about twenty 
stones, which is figured and described in my "Old Bingley." They 
have been ancient British sepulchral enclosures, commonly called 
Druids' Circles. 

On the edge of the moor and forming part of the township 
of Burley is the retired and picturesque hamlet of Stead, a very old 
settlement of some note, which had until lately a hall or manor- 
house, and where traces of ancient ploughing in the once unenclosed 
field are still apparent. The corn-lands of Stead (where now all is 
grass and moor) are mentioned five and a half centuries ago. 
Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Paytfin of Headingley, who was a 
daughter of Sir John Calverley, gave by her last will to Esholt 
Nurmery, of which her sister Isabel was made prioress in 1353, all 
her corn in Burley and in Le Stede.* 

The locality is called from the A-Saxon stade, an inhabited 
place, a town, and gave name to a family of considerable standing, 
who lived here for many centuries. Though never lords of the 
manor they were for a long period the largest landholders in the 
township of Burley. In the Poll Tax for A.D. 1379 Peter de Stede, 
franklan, heads the list of tax-payers in Burley, being rated at 35. 4d., 
while the remaining tax-payers are assessed at 4d. each. Robert 
de Stede, probably a son of Peter, pays 4d. In A.D. 1500 John 
Vavasour, Esq., of Newton, held lands &c. in Burley, and two 
messuages with nine bovates of land in Stead. At the same time 
William Calverley, afterwards Sir William, held nine bovates of land 
in Stead, as of his manor of Burley. The Calverleys had owned 
the whole manor of Burley, as we have seen, already two centuries. 

* See Burton's Man. Ebor. p. 139. 



158 

Sir William's daughter, Agnes, was second wife of John Vavasour, of 
Weston, who was living in 1505. In 1546 Henry VIII. granted the 
manor of Stead, then held by Sir William Calverley, to William 
Ramsden and Richard Vavasour, and the heirs of the said William 
for ever. The Vavasours resided at Stead Hall. Sir Wm. Calverley's 
first wife was a Middleton, of Stockeld, and subsequently we find the 
manor of Burley held by this family. 

The Steads however, were still the principal landholders in 
Burley at this time. In 1523 John Steyd, or Stead, of Burley, was 
collector of taxes for Skyrack, and himself was rated for lands in 
Burley, 2S., while Wm. Steyd, of Burley, paid 2s. 4d. Also Robert, 
son of Sir Wm. Calverley, was rated at i2d. for his lands within the 
same township. From papers in the vestry of Otley church I gather 
that William Vavasour, of Stead Hall, (will dated 1642) left Mary 
Pulleyn his sole heir, his aunt Agnes having married John Pulleyn 
of Killinghall*; and she, the said Mary, by indenture dated 1645, 
left a rent charge of ^10 per annum to the church at Otley, paid 
out of a farm at Stead, f which in 1748 belonged to Mr. Stansfield, of 
Bradford, and was then in the occupation of Wm. Windsor. At this 
time the Pulleyns owned the manor of Burley, as observed a few 
pages back. 

The Steads, most probably from the Conquest, continued to 
reside at Stead until the middle of the present century, an almost 
unexampled instance of " steady " (vide Bardsley on Surnames) and 
unbroken residence of one family in so small a place. Maude, the 
poet (1782) mentions an aged couple, Michael and Mary Stead, who 
were born, bred, and died in this village, after 60 years of married 
life. The man, who had never been ten miles from home, died in 
1764, aged upwards of one hundred, and his equally home-fond 
spouse died in 1762, aged 98. Dr. Shaw adds that. Stead Hall once 
belonged to the Steads, and that they sold it to the Pulleyns, but see 
above. 

The old hall was pulled down some years ago, and there are 
now only two or three dwellings. The hall farm, with an old orchard 
attached, is at present occupied by Mr. Tom Twisleton, the well-known 
Craven dialect-poet. He removed here with his wife about three 
years ago, having been previously ten years at Esholt and seven 
years at picturesque Burnsall, higher up Wharfedale. " Lang Tom 
fra' Winskill," as he generally signed himself (being what is known 
as a strapping well-built fellow), was bred and born among the crags 
of Craven, and his volume of Splinters struck off 'Winskill Jtock, first 
published in 1867, has run through several editions. His ancestors 
have lived in the Craven dales from time immemorial, and at least 

* See the author's Nidderdale, p. 319 etc. 

f A copy of the will of Mary Pulleyn, of Stead, dated 1656, is at Otley Church. 



one of the family carried bow and battle-axe after the Shepherd 
Lord Clifford to the decisive battle of Flodden. No doubt they took 
their name from Twisleton, a manor within the parish of Ingleton. A 
John de Twisleton appears as the owner of a mill at Twisleton in 1300. 
Tom's father, Francis Twisleton, was a very small twin-child, 
remembered about Settle as one of the tiniest babies ever seen. The 
wise folk of Winskill said he must have been sent by the fairies. 
But the bracing air of crag-land soon set him " on his pins," and he 
began to grow. In the prime of life he scaled twenty-four stones, 
and stood 6 feet 2^2 inches in his stockings, being commonly known 
as the Craven giant. His son, the poet, married a Morphet, of 
Kirkby Lonsdale, by whom he has had a family of rive sons and 
three daughters. The rustic abode he now inhabits seems full of the 
poetry of ages, built of the rough moor grit, dark and weathered, 
and looking afar down the valley upon a scene that one might 
suppose would send even ordinary mortals into poetic rhapsodies. 
When I called a year or two ago wild flowers were just beginning to 
bloom in the lanes and hedge-rows, and all in good time there were 
on the window-sill of the clean and tidy kitchen where I sat two or 
three pots brimming with wild star-anemones, primroses, and golden 
celandines, the latter being Wordsworth's floral favourite. As I sat 
near the open door I could hear the cry of moorland peewits, and 
then all at once the blithesome sound of " cuckoo " came dreamily 
and pleasantly from the same distant fringe of moorland; the same 
sweet twin-notes familiar to us each recurring spring as no doubt they 
were ages ago to the sturdy legions from ancient Rome, who passed 
close by here on their way to the capital station at Ilkley. 

About the Lower Stead farm the ground stands out and raised 
in camp-like fashion, but without any definite demarcation, and 
commands a wide and enchanting view of the valley southwards. 
It is just the place to expect to rind a "burgh," or "stead" (such as 
that at Bramhope) lying as it does under the edge of Rumbalds Moor, 
and close to the Roman way above alluded to. Very probably the 
present road at Burley Wood Head is laid on the line of this old 
Roman thoroughfare, as it is scarcely likely that the road after going 
over the summit of the Chevin would descend into the valley anywhere 
near the present town of Burley. The direction of the road on the 
Chevin points indeed over high ground to the north of Menston and 
along Burley Wood Head by Stead to Ilkley. But no evidences of 
its presence in this immediate locality have been discovered within 
living memory that I can find. A valuable and most interesting 
tore or necklace of gold was, however, found in close proximity to 
this road between the Chevin and Adel in the early part of this 
century. But what has become of it I do not know. A similar 
kind of tore was found on Rawdon Billing. There are some 
prehistoric enclosures and a barrow or two on the moor above Stead. 



i6o 

Adjoining Lower Stead farm is the large and handsome modern 
mansion of Moorville (Peter Garnett, Esq.,) and to the east is Colston, 
the seat of H. Rouse, Esq., the present owner of the Stead estate. 

From Burley Wood Head it is a pleasant walk eastwards to 
Ilkley (2 m) or westwards to Hawksworth and Baildon (5 m). This 
truly high road commands a fine view of the valley, with villa and 
farm and winding river in endless panorama. Beyond the Wood 
Head, going westwards, a road branches to Menston and Guiseley, 
and another turns to the right over high ground to the old Gaping 
Goose farm (formerly an inn) whence an old paved saddle-lane 
(locally known as "T'owd Saddle Loin") leads by the farm at 
Faweather (once a grange of Rievaulx Abbey*) to Baildon and 
Bingley. About Burley Wood Headf a good deal of "improvement'' 
has gone on of late years through the development of the district by 
the railway. A century ago there were two small cotton-mills on 
the rivulet that runs down from the moor. Plane Tree House was 
the home of the Gill family, who have lived in the chapelry of Burley 
for at least two centuries. Most of the old families have however 
disappeared now and some of the old farm-lands have been converted 
into building sites. The Beanlands family had for a long period a 
good farm here which was inherited by John Beanlands, of Bingley, 
which some time before his death in 1862 he sold to his cousin 
Timothy Horsfall, whose son Thomas Horsfall, Esq., was lord of the 
manor of Burley. He married a daughter of Wm. Garnett, of Otley 
Paper Mills, and sister to the Rev. Richard Garnett, of the British 
Museum (see page 89) and left three sons (i) Wm. Benjamin, 
attorney-at-law ; (2) Arthur Beanlands, M.A., J.P., who died in 1898. 
He received his early education at Bingley Grammar School, 
Yorkshire, and some time after his marriage settled in Canada, where 
he became a member of the senate of Durham University, Canada, 
and for forty years was its treasurer. His son, the Rev. Canon 
Beanlands, M.A., is at present Rector of the Cathedral in Victoria, 
Canada, and vice-president of the Society of Yorkshiremen in that 
country ; (3) the Rev. Charles Beanlands, M. A., Vicar of St. Michael's, 
Brighton, who died unmarried in 1898. 

Stephen Fawcett, the Wharfedale poet, son of a Burley farmer, 
was born in 1807 and long resided at Burley Wood Head. A Charles 
Kirby, who published some Wharfedale poems, describes himself as 
"The Wharfedale poet," but -I can learn little about him. In 1872 
appeared his Harp of Wharfedale (Leeds : Bernard and Co.). 

* See the author's Airedale, p. 156 etc. 

f Burley Wood Head "takes its name from a whimsical joiner, who about a 
century ago, built a house here, for which he formed a wooden head, and placed it on 
the ridge of the house." MS. History of Wharfedale (1807). This is a remarkable- 
explanation seeing that the name of Burley Woodhead occurs in deeds of the 171)1 
century. "Burley Woodhead Intacks" are mentioned in 1642. 



Baildon, Hawksworth,* Menston, and Guiseley, are healthy and 
pleasant places, all in the ancient parish of Otley. Hawksworth 
Hall, a fine old Elizabethan mansion, on the site of former homesteads 
no doubt dating back to Norman times, was for centuries the seat of 
the Hawksworth and Fawkes families, as already described. There 
are many early deeds at Farnley Hall relating to this ancient family 
patrimony. One of these, dated 1440, mentions Thomas Hawkes- 
worth, Esq., as then the owner, and in that year he grants and 
demises a farm to his son and heir, John Hawkesworth, "the site 
and mansion of his manor of Hawksworth, with all his demesne lands 
to the said manor belonging.'' Another deed, dated 1351, mentions 
John de Hawkesword as parson of the church of Guiseley. There 
are also at Earnley Hall many old deeds relating to Menston. Alan 
de Brearhaugh (of Brearhaugh near Harewood) appears to have been 
the founder of a family which was living at Menston from the time 
of Edward II. to about 1500. In 1650 a VVm. Breary LL.D., was 
rector of Guiseley. In 1421 John Elenson, of Menston, gave a bond 
for all his goods and chattels to Thomas de Hawkesworth, Robert de 
Ottelay, chaplain, and others. There was also an old family of 
Roodes, or Rhodes, living at Roodes in the vill of Menston in the i6th 
century. The court rolls of Menston go back to the days of Edward 
III., and there is one dated 1489 called Curia Militaris of Thomas 
Hawkesworth. The old hall at Menston, the seat of Col. Charles 
j'airfax (one of \vHostTsons became Dean of Norwich) in the Civil 
War time is now a farm-house tenanted by Mr. Jennings Popplewell, 
and was lately purchased by Mr. Hart, son of the late vicar of Otley. 
An old deed kept in the house mentions Fairfax lands as belonging 
to the property. Menston New Hall is the large farmhouse seen 
from the Bradford road and south-east of the village. It was built 
by one of the Rhodes family in 1740. Confusion sometimes arises 
between the two. 

Menston has now a melancholy fame as the scene of the latest 
County Lunatic Asylum, yet it is pleasant to reflect that in this huge 
institution, whose gables and towers are a conspicuous landmark for 
many miles around, every provision is made for the comfort and well- 
being of the patients, while the management is all that can be desired. 
The buildings which were erected about twelve years ago, occupy 
part of an estate of 300 acres which the West Riding Justices bought 
from Mr. Ayscough Fawkes of Farnley Hall. They are intended to 
accommodate 1500 patients and have cost, it is calculated, about a 
quarter of a million pounds sterling, inclusive of the site. 

* The well-known Hawkstone near here is a curious geological phenomenon, being 
part of the natural cliff overhanging the valley which has slipped so as to form a 
natural rock-shelter. In Archbishop Gray's Register for 1228, I find mention of a 
" Hauekestan " as a boundary-stone, but it is evidently not our Hawkstone. There is a 
Hawkstone in Halifax parish. 



CHAPTER XI. 




Tin-: PARISH OK WKSTON. 

Rural aspect- -Antiquity of I he parish -Manorial history The manor never once sold 
from the Norman Conquest to the present time Weston Hall Old tithe-barn 
The Norman Church The tithes View of the surrounding 1 country Whin Castle 
I >' >i;' Park, an old Forest l.odj^e Askwith, meaning of its name Historical 
records The family of Askwith The Kendalls ( )| ( | Ouaker Meeting-House 
\Veslevans \'illag-e inns Askwith Feast. 

JESTON is another of those delightful old Whartedale 
villages whose history goes back to the remote past, 
and though historically speaking a parish-town, it now 
has the appearance of but a diminutive and scattered 
hamlet. Few buildings are visible, save its old hall, 
church, and tithe-barn, and at the top of the village is " Weston 
Manor 1 ' (now being rebuilt), while beneath the shadow of a 
magnificent old elm tree stands the one stone remnant of the old 
village stocks. 

The manor seems to have been an appurtenance of Otley, and 
to have been separated from that parish before the Conquest, and 
made a small parish of its own, with a separate endowed church. 
Soon afterwards the parish took in Dob or Dog Park, and Askwith 
with Snowden. In the Domesday survey " VVestone " (doubtless the 
town west of Otley*) is stated to have been held in the reign of the 
Confessor by one Torbrand, who had five carucates for geld (400 
acres) to be worked on the two-field system by five ploughs. It was 
granted, with Askwith, and a number of other manors in Yorkshire 
which had belonged to the same Saxon owner, to Berenger, son of 
Robert de Todeni, who in 1086 had four villanes with one plough, 
together with a church and a priest in Weston, who had a couple of 
acres of meadow. The whole manor comprised a square leuga, 
which is stated by Mr. Pell to contain 1,440 statute acres, and of this 
one-half was mast-woodland. The township of Weston now contains 
1,280 statute acres, and Askwith has 3,180 acres, which together 
form the parish. 

In 1284-5 tne manor of Weston was held by Wm. de Stopham 
for one-fourth part of a Knight's Fee of John de Vesci, and the said 
John of the king. By the i\ominn kiliarum of 1315 the said William 
de Stopham, or his son of the same name, is returned as lord of the 
manor of Weston. Torre merely observes that Weston was held of 

'' There are forty VVestuns in England. 



164 

the Castle of Skipton, which is explained by the fact of the heiress 
of De Vesci marrying a Clifford, lord of the honour of Skipton (see 
page 133). Then by the marriage of Alice, daughter and heiress of 
the above William de Stopham, to Sir Maugher le Vavasour, of 
Hazlewood, the manor passed to the Vavasours, of whom worthy 
old Fuller wrote in the days of Charles II., " they never married an 
heir, nor buried their wives," a statement, however, as we have seen, 
not strictly correct* For more than five centuries the manor was 
retained in the male line of this ancient house, when by the death 
in 1833 of William Vavasour, Esq., J.P. and D.L. of the West 
Riding, it descended to the Rev. John Carter, of Lincoln, vicar of 
Weston, who married Ellen, only sister and heiress of Wm. Vavasour. 
On the death of her husband she married a seconfd time, and died 
in 1845, when her son, Wm. Vavasour Carter, Esq., inherited the 
estates. He died in 1852 at the early age of 28, when his eldest 
sister, Emma Carter, wife of Chr. Holdsworth Dawson, Esq., of Royds 
Hall, Low Moor, succeeded to the property. Mr. Dawson died in 
1869, and there is a beautiful stained glass window placed to his 
memory in the church. His widow, Mrs. Emma Dawson, died in 
1880, and the handsome east window in the private pew on the north 
side of the church was placed there to her memory by the National 
United Order of Free Gardeners, of which she was an honorary 
member, and in whose prosperity Mrs. Dawson took great interest. 
Mrs. Dawson also maintained at her own cost the well-known "Emma" 
lifeboat at Redcar.-|- The eldest son of Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Dawson 
is Colonel Wm. Chr. Dawson, the present owner of Weston, who 
resides at the hall. It thus appears that the manor and estate of 
Weston have never once been sold, but have descended by lawful 
marriage and inheritance of its various owners from the Norman 
Conquest to the present time. 

In 1378 there appears to have been a dozen inhabited 
tenements at Weston, and the Poll Tax for this year gives the names 
of their occupants. But the lord of the manor does not appear to 
have been living at Weston at this time, or rather his lady, for the 
vill of Hazlewood gives the name of Elizabeth Vavasour, veoue, 
(widow) as paying her lord's tax of 2os. being the prescribed rate of 
assessment for a knight or chivaler. But the Hall may have been 
occupied by a member of the family as Agnes, daughter of Thomas 
of the Hall, appears in the Weston list among the ordinary tenants' 

* See also Harl MSS., 1400, fo. 74, and Nicholas' Historic Peerage. The Vavasours 
first appear in Craven as feudatories of the Romilles in the middle of the I2th century, 
when William Vavasor held half a knight's fee in Addingham and Draughton, of the 
Honor of Skipton. Vide Lib. Nig. Scacc. I., 322-3. 

( The memorial tablet on the X. wall to the same lady was erected by the Redcar 
Life Boat crew. 



rate of .}d.* The name of Allies Vavasour moreover appears at this 
time, although the pedigrees shew no Agnes as a daughter of Thomas. 
This is, however, the first distinct allusion to Weston Hall. 

The present manor-house is a fine old mansion in the Tudor 
style, as is also the detached banqueting-hall on the east side of the 
adjoining grounds. The latter building is thickly ivy-clad, and 
contains shields of arms of Vavasour and Stanley. There were 
also originally in the windows armorial devices of the great families 
of Claro wapentake, all of whom, no doubt, had at one time or 
another, enjoyed the old lords of Weston's hopitality in this picturesque 
roomy building. In front of the Hall is a magnificent cedar of 
Lebanon, one of the finest and oldest, I should think, in the kingdom. 
The one planted by Dr. Richardson in front of Bierley Hall near 
Bradford, about the year 1710, is said to be the oldest in England, 
and was sent to Bierley as a seedling by his friend, Sir Hans Sloane, 
president of the Royal Society. In 1812 the trunk of this Bierley 
tree measured 12^ feet in girth, some distance from the ground. It 
began to fail a few years ago, and is now dead. Cones of the cedar 
were first produced in England in Chelsea Gardens in 1766, but 
when the tree was originally imported into this country is not exactly 
known. The pond near Weston Hall is the resort of various water 
birds, the wild duck breeding here regularly. Worthy of note here, 
and a novelty that might be introduced in many estates, is the large 
and handsome swimming-bath, erected in a retired part of the 
grounds about four years ago for the family's private use. 

At the back of the hall is a spacious and lofty tithe-barn of 
about the same age as the hall, all the roof-timbers and props being 
of forest-oak. Not far away, I am informed, stood the ancient 
parsonage which was abandoned and in ruins early this century. 
Hard by is the interesting old Domesday church, some original 
portions of which are still in evidence in the rude, wide-jointed 
masonry of the south wall, which has a narrow, round-headed light, 
deeply splayed on the inside only. Singularly this interesting old 
church seems never to have been described. In the i6th century 
some alterations were evidently made in the church, including the 
insertion of a large window in the south wall, and not long afterwards 
I find that a local resident, one William Kendall, of Askwith, by will 

* A Thomas de Weston appears in the accounts of Bolton Abbey for 1298-9. Also 
a John, son of Matilda de Weston appears in the Registers of Archbishop Walter 
Giffard (1265-79) among the list of contributors to the Crusade in 1276. He had 
assaulted the parish priest of Gargrave and for this affray he must either go on the 
Crusade or give to it a third part of his goods. A fruitless and risky undertaking, as 
Jerusalem had been stormed and taken by the Saracens in 1244; and at the siege of 
Saphet in 1266, 130 Christian knight's and 760 fighting men had been beheaded by the 
Soldan of Egypt, tor refusing to renounce their faith. Finally by the capture of Acre 
in 1291, the last stronghold of the Christians in the Holy Land had been taken from 
them. See Kenrick's Knights Templars, 



i66 

dated February 23rd 1557, left 38. 4d. towards maintaining a light on 
the high altar. An eastward extension of the chancel was made in 
1819, and the nave was restored at the same time, the former by the 
patron of the church, Wm. Vavasour, Esq., and the latter by the 
parishioners. The present porch, as appears by the date upon it, 
was erected in 1685. There is no tower, only a small bell-turret at 
the west end. The absence of a tower, probably led to the poet 
Gray mistaking the inconspicuous church for offices belonging to the 
mansion. 

In the interior are various armorial emblazonments; also within 
a recess on the north side of the chapel of the Vavasours, is an 
ancient ridged tomb bearing a shield with the bend dexter of the 
Stophams, and a plain cross-hilted sword beneath it, of a style 
prevailing at the end of the thirteenth century. But the tomb has 
been attributed to the last of the Stophams, who was living in 1312. 
Above it is an inscription describing his descent. On the chancel 
floor are portions of two early grave-slabs bearing headless incised 
Calvary-crosses. Another tomb on the north side of the chancel 
commemorates Wm. Vavasour, who died in 1587, and upon it are 
shields of Kighley (a fess) Vavasour (a fess dancette), Stopham (a 
bend dexter) and another shield not hitherto explained. It bears 
three lozenges, two and one, on each a bendlet.* There are several 
raised ornaments on the capitals of the pier-arches on the north side, 
including the Tau-cross or St. Anthony's crutch, noted in Leathley 
church. In the east window are the arms with quarterings, of 
Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, 
who as we have seen, were anciently superior lords of Weston and 
Askwith. On the north side is a two-light window bearing two shields, 
(i) the fess dancette, of Vavasour, and (2) the three owls on a bend, 
of Savile; Sir Mauger Vavasour having married temp. Eliz. Joan or 
Jane, daughter of John Savile, Esq., of Stanley, and widow .of Sir 
James Metcalfe, Kt, of Nappa Hall, who died in 1580. On the south 
wall of the chancel is a memorial inscribed in Latin to John Blencow, 
arm., eldest son of Henry Blencow, of Blencow, Co. Cumb., who died 
in 1630; also to Anna, second wife of Wm. Vavasour, Esq., who 
died in 1645, and to Elizabeth, wife of Henry Thompson, gent., of 
Doncaster, who died in 1651. I have already mentioned the 
beautiful memorial windows &c. to the Dawsons, and there are 
besides tablets to other members of the families of Vavasour and 
Carter. There is also a neat memorial brass to Mrs. Susan Spence, 
wife of the late Dr. Spence and daughter of Wm. Elmsall Carter, Esq., 
of Weston Manor, who died in 1893. She was coheiress with Mrs. 
Dawson of the manor of Weston. 

* Mr. J. W. Clay F.S.A., has kindly referred me to Papworth's Armorials, where 
this coat is ascribed to John Vavasour, Seal, Harl. MSS., 1178, fo. 117. 



,r, 7 

In IJ.M the church became the property of the See of York, by 
gift of Hugh de I.elav or I.eathley (see page 120), who granted it for 
the purpose of augmenting the lights in York Minster.* After the 
battle of r.annockburn in 1314, the Scots devastated a great part of 
\Vharfedale, and Weston suffered sadly, the Archbishop of York in 
his returns to the king, made in 13 i 8, stated that the vicarage of 
\\Vston would only support a single goat-herd. t The Registers of 
Archbishop Greenfield shew that a payment of 100 marks was made 
for the ransom of a John de Weston, chamberlain to the king in 
Scotland, who was taken prisoner by the Scots in 1313. Likewise a 
sum of ^20 was paid for the ransom of Sir Simon Ward, of Guiseley, 
in 1314. Many Wharfedale men doubtless took part in the great 
battle of Bannock burn. 

The Dean and Chapter of York retained the presentation of the 
living of Weston till the Reformation, when the Rev. Marten 
Wardeman was vicar. He is described in the Certificates of 
Chantries as "meanly learned," yet of "honest conversacion and 
finalities," and besides being vicar of Weston, was a chantry-priest of 
"St. Stephen's" in the Metropolitan Church at York. In 1548 the 
parsonage of Weston was declared to be of the yearly value of 
6 i3s. 4d.. and was then in the tenure of Marmaduke Vavisor. 
P>y charter of King Edward VI. the tithes of Weston were soon 
afterwards given to the governors of the Free School of Sedbergh, and 
by lease dated August 22nd, 1561, were granted to William Bainton 
of Myddelton, in the parish of Ilkley, the yearly rent being 
6 i3s. 2cl4 The next lease was to William Vavisour, of Burlowe 
[Burley], at a rent of ^7 ios., and in 1662 there was a renewal of 
the lease to William Vavasour. In the time of Walter Vavasour, of 
Weston (died 1780) they were exchanged for some lands at Deepdale 
Head (Dent) and ^63 was said to be the value of the tithes, and 
;86 the clear yearly rent of the Dent lands. The register of 
Weston church begins with the year 1677. 

The country around Weston and Ask with is, as I have said, 
exceedingly pleasant. It is sufficiently high and open to command 
fine views of the valley, yet protected by the northern range of hills 
which bounds the old Forest of Knaresborough, it lies warm and 
sheltered on the well-sunned slopes, and almost every house has a 
large garden or orchard. The fields around are bright in Spring- 
time with creamy cowslips and primroses, and in the lanes grow in 
plenty the fragrant sweet-violet, and other attractive or rare wild- 
flowers. At one time, and that not very long ago, hardly a slated 

* See Archbishop Gray's Register, pp. 142-3. 

f Historical Papers from Northern Registers, p. 280. 

% A photographic reproduction of the original charter is in Mr. Bernard Wilson's 
Sedbergli School Rtgistrt (1X95) a most excellent volume and a pattern that might with 
advantage- be imitated by other public schools. 



i68 

house was to be seen here; all the roofs being of thatch and very 
old. Some new building has been going of late years in the 
neighbourhood, which is now beginning to wear a more modern 
aspect. 

From the evidences of antiquity which I have adduced in the 
neighbourhood of Otley, the upper parts of Askwith are just the places 
where one might expect to find traces of early occupation. On the 
Pateley Bridge road, about half-a-mile out of Askwith, is an ancient 
thatched farmstead (now in ruins), known from time immemorial as 
Win or Whin Castle. But the only thing that can be said in favor of 
any assumption of prehistoric belonging, is the fine, commanding site, 
occupying as it does a high level plateau, protected on the west by a 
deep, wooded gill, while behind to the north rise the dark moors. 
No tradition that I can hear of attaches to the place, nor are there 
any indications of ramparts or enclosures, which may, however, have 
been long ago eradicated by cultivation. While Scales House, the 
next farm to the west, has had a certain existence for at least five 
centuries one, Isolda de Scales appearing in the Poll Tax of Askwith 
for A.D. 1379, and two families of Skalwra ah Schalwra in that of 
Ilkley at the same time, there is no record of any house at Win Castle 
before the present farm-building was erected there, probably in the 
1 6th century. This seems to show that the site was already known 
as Win Castle before the house was built and the land taken in from 
the moor. Part of the moor was enclosed by Act obtained in 1778. 

An amusing circumstance connected with this small homestead 
was related to me by the late aged tenant of the farm, Hugh England, 
who lived there twelve years. Regularly, he says, and sometimes 
day after day, he was in the habit of receiving communications from 
promoters of public companies, circulars and documents of more or 
less importance, and a host of such other applications as the owners 
of great houses are accustomed to be hampered with. These came in 
such numbers that he might, if so disposed, have papered the few 
walls of his ancient dwelling over and over again. Of course it was 
plain to see that the senders had mistaken "Win Castle" to be some 
lordly residence, instead of the humble, thatched tenement it actually 
appears. 

On the edge of Weston Moor, to the east of Whin Castle, is the 
old Forest lodge of Dog Park (recently corrupted into Dob Park), a 
1 7th century home of a branch of the Vavasours of Weston. There 
is a tradition that it was shelled during the Civil War by the 
soldiers of Cromwell, and before the owners had time to get all their 
goods away. Some old pewter plates were long afterwards turned up 
in the land adjoining and are now at Weston Hall. The "dog-courts" 
(so-called) of the Duchy of Lancaster continued to be held at the old 
lodge long after its partial destruction, and on one of the windows 



169 

were two shields hearing three quoits, the arms of Lancaster. The 
lodge has evidently consisted of four stories, turreted. 

. \sk\vith, as a village, owes its origin, no doubt, to the Teutonic 
settlers, and whether it was actually settled before we have no certain 
knowledge.* The name can have nothing to do with the Gaelic asc, 
an adder, a snake, but must be compounded from the Teut. (esc, an 
ash-tree and i^idr or vitu, a wood ; the ash being the most venerated 
of trees in the old Scandinavian mythology.! In Domesday we find 
the name written Ascuid and Ascvid, where were two carucates of 
land held by Gospatric before the Conquest and where one plough 
may be, then worth 2os., now (1086), IDS. Gospatric was permitted 
to retain these two carucates, and he employed four villeins to work 
them with one plough ; that is by the more profitable system of a 
three-year rotation of crops, one third of the arable or sixty acres in 
each full carucate alternately lying fallow, and 120 acres annually 
producing crops. The Norman Crusader, William de Perci, had also 
three carucates of land here, which had been in three manors, held 
respectively by Ulchil, Gamel, and Bernulf; likewise Berenger de 
Todeni had one carucate, taken from Gamel. The Percy lands had 
been worked by two ploughs, and continued to be so cultivated by 
four villeins , these several manors being apparently cultivated on 
both the two-field and three-field systems. 

In 1276 an inquisition was made before the sheriff and 
escheator of Yorkshire by Alexander de Kirkby, Richard atte Becke 
of Askewyth,J John, son of Thurstan de Denton, Walter, son of 
William of the same, and others, who stated upon oath that Mauger, 
son of Mauger le Vavasour, then aged 30 years or more, is next heir 
of Joan, daughter of William de Dufton, and the said Mauger le 
Vavasour was possessed at this time of the manor of Denton and a 
moiety of the manor of Askwith, the former held of the Archbishop 
of York, and the latter of John, son and heir of Henry de Percy. In 
1284-5 Patrick de Westwyk held a third part of Askwith (being old 
Gospatric's share) for one-eighth part of a knight's fee of John de 
Vescy, whose patrimony afterwards descended, as previously related, 
by marriage to the Cliffords. The Percy share at the same time was 
held by the above Mauger le Vavasour for a fourth part of a 
knight's fee. In 1291 Adam de Askwith appears as witness to a 
deed of conveyance of the manor and lands at Askwith to the same 
Mauger le Vavasour, and this Adam is evidently the same" who 

* Dr. Whitaker derives the name from akes (oaks) and with or ivath, a ford, which 
I think no present-day etymologist will accept. 

t The form of the foliage of the ash approximating to the primeval feather-pattern 
of the Orient, symbolical of the Tree of Life, may possibly have originated the same 
idea in respect to the ash-tree among the northerns. 

Johannes atte Bek of Askwith appears in the Poll Tax of 1379. 

Yorksh. Inquisit. Y.A.Jl. (Record Ser.) p. 174. 



170 

was living at Westwick, near Borough bridge ca. 1300, and to whom 
the above Peter de Westwyk bore some relationship.* 

Subsequently, as appears by fines dated 1543 and 1547, the 
whole manor came into the possession of the Fairfaxes of Denton, 
and was by them sold in 1716 to James Ibbetson, a merchant of 
Leeds, whose successors about ten years ago made an exchange of 
part of the manorial estate with Colonel Dawson, of Weston Hall. 

The ancient family of Askwith take their name from this place, 
but they have long ago dispersed. The name does not occur 
amongst the tenants of Askwith in 1379, though in the Stockeld 
deeds for 8th Edward II. (1314) there is a Roger de Askewith 
obtaining from Richard, son of Alan, of Stockeld, a quit-claim of 
the manor of Lynton in Wetherby.f Of this family was undoubtedly 
the celebrated historian and astrologer John Eschuid, who flourished 
in the time of Edward III., and whose comprehensive work on 
11 Judicial Astrology," first printed at Venice in 1489, at one time 
obtained very wide recognition. The Askwiths were for generations 
in the service of Fountains Abbey, and one of the family was sheriff 
of York city in 1593, and another, Caleb Askwith, was mayor of Leeds 
in 1698. He died in 1715-16. See Dugdale's Visitation of York. 

The Kendalls were also living in the neighbourhood before the 
days of parish registers, and still reside here. It may be noted in 
reference to the above date 1314 (the year of Bannockburn) one 
Edmond de Kendale was then in Scotland, having previously, as 
appears from Scottish State Papers, made a pilgrimage to the Holy 
Land. In later times we find some of the family had joined the local 
Society of Friends, who in spite of their sufferings (in common with 
other Nonconformist bodies) during the era of religious persecution, 
continued to be upheld with much favour at Askwith. They had a 
small Meeting House in Askwith, afterwards taken over by the 
Primitive Methodists, who, however, abandoned it about twenty years 
ago. The chapel is now in ruins, and the grave-mounds of the old 
Quaker burial-ground adjoining are now so much sunk as to be 
scarcely discernible above the surrounding greensward. The 
Wesleyans are the only dissenting body here now and they have 
erected a neat chapel. 

Formerly there were two inns in the village, the Black Horse 
and the Fox (at the east end of the village), but the latter, whose sign 
about 1850 was changed to the Ibbetson Arms, was closed some little 

* The above Mauger le Vavasour held lands in Elslack at this time, a fact, I think, 
hitherto unrecorded. Among the archives at Bolton Abbey is a deed of Malger 
Vavasour granting to Robert Vavasour, his son, and the heirs of his body [he is not 
mentioned in the pedigrees] twelve bovates of land in the vill of Helslac for his homage 
and service. To hold quit of all service, only doing foreign service as much as belongs 
to twelve bovates of land &c. Test. John, Prior of Bolton (1275-1330), Robert 
Vavasour, &c. 

t Yorkshire County Mag. I, 270, 



after it came into possession of the present owner, Col. Dawson. 
Tin- village and locality are much frequented by visitors in the 
summer season. The highroad from Otley and Farnley to Ilkley 
passes through the village, and there is also a branch highway from 
it through Washburndale to Pateley Bridge. The old village Feast 
(held in July) is now practically a thing of the past, but twent\ 
ago the event was anticipated with no inconsiderable preparations, and 
brought with it a throng of pleasure-seekers from many miles around. 
There were flat-races and other games for which prizes were offered, 
whilst a horse-race or two was usually run on the highroad between 
the village and Weston. 



CHAPTER XII. 




DF.NTON AND THE FAIRFAXES. 

Meaning- of Denton- -St. Helen's Gill -Wild plants, c. Scales Gill Charter 
mentioning' ancient boundaries Denton, an ancient centre ot the clothing trade 
The Fairfax family Their extraordinary talents Distinguished visitors at Demon 
Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax Thomas, Lord Fairfax, the Parliamentary General 
Sale of Denton to the Ibbotsons Denton Hall Old-time life at the hall The old 
chapel The present church Old customs. 

CONTINENTAL newspaper that recently came under 
my notice defined an "island" as "a piece of land 
entirely surrounded by Englishmen." Now, Denton 
seems to have been a kind of island or tract isolated 
from its parent parish of Otley, originally occupied by 
Celts and afterwards surrounded by Saxons, who again were 
encompassed and subsequently yielded it to the piratical Danes. 
But whether it was actually named by Saxon or Dane is uncertain. 
The village itself is at no great distance from the deep, wooded glen 
known in the higher part as Scales Gill, and lower down as St. 
Helen's Gill and Hundwith Gill respectively, and this may be the 
A-S. dene which has given the place its name. Or it may be the 
town of the Dane, just as Denmark is the mark or boundary of the 
Dane. Scales Gill is evidently so-called from the presence of ancient 
huts or shealings, as the Scand. skali implies.* St. Helen's Gill and 
the Holy Well close by, have been named, (the latter no doubt at 
some remote period), after the mother of Constantine, the Roman 
Christian emperor. The fact is of some importance, already dealt 
with in connection with the early adoption of Christianity in 
the capital town of Otley, to which Denton originally belonged. 
Hundwith Gill is in Anglo-Saxon literally dog-wood, and may be the 
Cornus sanguinea of the botanist, just as the A-S. hund-tunge is the 
botanical hound's-tongue. 

These historic and picturesque gills are the homes of a great 
variety of plants and flowers, as they are also of wild birds. Thrushes, 
wagtails, and dippers are resident here all the year round, while in 
summer-time one may occasionally get a sight or hear the delicious 
notes of the three warblers, the willow-warbler, the wood-warbler, 
and the sedge-warbler (the latter often mistaken for the nightingale). 
Mr. R. B. Walker, of Denton, states that a year or two ago he noted 
that rare and stealthy migrant, the grasshopper-warbler, which was 

* See my Romantic Richmond shire, p. 363. 



apparently breeding at Denton Park. It is rarely seen on the wing, 
but skulks and runs about the underwood with wings half open in 
tin- manner of a sandpiper. I do not know whether the bustard has 
c\vr been recorded for this locality, but it was once a common 
resident in these western dales. Among the Denton householders 
in 1379 appears the unusual name of Robert Bustardbank, but 
whether his patronym was taken from one of the homesteads on the 
gill-bank at Denton it is now impossible to say. 

I have just spoken of the old Scandinavian housesteads near 
Scales Gill, and it is interesting to note that the descendants of the 
original settlers bore the old family names long after the Conquest. 
Among the ancient documents at Weston Hall I have noted the 
following early (undated) charter: 

KNOW all to whom these presents shall come that I, Malger Vavasor, have granted 
and conceded, and by this my present charter confirm to Sywarde de Scales, or to him 
whom he shall assign, the messuage in which he dwells and the whole land and meadow 
within his enclosure, to wit, from the stream which runs towards his house as far as the 
stone which is called Ribstonn, in breadth and in length from Scalecroft as far as two 
stones which lie at the head of the stream and the culture which lies between Witebec 
and auenamker in breadth and in length from the essart of I'll" to the land of Adam the 
carpenter. To have and to hold of me and my heirs in fee and free inheritance quietly 
and honorably with free common and with all liberties and easements in wood and in 
plain, in ways and paths, in moors and waters, in meadows and pastures and in turberies, 
and in all other places to the said land belonging. Rendering thence annually in rent 
18 pence, namely 9 pence at IVntecost and 9 pence at the (east of St. Martin for all 
services and customary dues to the said land belonging. And this grant and 
confirmation I make to the said Sywarde or to his assigns for his homage and service. 
And I the aforesaid Malger Vavasor and my heirs will warrant against all men the 
aforesaid lands and messuage with appurtenances and all liberties and easements thereto 
belonging. These being witnesses, Hugh de Halton (?), Galfr Maunsel, Hugh fil' 
Hugh, Isaac de Timbil, Ro' fil' Ulf, Adam fil Anthe, Hel' de Champe', Romanno the 
clerk, Ric de Kigleswic, Joh' de Pottona, Alan de Denton, Reginald his brother, and 
many others. 

Denton as I have before explained, was originally given by 
Athelstan to the See of York. It was subfeud at an early date to 
the Vavasours (see WESTON) and in 1284 Maugerus le Vavasur held 
the town for a fourth part of a knight's fee of the Archbishops of 
York, who continued lords paramount* In 1379, according to the 
poll-tax returns, one Adam Wayte appears to have been then farming 
the manor, at which time Denton had a more than ordinary 
reputation for clothes-making and drapery goods. Doubtless in the 
old time many a monk from the monasteries at Bolton and Arthington, 
and many a stout-hearted layman from surrounding places might 
have been seen entering the village, staff in hand, or mounted with 
yew-bow on his "dapple-grey," intent on exchanging his worn and 
seedy habit for a brand-new "rig-out." Robert of the Wood was a 
weaver in the village, Richard of Colne, a tailor, had evidently 

* See Drake's Eboraunt t p. 625. 



'74 

removed from that town and had married and settled at Denton 
where work was good, as appears by his assessment, although there 
was another tailor then in the village. Then again there was a 
wealthy merchant-draper, a man of some position, who no doubt 
purchased largely from the Otley manufacturers, and who is assessed 
at 2S., while every other of the twenty-two householders of Denton 
are taxed at 4d. and 6d. each, except squire-farmer Wayte, who pays 
i2d. There was then a smithy in the village, too, but the place 
really stood largely by clothing. 

But the fame of Denton lies chiefly in its alliance with the great 
family of Fairfax, "whose name in arms through Europe rings"; a 
house, declares Canon Raine, "that not alone in military achievement 
but for learning also, has no peer among the families of Yorkshire." 
Of ancient and honorable descent its members have been distinguished 
alike in commerce, law, literature, politics and arms. Possessed of 
ample fortunes, and living for the most part in an era of almost 
constant internecine strife and unrest, they have been called into 
responsible offices, and their skill and judgement have been sought 
during some of the most difficult crises in English public affairs. 
Well do such men deserve the remembrance of posterity. 

The first of the Yorkshire Fairfaxes of whom we have any record 
was William, farmer of the Royal Mint in York, in the time of King 
John, whom Robert Davies says "dwelt in the street of Nether 
Ousegate, in the parish of St. Michael at Ouse Bridge end."* He it 
was who founded the family at Walton, near Thorp Arch, and Steeton 
in the Ainsty, at which latter place Sir Guy Fairfax built a castle, 
which continued the home of his descendants for several centuries, until 
they removed to Newton Kyme. This Sir Guy Fairfax was one of 
the Commissioners of Array for the West Riding in 1455, and in 1460 
became a Serjeant of Law at Gray's Inn. In 1468 he was King's 
Serjeant, and a few years later was elevated to the position of Judge 
of the Court of King's Bench, and eventually he became Chief 
Justice, and his son and heir Sir William Fairfax, was Chief Justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas early in the reign of Henry VIII. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Robert Manners, Kt, (ancestor 
of the Duke of Rutland), and his eldest son and heir, also named Sir 
William, was the first of the Fairfaxes connected with Denton in 
Wharfedale, which he acquired in a somewhat romantic fashion. 
Becoming enamoured of a youthful and (tradition says) beautiful nun 
at the monastery of Appleton, in the neighbourhood of his fathers 
estates, he eventually succeeded in winning her away, and they were 
married at Bolton Percy in 1515. Her name was Isabel Thwaites, 
and she was not only possessed of an attractive demeanour but had 
also a rare wealth. Her father, Thomas Thwaites, made her his 

* Vide Walks through the city of York, 



heiress being his only child, and by this fortunate marriage Sir 
William Fairfax obtained the manors of Thwaites, Denton, Askwith, 
and Davy-gate in the city of York, and when the monasteries fell he 
came into possession of Nun Appleton and Bolton Percy. 

The Thwaites family, who held Denton, had been long resident 
in this part of Yorkshire. They were originally lardiners to William 
the Conqueror, an office which continued hereditary in the family for 
many generations afterwards, and of whom some account is given in 
Drake's Eboracum (1736). Thwaites in the parish of Keighley was 
anciently their property, which afterwards came to the Fairfaxes. 
In 1316 John de Thwaites was one of the four joint lords of the 
several manors of Keighley. How they became possessed of Denton 
is not very clear, but probably it descended through the Brocas family 
some time near the end of the i5th century, when Elizabeth, daughter 
of Henry Thwaites, married John Vavasour of Weston, who died in 
1482. The family had, however, been living at Denton before this 
time. There was a John Thwaites, of Denton, temp. Henry VI., a 
lawyer of considerable repute, who was legal adviser to Thomas, Lord 
Clifford, when a minor and patron of Bolton Priory. His name 
appears in the Compotus for 1447 as first counsellor to that lord 
Sir Barnard Brocas, who married Agnes Vavasour, and from whom 
she was divorced, but had issue, Sir Barnard Brocas, who was 
attainted and executed in 1399, was lord of Denton. William Brocas 
grandson of Agnes Vavasour, made over his estate at Denton, by 
deed of feofment, to William Gascoigne, John Thwaites, and others, 
from whom John Vavasour, of Weston is stated to have recovered 
the same.* The above John Thwaites, who died at Denton in 1469, 
married Isabella, sister of Sir Wm. Ryther, of Harewood Castle, Kt., 
and was buried by the side of his wife in the chancel of Harewood 
Church. 

In 1543 a fine was entered between Richard Standish and 
William King, plaintiffs, and the above Sir William Fairfax and 
Isabel, his wife, deforciants, for the manors of Denton, Thwaites, 
Askwith, Bingley and Keighley (the estate at Thwaites), and 
Newsome, and thirty messuages, thirty cottages and a watermill 
in the same, and in Rawdon, which after the deaths of the said 
William and Isabel, remain to Guy Fairfax, their son and heir, and 
his lawful male issue, and failing such, on his death, to the male 
issue of William and Isabel, and failing such to their female issue, 
and failing such to the right heirs of Isabel. Sir William's eldest 

* Drake says that Wolsington alias Weston, was in the reign of Edward III the 
property of Sir Bernard Brocas, Kt., "which my author thinks he had by marriage of 
the daughter and heir of Sir Manger Vavasour, which Sir Mauger was owner thereof 
by the grant ot Robert Aiou, who by deed of purchase held it by an annual rent to the 
King of ud., called alba-firma, or bla tick-farm, and to appear at the wapentake held at 
Ainsty-cross." Eboracum (1736) p. 389. 



i 7 6 

son, Guy, having become mentally afflicted, his second son, Thomas 
succeeded to Denton &c., and his fifth and youngest son, Gabriel, 
to the estates at Steeton, Bilbrough, and Bolton Percy, where this 
branch of the family still resides. In 1547-8 another fine was made 
between Wm. Fairfax Esq., Thos. Oglethorpe Esq. and Michael 
Wandesworth gent, plaintiffs, and Sir Wm. Fairfax Kt. and Guy 
Fairfax, his son and heir apparent, deforciants, for the manors of 
Denton, Askwith, Thwaites, Newsome, Keighley, Bingley, Tolston, 
Clifford, and Badsworth, and 120 messuages, 30 cottages, and a 
watermill, with lands in the same. 




FERDINANDO, LORD FAIRFAX. 

Sir William Fairfax died at Denton in 1557-8, and his son and 
successor, the above Sir Thomas, was bom in 1521, and died in 
1599, and was buried at Denton. A memorial of him is in Otley 
Church. He had been trained in the army and was with Charles, 
Duke of Bourbon, at the sacking of Rome, an event which led to 
the imprisonment of the Pope in 1527. He had a family of seven 
sons and five daughters, of whom Edward Fairfax, the poet, linguist 
and translator of Tasso, was one, and who at one time resided in 
a house called The Stocks, near the Leeds Parish Church, and 



177 

afterwards .it Newhall near Fewston.* Edward's eldest brother, 
Thomas, was created Baron of Cameron, in the Scottish peerage, 
in 1627, after having distinguished himself in the wars abroad. 
His inscribed effigy, with that of his wife, I have already noticed 
in the account of Otley Church. His brother Charles, was an 
intrepid soldier also, who took a conspicuous part in the terrible 
siege of Ostend, and there received a life-scar in the face by coming 
in contact with the smashed skull of a Marshall of France, who was 
killed by a canon-ball whilst standing close beside him. These 
Fairfaxes were all accounted desperate soldiers, well schooled and 
disciplined in all departments of war, yet scholars were they too, 
and none the less adepts in the arts of peace. The beautiful 
retirement of Denton, with its woodland glades and singing-birds, 
must many a time have formed a delightful retreat to war-spent 
members of the family after prolonged absences from the old 
VVharfedale home. The above Thomas, first Lord Fairfax, when 
at Denton, enjoyed the companionship of men of learning, and many 
a happy hour must he have passed with kindred spirits in the 
noted library at Denton, which at that time was one of the best in 
Yorkshire.f He was the friend of all the ripest scholars, authors 
and antiquarians of the time, including Roger Dodsworth and Sir 
William Dugdale. With Henry, Earl of Cumberland, of Skipton 
Castle, who was something of a poet, he and his father were on 
terms of the greatest intimacy before the war broke out. Sir Thomas 
Herbert, the famous traveller and courtier, and a relative of the 
eminent poet, George Herbert, was also an occassional visitor at 
Denton, and in his volume of travels in Africa and Asia, Lord 
Fairfax wrote some complimentary verses. Sir Thomas Herbert, 
who was of the Tintern, in Monmouthshire, family, had a house in 
York, and married (i) Lucy, daughter of Sir Walter Alexander Kt., 

* A long account of him will be found in the Rev. Thos. Parkinson's /Mrs and 
leaves of the Forest, pages 105-122. See also Grainge's History of Timble p. 69, 76. 

f "To Thomas, third Lord Fairfax," observes Whitaker, "we are indebted not only 
for the basis of Thoresby's Museum, but what is of more importance, for the voluminous 
collections of Dodsworth, which perpetuated so many thousands of charters relating to 
the genealogical and monastic antiquities of the northern counties, just transcribed 
under his patronage, [Lord Fairfax allowed him an annuity of ^40 for life] before tin- 
blowing up of St. Mary's Tower at York consigned the originals to destruction." Ijiidis 
and Elmete (1816) p. 195. Lord Fairfax, it has been said, bequeathed the whole of 
Dodsworth's priceless MSS., amounting to 122 volumes, to the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 
together with about 40 folio volumes of original MSS. which he had collected from 
various quarters. But in a note by Byran Fairfax to an account of Kdward Fairfax in 
Atterbury's Correspondence, it is stated to have been Henry Fairfax, Dean of Norwich 
(and son of Charles) who gave these 160 volumes to the I'niversity of Oxford. The 
point, however, is of small consequence beside the larger issue of Lord Fairfax's 
sagacity in anticipating the aspirations of the Ages. Had there been more of his genius 
in former times, Fnglancl would have been all the richer and brighter in her literary 
and historic annals to-day. 



i 7 8 

one of the gentlemen of the King's Bed-chamber, and (2) Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Gervase Cutler, Kt. of Stainborough, Co. York, by 
his second wife, Lady Magdaline Egerton, a daughter of the Earl of. 
Bridgwater. Two of his letters written from London in 1631 and 
1633-4 to Lord Fairfax at Denton, are printed in the first volume 
of the Yorkshire Archceological journal. 

Three of Lord Fairfax's sons were slain in battle and his son 
Ferdinando, second Lord Fairfax, succeeded to Denton. He married 
for his first wife, a daughter of Lord Sheffield, President of the 
North, and became, as is well known, leader of the Parliamentary 
forces during the disastrous wars with King Charles. He died at 
York in March, 1647-8, and was buried at Bolton Percy, where his 
monument inscribed with gilded letters may be seen. His redoubtable 
son, the famous "Black Tom," the third and great Lord Fairfax, who 
was born at Denton in 1611, succeeded to the Wharfedale patrimony. 
Being trained in his father's footsteps he became a soldier and 
strategist of the first rank, General of the Parliamentary army, and 
altogether one of the most notable characters in the whole range of 
our national history. I have already on pages 53 to 55 given some 
account of this famous general, whose family motto, Fare,fac (say, 
do) was singularly illustrative of his whole life's action. When he 
spoke and acted it was with earnestness and resolve. Carrying 
with him too, title, wealth, and character, besides a natural wisdom 
and rare valour, he was a man indeed to be coveted by any party, 
and one in whom object rather than self-interest was of most concern. 
He possessed a singularly calm demeanour being little affected by 
outside circumstances, and in spite of the Colchester outrage, when 
ill-counsels prevailed, one might say that no man ever exercised such 
coolness and restraint in hours of triumph as did this Lord Fairfax. 
As lord of Man and the Isles, his noble feeling and devotion to literature 
and religion were likewise equally conspicuous. He set apart the 
proceeds of the sequestered Bishopric to the increase of the incomes 
of the inferior clergy, and the establishment of Grammar Schools in 
the four towns of the Isle of Man, viz. : Castletown, Douglas, Peel, 
and Ramsey.* He wrote some "Short Memorials of Himself," not 
intended for publication, but a false edition being threatened, they were 
printed by authority of Bryan Fairfax, Esq., in 1699.! Lord Fairfax 

* See the Manx Socy. Pub., vol. x. (1868) p. 62. 

f See also "The King's Cabinet Opened, or Certain Pacquets of Secret Letters and 
Papers." Written with the King's own hand, and taken in his Cabinet at Naseby Field, 
June 141)1 1645, by victorious Sir Thomas Fairfax ; wherein are many mysteries of State, 
tending to the justification of that cause, for which Sir Thomas Fairfax joined battle 
that memorable day, clearly laid open, together with some annotations thereupon (1645). 
Harleian Miscellany vol. v. (1809). Sir Richard Tangye, of Birmingham, possesses a 
unique collection of letters written by Cromwell and the Fairfaxes during the War. At 
the sale of the library of the Earl of Ashburnhani in September, 1898, the Fairfax MSS. 
realized ^415. 



179 

spent his la>t days at Xun Appleton, where he died Nov. i2th, 1671 
(Whitaker says lie died at Denton), and was buried in the aisle 
adjoining to the south side of Bilbrough Church.* He left an only 
daughter by his wife, Anne, daughter of Lord Yere, of Tilbury, who 
uas born in 1636 and who unfortunately married George Villiers, the 
dissolute Duke of Buckingham. The estate at Denton, however, being 
entailed on the male line, descended to his cousin Henry, son of the 
Rev. Henry Fairfax, rector of I.olton Percy, and grandson of the first 




THOMAS, LORD FAIRFAX. 

Lord Fairfax. This Henry, fourth Baron Cameron, (who was M.P. for 
Co. York in 1678) died at Denton in 1693, aged 86f, when he was 
succeeded by Thomas, the fifth lord, also M.P. for Yorkshire, who 
died in 1709, leaving Thomas, his eldest son, who died unmarried in 
Virginia in 1781, aged 91, and is buried in the old church at 

* See Markham's Life of Lord Fair-fax, and Coleridge's Worthies of Yorkshire, 
pages 175 to 224, and Fairfax Correspondence, 

f It was lit- who munificently restored tin- cclt-braicd liorn of Ulphus to York 
Minxttr in 1671, a* n-conU-d in the inscription now upon it. 



i8o 

Winchester, Virginia. Whitaker is wrong respecting him. Markham 
says that his mother was Catherine, daughter and heiress of Thomas, 
Lord Culpepper, on whose death she succeeded to Leeds Castle in 
Kent, to the proprietary right of the northern neck of Virginia, and 
to an estate of 300,000 acres in the Shenandoah Valley. Her 
mother was Margaret de Hesse. Lady Fairfax sold Denton and all 
the Yorkshire property to pay off the debts on her estates in Kent. 
She did this so recklessly that the price given for Denton was covered 
by the value of the timber.* This was in 1716, when her husband 
having been dead about seven years, her son Thomas, sixth Lord 
Fairfax, was twenty-five years old. Burke implies the Yorkshire 
property was sold about the year 1739, but in a manuscript book in 
vellum cover, in possession of the Rev. Thos. Parkinson, vicar of 
North Otterington, appears this contemporary entry. 

DENTON, May the i8th 1716 A.D. 

MEMORIAL. My Lord ffairfax sold his estate at (3) Denton and Askwith, to one James 
Ibbotson of Leeds; and a place near York called Bilborough, to sixe men, Captain 
ffairfax, Barnard Banks, Nathaniel Hird, one Smithe, one Markes, and one Roodman of 
York. They took possession on the day and yeare above written. 

This day above written James Ibbotson tooke possession and all set there hands to 
a paper and paid sixpence. All the tenants paid sixpence, as before mentioned, to Mr. 
James Ibbotson, of Leeds, f 

Robert, brother to Thomas, sixth Lord Fairfax, succeeded to the 
title and dignity but dying without issue in 1793, the direct male line 
became extinct. Bryan Fairfax, however, who was his heir, being 
grandson of Henry, next brother to Thomas, fifth Lord Fairfax, came 
from Virginia to England in 1793 and laid claim to the peerage, 
which was allowed by the House of Lords in 1800 , and in 1808, the 
House of Commons voted him ,20,000 in compensation for his losses 
in Virginia. The original family claim, I gather, was ^98,000, but 
this was reduced by the Select Committee to ^"60,000, and a dispute 
soon afterwards arose as to the various interests in this sum, life and 
reversionary. Culpepper Court House, which gave its name to a 
battle in Virginia in the Civil War of our time, was on the Fairfax 
estate. Bryan Fairfax was a Whig and a parson and a great friend 
of Washington. He returned to America, and married a Miss 
Elizabeth Gary, by whom he had several children. His eldest son, 
Thomas, succeeded as ninth Lord Fairfax. He was born in 1762 and 
died at Vaucluse, in Virginia, in 1846, aged 84. His eldest son, 
Albert Fairfax, died in 1835, m tne life-time of his father, having 
married and left issue, his son, Charles Snowden Fairfax, became 
tenth Lord Fairfax, and he died in 1869, without issue. His successor, 
the eleventh Lord Fairfax, was his only brother, John Contee Fairfax, 
M.D., of Northampton, Maryland, U.S.A., who was born in 1830 and 

* See also Notes to Maude's Verbeia (1781). 
t Lays and Leaves of the Forest, page 189. 



rSi 

married Mary, daughter of Col. Edmund Kirby of the United States 
Army, by whom he has issue three daughters. 

On the Ibbetsons coming into possession of Denton in 1716 
they did much to improve the estate. I have mentioned Sir Henry 
Carr Ibbetson, Bart, as the first President of the Wharfedale 
Agricultural Society, and during the best part of his life-time in the 
earlier years of this century, Denton Park had a just celebrity for its 
fine and carefully-selected breed of short-horns. Sir Henry was a true 
lover of the farm and field and liked a good animal. I have before 
me an old bill of sale of cattle in 1810 belonging to Mr. Chas. 
Colling, of Ketton, near Darlington, when Sir Henry bought a heifer 
three years old, by Comet, for 105 guineas. At this sale, the sire, 
Comet, then six years old realised 1000 guineas, and the purchasers 
Messrs. Wetherell, Trotter, Wright, and Charge, refused the magnificent 
offer of 1600 guineas for him soon after the sale ! 

By the marriage in 1845 f Laura, daughter of Sir Chas. 
Ibbetson, Bart., with the late Marmaduke Wyvill, Esq., M.P., for 
Richmond, of Burton Constable, in the North Riding,* the Denton 
estate passed to the Wyvills (Sir Chas. Ibbetson's two sons having 
died without issue) and is now owned by Marmaduke D'Arcy Wyvill 
Esq., M.P. for the Otley Division, Co. York. Mr. Wyvill is a 
magistrate of each of the three Ridings of Yorkshire, and a deputy- 
lieutenant of the North Riding. In 1871 he married (i) a daughter of 
Mr. J. Banner Price, of Kensington, who died in 1895, an ^ ( 2 ) ' n 
1898 Elizabeth, daughter of W. H. Wilson-Todd, Esq., of Halnaby 
Hall, Darlington, and Tranby Park, Yorkshire. 

Denton Hall, the old home of the Fairfaxes, was accidentally 
destroyed by fire, and the present mansion is the third house within 
two centuries that is known to have been on or near the site. The 
previous smaller one had been erected in 1734, and the present was 
erected in 1778, from designs by John Carr, the celebrated architect, 
of York.f Twice before had the hall been burnt down through the 
carelessness of servants, a circumstance which induced the builder of 
the present mansion to compose a Latin verse, which he had affixed 
in front of the building. It may be rendered as follows : 

NOR WRATH OF JOVE, NOR FIRE, NOR SWORD, I FERVENT PRAY, 
MAY THIS FAIR DOME AGAIN IN PROSTRATE RUINS LAY. 

The south front, of the mansion, which is about seventy-five feet long, 
overlooks an extensive and well-wooded park ; some of the beeches 
being of magnificent growth, while clustering woods protect it from 
the gales that sweep from the northern moorlands behind. Pleasant 
gardens, with hot-houses and green-houses are attached, which 
contribute to make this one of the most attractive seats in Wharfedale. 

* See the author's RichiHimdshirr, pages 341-2. 
t See the Yorks, Anhl. Jniirl. iv., 205-6. 



l82 

It was at Denton Hall that Prince Rupert lodged on his way 
from Lancaster to York, just before the battle of Marston Moor in 
1644. There was then in the house a very fine portrait of John 
Fairfax, younger brother of the then lord, and Whitaker states that 
the Prince was so impressed with the excellence of this painting that 
he forbade any spoil to be committed upon the house, an act of 
generosity he thinks more likely to be prompted by a fine work of 
art than by respect for the owner of Denton. But one is tempted to 
question this conclusion, for the character of Lord Fairfax presented 
an odd mixture of loyalty and disunion towards the House of Stuart, 
and Prince Rupert seems never wholly to have relinquished the hope 




DENTON HALL A CENTURY AGO 

of his favor, which was as we know so strangely and emphatically 
manifested at the Restoration. 

In 1667 Denton was occupied by William Welby, who died in 
1707, and whose daughter Mary, married Thomas, son of Michael 
Fawkes. In the time of the Fairfaxes great state was maintained at 
the Hall, and particular care was always exercised respecting the 
admission of strangers, who would appear to have been very numerous 
and to have represented all classes, from the beggar to the noble. 
A porter was employed to attend to the gates, and to keep them 
locked after certain hours, he keeping charge of the keys. In the 
time of Lord Fairfax, (obit 1640), whose effigy is in Otley Church, 
a numerous bevy of servants and attendants lived at the Hall, 
including stewards, secretaries, yeomen-of-the-chambers &c., ushers 



pages, messengers, butlers, clerk of the kitchen, gardeners, and other 
functionaries, reminding one almost of the state routine and multifarious 
offices of a large monastic establishment. There was a constant 
stream of resident visitors. The chaplain at Denton was required 
to say prayers at meal-times, and to see that " one of the chapel- 
bells be rung before the prayers one-quarter of an houre, att which 
sumons" the victuals were to be in readiness and the butler must 
" prepair for coveringe but not cover." In 1610 it is recorded there 
was in the house, among other things, " i Great Church Bible, i 
Booke of Common Prayer, 20 Long Pikes, and i Great Auncient 
Clocke." The pikes and prayer-books remind one of the olden 
times when war and religion generally ran hand-in-hand, as we see 
sometimes represented on old nameless tombs. The present house 
contains some handsome rooms, in which are hung many notable 
paintings, and there is also a library of upwards of one thousand 
volumes. The mansion is at present let to John Wormald Esq., 
J.P., of Dewsbury, whose son, Lieutenant Wormald, has lately added 
further martial renown to the historic home at Denton. He was in 
the terrible charge of the 2ist Lancers at the battle of Omdurman in 
1898, which led to the capture of Khartoum. On narrowly missing 
a rifle-shot from a Dervish, mounted on an Arab horse, he struck 
at the man but his sword bent in the action. The Dervish made 
off; had he turned round the young English officer would have lost 
his life, as his sword was almost useless. I may also mention two 
other Wharfedale heroes, Lieut. Hugh V. Fison, second son of Mr. 
Fison M.P., of Burley, and Private Harry Dean, of Ilkley, who were 
present at the battle of Omdurman, and whose lives were sacrificed 
during the same campaign. Their names appear on the brass tablet 
lately erected in Newcastle Cathedral by the officers and men of 
the Northumberland Fusiliers, to the memory of their thirty-four 
comrades who died during this war in the Soudan. 

The old chapel at Denton stood near the present mansion but 
was taken down at the rebuilding in 1778. It contained a memorial 
of Sir Thomas (pb. 1599) and Lady Fairfax (ol>. 1595-6), who were 
both interred in the chapel. The painted glass, elated 1699, was 
removed from the old chapel and placed in the east window of the 
present edifice ; the glass being the work of Henry Gyles, of York, and 
depicts David playing on his harp. It bears also the arms of Thomas, 
fourth Lord Fairfax. On the west wall of the church is a beautiful 
brass tablet, fifteen inches by twenty-four inches, on which is recorded 
that the church was formerly a donative, and was given over to the 
See of Ripon by Marmaduke Wyvill and Laura, his wife, in 1867, 
and was dedicated in honor of St. Helen by William, Lord Bishop of 
the Diocese in 1890. It reads as follows : 

St. Helen, mother of Constantine the Great, was chosen as Patroness because of her 
close connection with the county of York, and with this neighbourhood in particular. 



1 84 

Three days have been set apart in her honour by the Church of England: May 3rd 
(the finding of the Holy Cross) August i8th (St. Helen's Day) and September I4th 
(Holy Cross Day). 

The church contains numerous memorials of the Ibbetson family, 
the last of whom to reside here was Sir Chas. Ibbetson, Bart., who 
died April Qth, 1839, aged sixty. In the churchyard is a stone from 
the old church, inscribed to the memory of Frances, the wife of 
Henry, Lord Fairfax, of Denton, and daughter of Sir Robert Barwick, 
of Toulston, Kt. She died February i4th, 1683. 

In the time of the first Lord Fairfax, who, as I have shewn, 
lived in . great state at the Hall, there were many customs and 
regulations appertaining to the manor which are now obsolete. No 
one, for example, was permitted to let a pig go unyoked, nor must 
any dog run loose without muzzle; the latter regulation having been 
repeatedly enforced and withdrawn, as it now stands. Formerly if 
any pig was taken within the hall demesne the owner was to forfeit 
is. per pig. No one was allowed to burn any ling on the moor 
between Derneen Brow, (now known as Dearncomb, close to the 
parish boundary on the north-west) and P'rseley Rigge (now 
Lippersley Ridge) on pain of 6s. 8d. forfeit. No one was allowed to 
harbour strangers or take in lodgers for longer than a month, on pain 
of forfeit of TOS. per month. Among the tenants' names in Queen 
Elizabeth's days we find many who seem to have come with the 
Thwaites' from the neighbourhood of Keighley, such as Hall, Milner, 
Braithwait, Newsom, &c. Sixty years ago the old blacksmith at 
Denton, James Thackeray, came over the hill from Nidderdale, and 
was doubtless a connection of the Thackerays of the adjoining 
parish of Hampsthwaite, who produced the celebrated Archdeacon 
Thackeray, whose great-grandson was the eminent novelist, Win. 
Makepeace Thackeray. At the same time there was living here a 
farmer of the name of Henry Stubbs, whose long connection with the 
Forest, proclaims a probable connection with the family of the learned 
author of the Constitutional History of England, Dr. William Stubbs, 
now Bishop of Oxford, whose Forest ancestry I have referred to in 
my history of Nidderdale. 



CIIAPTKR XIII. 




Il.KI.KV HEKORF. THE NORMAN ( '<>N(.U; KST. 

Ilklcy mentioned by I'tolemy A Hrigantian station Meaning of Oliinmi The Anglo- 
Saxou subjugation Conjectural --lie of tlic British "city" The Roman station 
Description of tlic Roman camp Local discox cries Tlic "Ycrbcia-" stone 
Meaning of Wharte The "Hercules" stone, its probable significance Christianity 
prevailing in places not reached by the Romans The Celtic Church Karly forms 
of baptism A remarkable Roman grave-slab at Ilklev Other discoveries The 
Ilklcy camp the focus of four Roman highways Their routes described Saxon 
Christianity at Ilklcy Local sculptured cn>s-,r. Local influence of St. Wilfrid - 
Ilklev a Danish mint Antii|iiitv of 'boundaries Ancient methods of cultivation. 

,11 K history of Ilklev begins long before the Roman 
occupation, for on the authority of Ptolemy, who lived 
in the reign of Antoninus Pius, ai. A.D. 150, we learn 
that this place was one of the nine capital cities of the 
Brigantes, a widespread, brave and warlike race 
composed of both Celtic and pre-Celtic clans.* Had these various 
tribes been united and better concerted in action, instead of being 
continuously at strife with each other, they would probably have 
successfully resisted the Roman conquest in the north. But the 
British dissension was Rome's opportunity, and thus we find that the 
invaders stormed and captured one by one the British camps, or in 
the words of Juvenal, Dinic maurontin iiftegias, et castra Bngantum. 
In the list of thirty-three cities of the Britons cited by Nennius in 
the eighth or ninth century, there is no suggestion of Olicana or 
Ilklev, nor even of hnrium or Aldborough, which is said to have 
been their chief stronghold, shewing how little reliance can be placed 
on complete accuracy of the early historians. That much-doubted 
chronicler, Richard of Cirencester, names eight stations of the 
Brigantes, five of which, including Olicana, are in modern Yorkshire.! 
What may be the true meaning of this word Olicana or Alicana, as 
sometimes written, is difficult to decide. The latter form retains a 
suggestion of the Roman alica, a coarsely-ground kind of grain, or 
spelt-grits, from which a nutritious drink was made, and is mentioned 
by the celebrated Roman physician Cornelius Celsus, ca. A.D. 40. On 
the whole, however, I incline to the belief that the name is a 
Latinised form of a pre-existing British name, in which either the 

* See Elton's Origins <>f English History, p. 242. 

I So learned an authority as the Rev. D. H. Haigh "finds it impossible to endorse 
the judgment that Richard of Cirencester's Roman Itinerary was a forgery," but he will 
not commit himself to an opinion as to the genuineness of the Description of Britain 
which accompanies it. Yorks. Archl. Jl. iv. 82. 



i86 

elements, ail, a cliff, ol, a station, and ccann, a headland or rocky 
promontory, enter. Thus Ol-y-ceann would be the station by the rocky 
headland, a sufficiently near allocation to bring in the prominent 
"Cow and Calf." But this is Goidelic-Celtic rather than Cymric- 
Celtic, which the names in this part of Wharfedale favor, yet there is 
no doubt these rugged fastnesses were the refuges of each successive 
wave of Celtic immigration. It should also be considered that as a 
cohort of the Lingones was stationed at Ilkley, some additional 
weight is given to this conjecture, as the Lingones were Goidels from 
Celtic Gaul. 

The arts of peace usually bring in their train luxury and 
effeminacy, and so it proved with the Roman-conquered Britons, who 
on the Roman withdrawal in the fifth century fell an easy prey to 
the hungry and eager Anglo-Saxon pirates. Still whatever may be 
the original import of the Roman Olicana, singularly the Anglo- 
Saxon verb olcecan, meaning to fawn, to please, to gratify, or in a 
secondary sense, to cringe, to obey, to submit to superior force,* 
expresses pretty clearly what we may expect to have taken place on 
the subjugation of the Ilkley stronghold by the Anglo-Saxons, who 
so far flattered or terrorised over the natives, that the latter united 
with the new-comers. Or what is more likely they fell back for a 
time on the surrounding heights, while the foe quietly occupied the 
more fertile lands they found already cultivated, just as in recent 
times English settlers seized the fertile riparian lands in Australia, 
when the poor aborigines withdrew to the wastes. As bearing out 
the idea of British cultivation at Ilkley, before the Anglian Conquest 
I shall have more to say on the subject when I come to consider the 
aspects of the manor during the Norman period. 

There is no doubt that the two important Brigantian stations at 
Ilkley and Aldborough fell to the Roman power on the invasion of 
the district by Agricola; who was appointed legate of Britain in A.D. 
78. This great general made Deva (Chester) the point of starting 
and attacking the difficult region of the Brigantes ; following no doubt, 
much the same route as afterwards formed the military highway 
between Manchester, Ilkley, and Aldborough. That the victory of 
Agricola in these parts is not mere assumption is shewn by the fact 
that the local lead mines were in possession of the Romans within a 
few years subsequently. There was discovered on Hayshaw Moor, 
to the north of the Roman road from Ilkley by Blubberhouses, two 
fine pigs of lead inscribed with the name of the Emperor Domitian, 
who reigned from A.D. 81 to 96, and also the date of his consulate 
(A.D. 87) and the word Brig, (meaning smelted in the country of the 
Brigantes) ; thus affording excellent evidence that the lead mines of 
the district were then under Roman control.! 

* Vide Diet. Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum, opera et studio Gul. Somneri (1639). 
f See the author's Nidderdale, p. 417. 



r8 7 

That Briton and Roman and subsequently Romano-Briton and 
Anglo-Saxon were eventually united in common husbandry in this 
district is proved on the evidence of several Goidelic and Cymric 
place-names still existing in the neighbourhood. These British 
names have passed down as living words on the lips of Saxon and 
Norman and have survived to the present day. Had the Britons 
been dispersed or refused allegiance to the foreign conquerors, their 
language, of course, would have perished with them, and the 
invaders would have coined names for the cliffs and moors, and fields 
in their own language. Instead we find that some of the most 
ancient names are still in vogue. 

The site of the original British "city" at Ilkley can only be 
conjectured. For a time no doubt the conquests of Agricola wrought 
sad havoc in the district. Tacitus speaks of the Britons forsaking 
and burning their own houses out of rage and fury, and of shifting 
from one hole to another on their defeat by the strangely-equipped 
legions of Agricola. He also speaks of deserted houses and burning 
dwellings of the Britons on the hill-sides and eminences, and of their 
scouts not meeting a soul.* The probability is that the original 
station was nearer the sheltering crags, and not far from the wonderful 
perennial springs for which Ilkley is still famous, rather than beside 
the open river, where the Romans erected their castra. The Brigantes 
ate no fish, though they might get it in plenty, as we learn from Dio 
Nicaeus, out of Xiphilin's Epitome, but lived by hunting and on the fruit 
of trees. f They also kept cattle, which Caesar tells us was their chief 
wealth. The extensive ancient enclosures under Green Hill on the 
moor south of Lanshaw Delves have doubtless been places for cattle, 
having a rampart with a stockade, but the existing foundations are 
rectangular or oblong, or of post-Roman date, and in all probability 
are referrable to the 5th century withdrawal of the Romanised Britons 
on the Anglian irruption. I shall return to this subject when dealing 
with the antiquities of the neighbouring moors. 

The foundation-walls of the Roman castra, within which stands 
the old Parish Church, are still well defined on the north, west and 
east sides. On the north and east especially they form steep 
escarpments in which here and there the original masonry may be 
seen exposed. This consists of the gritstone of the country, cemented 
together with a wonderful mixture of lime and pebbles retaining the 
courses as firmly as when first built, and defying the ravages of time 
and the elements. The camp, originally of turf, was restored or 
rebuilt with stone in the time of the Emperor Severus, ca. A.D. 200. 
The small area of it proclaims its early date, while the Roman 
method of castrametation was usually to form rectangular or straight 
faces with rounded or angular corners, the latter a conspicuous 

* See Camden nritannia (Gibson's ed.) p. Ixxvi. I Ibid. p. xliii. 



i88 

feature of their design, and an example of which still exists, almost 
perfect, on Counter Hill, near Addingham. 

When the Rev. John VVhitaker visited Ilkley between 1760 and 
1770, the site of the Roman camp was such that he was able to 
define accurately its extent and appearance, and at this day his 
description is worth repeating. He says : 

The area of the Roman Camp in Ilkley can be clearly traced. It is pointed out by 
the appellation, Castle Hill, and by the remains of the rampart. The ground is admirably 
defended by the Wharfe on the north, and by two brooks on the sides. The western 
brook has had half its waters diverted into another channel, but must have been a lively 
current before this, and given strength to a brow naturally steep, and rising' from ten to 
fifteen yards above it, but in the eastern channel, the brook is still extremely brisk, and 
runs about twenty yards below the crest of the eminence. Both of them discharge their 
waters into the Wharfe immediately below. The camp was about 100 yards by 160, the 
northern barrier ranging along the course of the present land, parallel with and about 
twenty yards to the north of the road from Broughton to Aldborough, and the whole 
area contains about four acres of ground ;* encompassing the castle, and including the 
present church and cemetery. The wall of the station can be seen at the north-western 
angle, and is easily discovered under the turf along the whole verge of the brow, being 
of the rough millstone-grit of the country. The town was built very near the station 
along the course of the road from Broughton, in Banks Croft, Scafe Croft, and some 
adjoining closes, and there fragments of brick, remarkably red, have been dug up, and 
the foundations of houses remain very visible at present, f 

On the abrupt eastern face, overhanging the ravine, may still 
be seen, as I have myself observed, bits of red Samian ware as well 
as other fragments of glass, tiles, pottery, and bones, protruding from 
the ramparts, or having become dislodged have fallen into the brook 
below. But no complete excavation of the camp has yet been made. 
A well of probable Roman antiquity was discovered a few years ago 
while draining the main street. 

Camden was the first to record (A.D. 1586) that the Ilkley camp 
was rebuilt in Severus' time by Virius Lupus, Legate and Propraetor 
of Britain (fa. A.D. 196-202), a circumstance deduced from a stone 
then lately dug up near the church. He read it as follows: IM. 

SEVERVS AVG ET ANTON INVS CAES DESTINATVS RESTITVERVNT CVRANTE 

VIRIO LVPO LEG EORVM PR PR. What has become of this interesting 
memorial is not exactly known, but it is probably at Myddelton 
Lodge and the inscription is now defaced.^ Another stone mentioned 
by Camden as in the walls of the church cannot now be traced. It 
was inscribed : RVM CAES AVG ANTONINI ET VERI lovi DILECTI 
CAECILIVS PRAEF COM. On the death of Antoninus, surnamed the 

* The camp on Castor Cliff, Colne (the Roman Colonio) is of similar small dimensions 
though nearly a square, measuring 183 by 173 yards, which includes the ground occupied 
by the double ditch and rampart. The actual area of the camp within the walls is 126 
by 113 yards. It is usually assigned to the time of Agricola. 

f History of Manchester, (1771). 

Only one other altar in Britain has been found bearing the name of this legate, 
and that is at Bowes, where the inscription states that a bath there was restored by 
Virius Lupus under the care of Valerius Fronto, of the Vettonian Horse. 



i8g 

Pious, in A.D. 161, (a coin of whose reign, I am imformed, has lately 
been dug up at Grassington) Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus 
became joint associates in governing the State, and it was during 
their reign that Britain broke out in revolt. But favored by Jove or 
Jupiter (the greatest of all the gods, the Diu-pater "father of the 
heavens'') they triumphed, and this stone was raised at Ilkley in 
their honour by Caecilius, prefect of the cohort. Verus died in 
A.D. 169. Camden also saw a remarkable old altar-stone, "now," 
he says "put under a pair of stairs," but which was long ago removed 
to Myddelton Lodge, where I have seen it and find that the two or 
three centuries of constant exposure has left no sign of an inscription. 
The stone is eighteen inches square and five feet high. Camden's 

reading of it was: VERBEIAE SACRUM CLOD1VS FRONTO PRAEF COH II 

LINGONES. The critical eye of Thoresby saw however in the final 
words "p. LINGONES,''' while Warburton, who made a drawing of the 
altar in 1718, read it "p. LINGON", hence the ^rc/ and not the second 
cohort, whose commander had dedicated this altar to Verbeise, 
apparently the goddess of the river. For we gather from various 
Roman authors that rivers had altars dedicated to them, and every 
important stream had its nymph presiding over it.* This Verbeiae 
may be a Latinised form of the GoideJic guerif, to heal, and as there 
are a number of healing springs, anciently efficacious in a bodily as 
well as a spiritual sense, that flow into the Wharfe, the river may 
possibly have got its name from these votive waters.! The Lingones, 
I have pointed out, were Celts from Gaul, and the French, says 
Camden, use the word giierir to express the above meaning. The 
Saxon form however, as written by Simeon of Durham, is Hwerf, 
which may be variously interpreted. In the Cotton MSS. of the 
Gospels, the Vulgate Latin text of which was written about A.D. 680, 
the word implies a loan, exchange, or conversion; while in the Rush- 
worth or Northumbrian Gloss or version of the four Gospels, written 
in the tenth century, hwcorf means distance. Again I find in the 
Diet. Saxonico Latino-Anglicum of Somneri, published in 1659, hweorfa 
is rendered a whirl, what is hastily turned round, and the verb hweorfan 
means to turn, change, wander, or return, while in Credmon's Metrical 
Paraphrase, Anglo-Saxon and English, by Thorpe (1832) hwearfian, 
cognate with the Norse hvarf, a sharp bend, similarly implies a 
turning or winding round ; though if twisting or turning be the true 
meaning of Wharfe, it is difficult to understand why this characteristic 
should be applied to the Wharfe in preference to other of the 
Yorkshire rivers, unless it be from the fact that the Wharfe after 



* In 1702 an altar was found at Greta Bridge, near Barnard Castle, dedicated to the 
nymph goddess Elauna, apparently the nymph of the Lune. 

fin South Africa garief means a river, e.g., Ky-garief (yellow river), Nu-garief 

(black rivt-r) r. I'/V/r Blarkii-'s I'hui' Xames, p. 87. 



190 

flowing almost due south to Ilkley, makes a sharp bend eastwards 
under the Chevin towards Harewood and York.* 

There is a curiously sculptured stone in the north wall of the 
tower, but unfortunately concealed by the raised wooden flooring, 
though a plaster-cast has been made of it, which may be seen in the 
church. The stone is uninscribed and bears the design in relief of 
a half-length human figure, with the head half-encircled with a hood 
or cap. There are two serpent-like objects passing from the top of 
the stone down each side of the head and the ends are apparently 
grasped one in each hand. If one may accept Cough's tradition 




THE ILKLEY STONE. 



FONT AT EAST HADDON. 



(vide Camdeti) that "it is a statue of the goddess Verbeiae, and was 
anciently placed on her altar," the inference may be drawn that the 
two serpentine objects are intended to typify the courses of certain 
sacred streams entering the symbolized body of the Wharfe. But 
this is a very plausible theory. The stone may possibly have some 
connection with the river or holy-water, and I am prone to believe it 
was in this way. The serpent is always in early Christian sculpture 
the symbol of evil or of sin, and it seems to me that these two long 
snake-like objects have this particular character and meaning. They 
are apparently being strangled by the small-waisted, youthful figure 

* The village of Wharfe, near Austwick, appears in the Poll Tax (Austwyk) for 
'.W as Q lter f- 



t 9 t 

shewn on the stone, thus symbolizing, I venture to think, the conquest 
of sin after baptism. The sculpture is commonly accepted as a 
representation of the infant Hercules strangling the serpents, but the 
figure has little to suggest the god of strength, nor can I conceive 
what a statue of Verbeise has to do with strangling serpents. 

Some support, however, is given to my contention by the fact 
of the representation of strangled serpents on certain baptismal fonts 
(and perhaps the drowned leviathans on the Burnsall font conveys the 
same meaning). For example, on the Norman font at East Haddon, 
in Northamptonshire (shewn on the annexed plate), there is sculptured 
in low relief a similar slender half-length figure, wearing a flat or 
slightly rounded hood, and grasping in each hand a long writhing 
serpent, each being carried to the right and left half way round the 
font. Appearing on such an object it has doubtless the meaning 
above expressed. But whether the Ilkley stone be Roman or later 
I am not prepared to say. It may possibly have formed some part 
of a baptistery even during the Roman occupation of Ilkley, as the 
priest Tertullian, writing about the year 208, mentions the consecration 
of water at baptism (De Bapt. c.iv.), though it was not till the reign of 
Constantine the Great, or early in the 4th century, that baptisteries 
first came into use, and they were then, moreover, invariably 
furnished with an altar. 

I have elsewhere contended that the early Christians found a 
strong refuge in the recesses of the Wharfedale moors during their 
persecutions and varying fortunes in the after-days of the Romans. 
The same priest, Tertullian, (ca. 208), tells us plainly that the lamp 
of divine truth had begun to shine "in camp, and senate, and forum," 
in remote parts of Britain, while the further statement is made : 
Brittannorum inaccessa Romanis loca, Christo veto subdita. No other 
construction can be put upon these words than that Christ had 
conquered even places in Britain which the Romans had not then 
reached. That the Britons were Christians at this early period is 
also reasserted by Origen in 239.* It is indeed not too much to 
affirm nay, I do so with the fullest conviction that even so late as 
the conquest of Saxon Northumbria by the Cymric Christian Cadwalla 
in 633, the Britons were in ignorance of any connection with Romish 
Christianity, and the council at Whitby in 664 strongly confirms this. 
What district then more likely than Wharfedale, in the heart of 
Christian Elmete, as authorities are agreed it proved, to stand by 
the old Celtic usages, and further the divine impulsus? Even after 
the forced suppression of the Celtic Church, the persuasive St. Wilfrid, 
notwithstanding the eloquence of his tongue and the erection of 

* See Haddon and Stubbs, Couticils i. 3. f See also George Esdaile's paper on this 
s nl)'|cct in the Transactions of the I.ano. and Cheshire Antiq. Socv. vol. vii. p. 108-116. 



192 

beautiful crosses, found it next to impossible to convert the steadfast 
Britons, as we learn from the venerable Bede. There can surely be 
no district in England (considering, too, its remote and mountainous 
character), richer in early Christian memorials than Wharfedale in 
Elmete. Ilkley, like Otley, I take to have been a stronghold of the 
simple Apostolic Celtic Church, and there is abundant negative 
evidence to support this belief. And before the Romans left Britain 




ROMAN GRAVESTONE FOUND AT ILKLEY. 

it is certain that the faith of Christ was followed, in name at least, 
by every country in Western Europe, save Germany, and even in the 
remotest parts of North Britain and Ireland.* And all this gives 
color to the belief that the ordination of baptism was not unknown in 
Wharfedale even in Roman times. 

A stone found at Ilkley in 1867, while excavating for the 

* See O'Hanlon's Lives of Irish Saints, vols. ii. iii. iv. ; also Aran, Pagan and 
Christian, by W. F. Wakeman in Duffy's Hibernian Magazine, vol. i. p. 577. 




' 



T-SIBI: E r 




ROMAN GRAVE SLAB AT YORK. 



1 9 4 

foundations of the Independent Chapel, in Green Lane, may 
possibly bear upon this subject. It is five feet eight inches long and 
three feet four inches wide, and is now at Myddelton Lodge. It is 
divided into two parts, the uppermost occupied by raised sculptures 
of three human beings, said to be a father, mother, and child, and 
the lower compartment has an uninscribed rectangular tablet having 
an arm on each side forming a kind of cross-patee. The top of the 
stone is arched, the centre point being raised a little above the line 
of impost, the inner arch being semi-circular and the outer pointed. 
The late Mr. F. A. Leyland, the historian, of Halifax, was the first 
to point out that the centre figure represents a priest, as shewn by 
the chasuble, cup, and wafer, while the deacon in Mass canonicals 
appears on the left, and on the right is depicted a youthful acolyte, 
with his symbols ; all the figures being robed in vestments as worn 
at the altar, and in which it was usual to bury them. The stone 
may possibly have been a memorial slab, like one at York here 
depicted for comparison, which commemorates the wife of one C. 
yEresius, a soldier of the sixth legion, and his infant son and 
daughter.* See illustrations on pages 192 and 193. 

Other sculptured stones, as well as pottery, urns, glass, and 
Roman hand-mills have been dug up from time to time in and about 
the site of the camp. A fine vase was also discovered while 
excavating for the foundations of the railway station. Few coins 
have been found, and these include two silver ones of Antoninus 
Pius (A.D. 138-161) and a few brass ones of Vespasian and Hadrian 
(A.D. 69-138). Mr. J. A. Middlebrook, of Ilkley, has also shewed 
me a coin of Trajan which was found whilst sodding behind the 
Lister Arms hotel (the sods were brought from Middleton) some three 
or four years ago, which I have been able to decipher as follows : 

Ob. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC. Rev. PM TRP COS VI 

pp SPQR OB cs. (Pater patriae ; senatus populus que Romanus ob civis 
sen'atos ; i.e. the Roman Senate and people for saving the citizens). 
Trajan was Governor of Germany and the first foreigner who reigned 
in Rome. He conquered the warlike Dacians and added their 
kingdom to the Roman Empire. He succeeded Nerva in A.D. 98, 
and died in 117, and this coin was struck during his sixth consulate. 
Many of the objects have got dispersed, but there still remains a 

* I ;uri told that the design as thus interpreted has been doubted, but if the 
sculpture does not symbolize Roman Christianity, one would like to know what it does 
represent. The centre figure has a noticeably smaller and less masculine head than the 
next figure of equal height, and may represent a woman, but what is the vessel held in 
the right hand if not a chalice? Mr. Langdon, in his Early Crosses of Cornwall (1890), 
pictures some objects sculptured on crosses at St. Dennis that look like hour-glasses, 
and observes that the only things of this shape which he has seen are some glass 
tumblers about three inches high which were taken out of a grave in the old Roman 
burying ground near Rio Tinto, in Spain. 



195 

number of interesting Roman and other relics found in the 
neighbourhood in the museum at Ilkley.* 

The camp at Ilkley was the focus of four important Roman 
highways, of which, however, few traces are now in evidence. Some 
years ago when the brickworks on the opposite side of the river were 
in progress, several portions of a paved road were discovered, 
doubtless continuous with that over Middleton and Blubberhouses 
Moors,-*- crossing the Nidd near Hampsthwaite Church and thence 
towards Aldborough. It may be traced to the west of Middleton 
Moorhouses, and passes close to an old quarry west of Windsover 
Farm (A.S. windl, to wind, and ofer, a border, boundary, or shore). 
This road from Ilkley appears to have taken an almost due north 
and south direction. Mr. J. A. Middlebrook, of Ilkley, tells me that 
whilst his men were draining three years ago in the Rose and Crown 
yard, they came upon a cobble pavement twelve feet wide, which 
was again found in the Grove near the District Council's offices.* 

The second of these roads, already described, crossed Bramhope 
Moor and the Chevin from Adel, and a third left Ilkley on the 
west, and, says John Whitaker (1771), "is still traceable for three 
miles together from Ilkley, and then appears very conspicuous for a 
whole one upon a large moor in the parish of old Addingham. 
Here it is parallel with and a few yards to the south of the present 
way to Skipton " (by Cross Bank and over Draughton Heights near 
Close House), passing some distance to the south of the town." 
Crossing the Aire valley it can still be traced south of Broughton 
Church, || and thence in a south-westerly direction between Barnolds- 

An account of the objects in the museum, by .Mr. \Vm. Cudworth, will be found 
in the Reliquary for October, 1898. 

f On Blubberhouses Moor a cart-track occupies the ancient stratum for about a mile, 
which is only used by the farmers when carting peat and turf from the moor. The road 
here is not paved with large stones edged with still larger [as described by Dr. 
Whitaker], but composed of broken stones or rough gravel, with a raised centre ii> 
allow the escape of water to the sides, similar to our best modern roads, about ten feet 
in width and a foot in thickness. .SVr \Vm. Grainge's Thnhli' (1895), page 85, and ,w 
also his History of Harrogate, &c. (1871), page 32. 

See also Bradford Antiquary (1898), p. .253. 

S In the middle of a field at the end of Cross Lane on the south side of York Gate 
plantation is a flatfish rough-shaped stone, nearly six feet high, which is believed to be 
a Roman mile-stone. No inscription is visible upon it, nor is it within fifty yards ot 
the mapped direction of the Roman road. The base is below the ground, and is said 
to be socketed to retain the upright stone. 

^f History of Manchester (\Yi\\ p. 194. 

The rector of Broughton informs me that in the spring of 1899 while some 
draining was being carried on in low-lying ground, about 300 yards south of the 
church, he told the man to keep a sharp look out for the Roman road, marked on the 
Ordnance Map at this point. The pavement was discovered about two feet below the 
surface, composed of large setts, and the road is seven yards wide. The rector has also 
lately obtained a Roman coin of Constantine the Great, found by a man while digging 
war Craroe. Another coin of this Kmperor was found at Graxsington. 



196 

wick and Bracewell by Chatburn to Ribchester. Drake in his 
Eboracum (A.D. 1736), in referring to this road from Ribchester to 
Ilkley, mentions Warburton's map* shewing the direction of the road, 
whose stone pavement, he says, "is yet in many places very firm, 
being eight yards broad. It comes to Gisburn, crosses Ramwalds 
Moor to that known station Olicana." The road from Ilkley to 
Colne (Co/onio) appears to have taken a very round-about course, 
following the Manchester road southwards to near Denholme, whence 
its direction was westwards through Oxenhope. But there seems no 
reason why these stations should not have been reached by a much 
quicker route, and there are good grounds for assuming that this was 
the case. The Manchester road came by Hainworth and in all 
probability crossed the river Aire between Stockbridge and East 
Riddlesden Hall (where is an ancient ford), thence it mounted the 
hill direct past Upwood and Brass Castle. But a mile to the west 
of this road in the Aire valley are indications of an ancient thorough- 
fare crossing the river at a place called Jow or Jowl Hole in Low 
Utley, whence it probably took along the hill side towards Steeton, 
and an old lane leading from the south end of the village was, until 
the new road was made, called Wood Street.! Whether any road 
crossed the moor hence direct westwards to Colne, or whether there 
was a direct route to the camp at Broughton, nothing satisfactory 
can be said. It was however, not far from Elam Grange, on the 
opposite side of the river to Low Utley, and probably a mile west of 
the Manchester and Ilkley road, that the famous copper chest 
containing nearly icolb. weight of Roman denarii, was found, the 
intrinsic value of which was about ^400. 

The south road from Ilkley to Manchester has been described 
in an exhaustive paper by Mr. J. Norton Dickons, ex-president of the 
Bradford Historical Society. This road enters Yorkshire from 
Lancashire by the elevated moors of Blackstone Edge, where for 
about a mile the paved roadway, 16 feet wide, with its curious centre 
groove, is still visible. With the exception of the four or five miles 
of pavement over the Gog-Magog Hills, near Cambridge, this is 
perhaps the most extensive and perfect Roman military way now 
remaining exposed in England. The road passes through the parish 
of Bingley,*' and as stated above, probably crossed the Aire near 
Stockbridge, whence ascending the hill by the mansion of Upwood, 
where the late Mr. Busfeild, M.P., who died in 1851, "broke up at 
various times nearly a mile of this road within his property." it 

* This map is exceedingly rare, and the only known copy is in the Bradford Public 
Library. 

t See the author's Airedale, p. 197. See the author's Old Bingley, pp. 58, 338, &c. 
Vide Bradford Antiquary, 1898, pp. 239-254 (with map). 
*! See the author's "Old Bingley," pp. 53-58. 
Vide Cudworth's Round about Bradford, p. 186. 



i 9 7 

traverses RiiinbuMs Moor, and "the slope of Weary Hill on the lines 
of the modern road from Keighley behind the Wells House at Ilkley, 
but in a more direct line."* Among the collection of antiquities 
exhibited at the meeting of the Archrelogical Institute at York in 1846 
there was shewn by Miss M. Ellis, of Castlefield, Bingley, impressions 
from silver coins of Domitian, Antoninus, M. Aurelius, and Commodus. 
from the hoard found at Elam, near Keighley, together with three 
plans, shewing the course of the Roman road in the parish of Bingley, 
and ancient remains near that place. f What has become of these 
plans I have been unable to discover after the fullest enquiry. 

The impetus given to Romanized Christianity in Wharfedale by 
the preaching of Paulinas in the yth century, and afterwards by St. 
Wilfrid, I have already dwelt upon, and Ilkley boasts the possession 
of three Christian crosses of this period, of almost unrivalled excellence 
of workmanship. They are ideals in Christian sculpture, and represent 
the climax of pre-Norman art. From what I have written about 
Otley as a stronghold of Celtic Christianity in the north, it is 
extremely probable that Paulinas himself and St. Wilfrid a little later 
visited both Otley and Ilkley, and these superb crosses mark the 
epoch of a great Christian endeavour. The valley of the VVharfe is 
still exceptionally rich in early sculptured crosses, which seem to 
indicate the revival of a faith that had long slumbered, a kind of 
joyous peal rung through the heart of old Elmete in these imperishable 
emblems of Our Lord's Passion ! 

In the contorted animal forms shewn on these crosses which 
are represented biting their tails, or with a single paw raised in an 
attitude of weak defiance, the whole surmounted by the glorified 
Christ (unless this be a representation of St. Wilfrid, with his pastoral 
staff) we apparently discern the triumph of Christianity over the base 
religion of the gods, as exemplified in the apochryphal Gospel of the 
Nativity, when dragons and beasts knew the Saviour in the desert 
and acknowledged Him. We find the same unsettled idea expressed 
at a later date' in the protracted contest between Danish paganism 
and native Christianity, when St. Olaf (who appears to have inherited 
the attributes of Thor in the Norse mythology) is represented as 
trampling on the dragon, and in whose honor many churches in 
England are dedicated. It is, indeed, not unlikely that St. Olaf in 
this guise is the original of St. George, the patron saint of England. 
The three crosses have been permanently fixed in a stone base in 
Ilkley churchyard, and they have been described by Mr. T. J. 
Pettigrew, F.R.S., and a later and much fuller description of them 
has been given by Mr. J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A., accompanied by 
illustrations.^ The two shorter crosses had for a long time served 

* Bradford Antiquary, 1898, p. 250. f See Proc . Anhl. hist., 1846, Pt. ii. pp. 9-13. 
See Brit. Archaeol. Jl. vol. xx. (1864) and vol. xl. (1884); also Phillip's Rivers, 
Mountains &c. ofYvrksh. (1855) pi. 17, and Whitakcr's Craven, ,-,rd cd. (1878) p. 284. 



198 

ignominiously as gate posts to the churchyard. The principal cross, 
which is of local gritstone, is eight feet four inches high, without 
head, which is lost. On one side of it are four panels, each bearing 
a symbolical figure of the four Evangelists holding the book of his 
Gospel, and arranged from the bottom in this order (i) St. Matthew 
(the Man), (2) St. Mark (the Lion), (3) St. Luke (the Bull), (4) St. 
John (the Eagle). On the opposite side are four other panels, three 
of them bearing designs of upright (interlaced) animals, as described 
above, while the top one has a human figure clothed and nimbed, 
holding in the left hand a pastoral staff with the crook turned 
outwards, perhaps intended to represent the Saviour. The two other 
sides are beautifully ornamented in a uniform scroll pattern, 
terminating with bunches of grapes and leaves. This design and 
the frequent use of the vine in Northumbrian crosses, is one of the 
most common ornaments of the crosses in Italy and France, and 
there can be little doubt that its use in our neighbourhood is referrable 
to the skilled workmen whom St. Wilfrid brought with him from the 
Continent. At St. Wilfrid's church at Hexham, begun in 674, we 
have the same vine pattern as at Ilkley and Otley.* The familiar 
triquetra, or three-cornered knot (in this case angular) also appears 
on one of these sides. There are also two interlaced serpentine 
animals depicted at the bottom of the same side, beneath the 
fruiting scrolls, from which one might possibly construe the Biblical 
version of the Spirit of Evil lurking beneath the Tree of Life, or as 
Milton, in describing the Tempter addressing Eve in Paradise Lost, 
says 

About the mossy trunk I wound me soon ; 
For high from ground, the branches would require 
Thy utmost reach, or Adam's, round the tree 
All other beasts that saw, with like desire 
Longing and envying stood, but could not reach. 

The sculpture of the two other crosses (which are now little 
more than half the height of the one described) is equally dexterously 
wrought in the millstone grit of the neighbourhood. As time wore 
on towards the tenth century there was a gradual debasement in this 
class of work, both in idea and execution. The Guiseley cross is an 
example of late work, as appears also the portion of a cross found in 
the river in Ilkley, in June, 1889. This stone is thirty-two inches 
long, about ten inches broad and six inches thick, and has been 
sculptured on all four sides. One of the sides bears the design of 
an interlaced monster, and may equally with above symbolize the 
temptation that ever lurks in the path of the righteous. 

* It is to be regretted that these unique crosses are still exposed to the deteriorating 
effects of the weather. If no suitable place can be found for them inside the church, 
a special annex might be erected for their better preservation, as has been done at 
Ruthwell. A small sketch of the crosses appears at the end of this chapter. 



199 

On the Danish irruption in 870 nearly ;ill the religious houses 
in Yorkshire and other parts of England that were overrun were more 
or less destroyed. The Archbishop of York fled into Wharfedale, 
and according to Simeon of Durham remained some time in exile at 
Addingham. The Danes came up the valley and every Christian 
temple was demolished. The Rev. Daniel Haigh contends they 
were so firmly established in this part of Wharfedale that Ilkley 
became one of the northern mints under the Danish Kings.* The 
Anglo-Saxon population must have taken refuge, like the Celts had 
before them, on the surrounding heights. The frequent occurrence 
of Anglian and Celtic place-names on conjoined ground gives some 
credence to this belief. The old boundaries also do not seem to 
have been disturbed through the successive ownerships of Celt, 
Roman, Saxon, Dane, and Norman, and even to our own time we 
find the ancient tribal divisions retained as township and parish 
boundaries, fixed as some of these divisions were by the oldest tribes 
of which we have any certain knowledge. I find evidence of these 
primitive tribal lines having been retained everywhere in Wharfedale. 
The Goidelic-Celtic bealach, a passage from one place to another, a 
boundary, occurs in the form of black, as in Black Hill, Black Beck, 
Black Pasture, and the like, in every parish in Wharfedale, a most 
significant fact, which has not been hitherto noticed. It is usually 
found upon high ground in outlying parts of the township or parish, 
and always upon or close to the present boundaries. In the same 
territories we likewise often meet with the Anglo-Saxon mearc, Norm- 
French, merche, a boundary, in the modernised form of March or 
Marsh, and always contiguous to the same Celtic tribal lines, which 
have been commonly adopted as parochial or other divisions to our 
own day. 

When the Romans left Ilkley, the old tribal divisions which had 
never been really extinguished by Roman rule, were again renewed, 
and it became the universal law of all subsequent peoples not to 
disturb the old landmarks. Stone pillars, trees, particularly the ash 
and thorn, wells, and rocks, especially those which had some sacred 
or important association, were set up or adopted as the defining marks, 
and so rigidly did the Teutonic nations abide by them that anyone who 
removed or destroyed these old boundaries was condemned to be 
buried up to the neck and then ploughed to death. 

As with the boundaries so with husbandry. The old British and 
Roman methods of cultivation were retained by the after-comers. 
I have pointed out the early prevalence of the three-field system of 
cropping in Wharfedale, that is each field bore two crops of a 
different kind in turn, and then lay fallow. This was not the plan 
followed by the northern nations of the Continent, such as the Angles, 

* Yorks. A rch. Jl. , iv. 374. 



200 

Saxons, and Danes, but it was a system which is well-known to have 
prevailed in Southern Germany, and the parts affected by Roman 
intercourse. Yet it is still a moot-point whether the Romans 
introduced it into England or found it already here. Ilkley, however 
would seem to have been a two-field township. In the reign of the 
Confessor we find that it was held by a noble thane named Gamel. 
He had three carucates of land to be taxed which were worked by two 
ploughs, that is the taxed carucate consisted of eighty acres, assuming 
that there were 240 acres in each field, which there must have been 
if a two-field manor, 240 annually fallow and 240 tilled. These, 
divided by three, give eighty acres as the normal area of a geldable 
carucate in a two-field manor ; though if the land, as was evideatly 
the case at Ilkley, could be worked by two ploughs instead of the 
usual three ploughs there were 120 acres to each plough, being the 
normal taxable carucate in a three-field manor. Canon Taylor 
attributes these anomalies between the number of ploughs and 
carucates, either to the lightness of the soil (enabling the work to be 
clone by two-thirds the number of ploughs), to the exceptional value 
of the land, or to favorable geldation, as seems to have been the case 
with certain monastic lands. 




CHAPTER XIV. 




THE TOWN OF ILKLEY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT. 

Contrast between old Ilkley and the present Rustic aspects The "Cow and Calf" rock-. 
-Ilkley "illuminated" at the Queen's coronation A murder in the ('mv Pastures 
The Butterfield family The old White Wells Manorial records Unpublished 
market-charter Ilkley contributes to the war against Scotland The English 
defeat at Bannockburn Population and old inns The Parish Church Grammar 
School Places of public worship The old vicarage Schools Museum Con- 
valescent homes Coaches to and from Ilkley Former life at Ilkley Distinguished 
visitors Old customs Recent improvements The Ilkley of to-day Wheatli-y 
and its old hall. 

ITTLE more than sixty years ago Ilkley was one of the 
most rustic, inaccessible and primitive little places 
that could be found in the county of broad acres. 
To-day as one steps out of its busy railway-station 
and looks round upon the broad and handsome streets, 
with their numerous well-built houses, shops and hotels, and avenues 
bordered with beautiful villas, while reaching far along the hill sides 
are other stately residences and even castle-like hydropathic 
establishments, and handsome places of worship, the contrast to one 
who remembers its former aspects is indeed almost startling. 

Although the Ilkley waters had obtained some repute even as 
long ago as the year 1699, when it is said a small bath-house was 
built about a furlong below the [Roman] spring, it was really not 
until the introduction of hydropathy into Ilkley in 1843 tnat tne s P a 
made any shew of development. In the directory for Ilkley for the 
year 1838, there are but 70 names given,* including three inns, the 
Wheat Sheaf, the Rose and Crown, and Listens Arms, the last erected 
some twelve years previously. Looking at this list of local house- 
holders it seems almost a satire on the then thoroughly primitive 
aspects of the place, to find the name of one, Thomas Rhodes, 
"painter and gilder," at a time when there were not half-a-dozen 
stone houses, slated, in the village; all the rest being irregularly 
built cottages with roofs of thick old thatch, looking quaint and 
picturesque with their gay blendings of green moss and golden 
stonecrop. The eaves of some of these old thatches were scarcely 
higher than a man's shoulder, and the tops had sunk, forming large 
hollows partly filled with herbage and wild flowers. The clearest of 
pebbly streams ran down beside the grass-bordered cottages and fell 

* In 1797 Ilkley had 109 families, Middleton 42, and Nessfield-vvith-Langbar 46 
families. In 1838 Middleton had 26, and Nessfield-with-Langbar 21 families. 



into the Roman fosse (as it does still) below the ancient church, 
which at that time had a very small congregation and looked little 
better than an Irish cottar's dwelling, with its mud floor and shaky 
old furniture. Higher up was the old corn-mill, originally erected 
early in the twelfth century ; in later days it was a saw-mill, with its 
ever-murmuring water-wheel and the crystal pond beside it. The 
accompanying illustration taken from West View about thirty years 
ago, shews the old mill and pond close to the left of the road. The 
heather at that time came quite down into Brook Street and spread 
itself in many places where are now macadamised avenues and busy 
thoroughfares. 

The famous Cow and Calf rocks were then in a wild spot ; 
indeed, rarely visited, and numbers of hawks and jackdaws used to 
nest there regularly. Doubtless in former times these crag sides were 
the lurking places of the wolf and savage wild-cat. In the Ilkley 
registers so late as the year 1691 I find rewards were paid for the 
capture of wild-cats which then infested the parish. In that year 
Thomas Smith is paid Sd. for "a Wild catt head," and for two more 
to Thomas Stead the churchwardens pay is. 4d. This animal 
infested the gills in the higher parts of the dale down even to the 
present century.* The Cow and Calf rocks have a long and notable 
history, which will be dealt with in the next chapter. When our 
beloved Queen was crowned in 1838, a great fire blazed on these 
famous stones, and Ilkley I am told, was "illuminated." But the 
illuminations were of a singularly humble character. Some of the 
residents hung out a lamp or two, while the shop-windows sported an 
extra candle, much to the astonishment of the youthful urchins of 
the town, who knew exactly how much light each little window was 
wont to boast. A few farthing candles adorned the tops of props in 
the still June night, and the late Mr. Hezekiah Dobson told me he 
well remembered seeing one of these fine illuminants set up on the 
Addingham road guide-post, doing full honor to the occasion. The 
humble light, however, was not suffered to run its course, for a 
niggardly man soon came along saying he thought it a piece of rash 
extravagance in such a place, and forthwith tore it down and marched 
off with it without further explanation. The familiar Cow Pastures 
also was a quiet lonely place, at this time often resorted to by bands 
of gipsies, and it is little more than forty years ago, or just before 
the land was enclosed, a lady visitor was found murdered on this 
spot, the crime it was generally supposed having been perpetrated by 
gipsies intent on gain. Such facts seem hard to believe in these 
later days when the same hill-sides are covered with villas and 
pleasant gardens, and visitors are seen moving in all directions 

* I have no doubt that Cat Gill near Bolton Abbey, is named from the same 
circumstance. 



203 

enjoying the bracing moorland breezes and magnificent scenery of 
this favorite spa. 

The view prefacing this chapter of the Old Ilkley I have 
described, is reproduced from a scarce engraving in possession of my 
father-in-law, Mr. Win. Butterfield, son of Mr. Samuel Butterfield, who 
was born at Hsholt in Otley parish, in 1801, and whose kindred have 
resided in the neighbourhood for centuries. Of the same stock was 
Mr. Wm. Butterfield, a well-known Ilkley character in his time, who 
rented the old White Wells on the moor-side at Ilkley in 1820, and 
whose descendants in the third generation, are still there.* The 
bath-rooms and receptacles at the White House remain as originally 
constructed, and the stables beneath, though not now used for this 
purpose, are also the same. Formerly visitors who were too feeble 
to walk, rode up from the village on the backs of ponies or as 
which were kept in the stable named, while the visitor enjoyed his or 
her invigorating cold bath. The Ilkley registers for August, 1793, 
record a singular accident to a girl aged nine, who was drowned in 
one of these baths whilst attempting to bathe herself. One of the 
baths is beautifully draped with an old growth of wild golden- 
saxifrage, and other water-loving plants, and looks very much like a 
mountain pot-hole. The water is deliciously clear, cold and bracing, 
and is derived from the ancient Roman Spring above alluded to.t 

The Norman ravages at the Conquest turned those fruitful acres 
I have mentioned at the close of the last chapter into "waste," and 
when the Conqueror bestowed the manor on his confederate, William 
de Percy, it was of no present value. The people had nearly all 
fled or were so impoverished they could pay no taxes, and the 
endowed Saxon church, mentioned in Domesday, must for a time 
have had few or no worshippers and have been left to neglect and 
decay. 

The Archbishop of York had also an unnamed berewic in Ilkley 
parish, most probably Wheatley, now Ben Rhydding, as it lay contiguous 
to the Archbishop's land in Burley, as part of the original manor of 
Otley. But the manorial title to Ilkley rested with the Percies, and 
through them to the mesne lords, De Kyme or Keyme (the earliest 
British term by the way, for an elf or fairy, and there were fairies in 
plenty about the Ilkley crags, as will be learnt in the next chapter) 
who are closely associated with the history of the beautiful old manor 
of Newton Kyme, and in the i3th century became chief lords of 
Ilkley and patrons of the church. The De Kymes were benefactors 

* In an old guide to Ilkley, printed at Knaresbro' in 1829, it is stated the baths 
(then the only ones) have been in charge of Mr. and Mrs. Butterfield for nine or ten 
years. 

f It is probably this spring that is alluded to in the /)> /in urn Roll, yth Kdw. II. 
(1314) in a complaint against Robert atte Welle, of likely, shewing that a house must 
have been here six centuries ago. Vide W. Paley Baildon in Yorks. Xntrs and Queries. 



204 

to several of the Yorkshire Cistercian monasteries, notably Fountains, 
Nun Appleton, and Sallay, and to the latter they gave lands in Ilkley. 
Roesa de Kyme was wife of Peter de Percy,* to whom Henry III., in 
1250 confirmed the grant of free warren for ever in all the demesne 
lands of Ilkley, that is the right to keep and kill small beasts and 
birds, such as hares, conies, partridges, pheasants, and some add 
quails and woodcocks. Two years later, 3yth Henry III., (1252) 
Ilkley was raised to the dignity of a market-town, as appears by the 
following hitherto unpublished royal charter : 

GRANT OF MARKET AND FAIR AT ILKLEY. 

The King to his Archbishops &c greeting-. Know ye that we have granted and by 
this our charter have confirmed to our beloved und trusty Peter de Percy that he and 
his heirs may have for ever a market every week on Wednesday at his manor of Illeclay 
in the County of York. And that they may have a fair there every year lasting for eight 
days to wit on the vigil and on the day and the morrow of St. Luke the Evangelist and 
five days following. Unless such market and fair be to the hurt of ^neighbouring 
markets and fairs. Wherefore we will &c with all liberties and free customs to such 
market and fair belonging. These being witnesses Ralph son of Nicholas Gilbert de 
Segrave, Master W de Kilkenny Archdeacon of Coventry John de Grey Robert 
Wallerand William de Grey William Gernun, Robert de Norreys, Walter de 
Thurkilby Ralph de Bakepuce Roger de Lokinton and others. Given by my hand at 
Westminster i day of ffebruary. 

How long the markets were continued at Ilkley we have no certain 
knowledge, but it will be seen that the charter conveys the usual 
legal phrase of permanency in that it is confirmed to the heirs of 
Percy "for ever." Kirkby's Inquest shews, however, that in 1284-5 
Sir Philip de Kyme, Kt, son of Simon de Kyme, by Rose, his wife,f 
was declared lord of the manor of Ilkley, holding it of the heirs of 
Henry de Percy, and the said Henry of the King by Knight service. 
Robert de Percy then held it in sub-tenure of the said Sir Philip de 
Kyme, and in 1315 the Nomina Villarum states that the Lady Percy 
and the Abbots of Sallay were then joint proprietors of the manor. 
The last of the Kymes was a heiress who married into the Scottish 
house of Umfraville, Earls of Angus, and in 1363-4, Gilbert de 
Umfraville presents to the church at Ilkley. In 1409 Agnes, daughter 
and heir of Henry, son of Nicholas Ward, of Agglethorpe, in Coverdale, 
and late wife of Sir Robert de Plessington, Kt, was declared to have 
been seized of the manor of Ilkley for life.j Her descendants, the 
Plessingtons appear to have held it for about half-a-century when it 
came to the Mearings, and in the yth Edward VI., (1553) it was 
purchased, together with all fishing rights in the river, by John 
Middleton, of the family who for eight centuries have been connected 
with Middleton, on the opposite side of the valley, and who retained 
the Ilkley manorial rights to our own day. 

* See Burton's Man. Ebor., p. 173. f Ibid, p. 278. 
J Harrison's Gilling West, p. 253. 

See Nicolas' Testamenta Vestusta (1826), p. 276; also Yorks. County Mag. (1891), 
p. 272 ; also Feet of Fines, 



205 

I have referred to the sad havoc wrought in Wharfedale by the 
invasion of the Scots. In 1297 Sir Wm. Wallace gained such a 
victory over the English at Kildean Ford, near Stirling, as is hardly 
parallelled in history, and with that patriotism which animates the 
Highland breast throughout the world, the good northern folk have 
raised a monument in his honor, which is one of the sights of 
Scotland. The event is one which has a great bearing on Wharfedale 
and Border history, and this sanguinary and protracted war is often 
referred to in the Compotus of Bolton Abbey. The noble Wallace 
Monument stands on the Abbey Craig near Stirling, the foundation- 
stone having been laid on the anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn 
(June 24th 1861). It was a red-letter day in Scottish annals. Upwards 
of 80,000 persons joined in the procession to the grand old Crag, 
carrying with them the well-authenticated swords of Wallace and 
Bruce, and other national relics, while the Duke of Athole, Grand 
Master Mason of Scotland, performed the ceremony of laying the 
stone with full masonic honors. In 1298 the English determined to 
avenge their defeat and a subsidy was raised for the purpose, and the 
Bolton Abbey accounts for that year shew that Ilkley contributed 
26s. 8d., and Long Preston 33*. 40!. in aid of that war. The result is 
matter of common history. 

As a consequence of the English disaster at Bannockburn in 
1314, Ilkley a few years later was invaded by the furious victors, 
cattle being carried off, houses wrecked, goods stolen, and the people 
left in such a pitiable plight they could not pay their accustomed rents. 
The living of the church fell from 26 135. in 1290 to 26 marks, or 
^17 6s. 8d. in 1318, when the Arbhbishop of York sent in his Return 
to the King. It was a long time before things recovered their 
wonted prosperity. In 1378 the Poll Tax returns shew there were 
twenty-five married couples and eighteen single persons above the 
age of sixteen living at Ilkley , while at Middleton over the water, 
there were thirteen married couples and twenty-three single persons 
at the same time, not a very marked difference between the two 
places at that era, though what a contrast they present at the present 
day! In 1378 there was but one inn at Ilkley, in all probability the 
Rose and Crown, opposite the church-gates (of which I give a view 
before it was rebuilt), though the Wheat Sheaf has a strong claim for 
precedence, the sign being derived from the old crest of the Middletons, 
a garbe or. The "Rose and Crown" was one of the badges of the 
House of Lancaster, and adopted by John of Gaunt, lord of the 
Honor and Forest of Knaresbro', who died in 1399, and whose 
kinsman, Sir Robert de Plessington, Kt., married Agnes Ward, lady 
of the manor of Ilkley, as before narrated.* An old hostelery, at 
Bainbridge, in Wensleydale, which is said to have had some Norman 

* See the author's Richmotulshire, p. 256. 



206 

traces, has borne the sign of Rose and Crown from time immemorial, 
and singularly one of the twenty-five families then (1378) living at 
Ilkley hailed from Bainbridge, and was the boot and shoe-maker for 
all the country-side.* 

In the old parchment volume at Bolton Abbey, I have before 
quoted, I find that Ilkley was called upon to contribute its quota of 
men to suppress the Jacobite rising in 1715 ; the names of Mr. 
Reginald Heber, John Crawshaw, and Edward Bowling or John Field, 
being set down as men likely to serve. 




ROSE AND CROWN HOTEL, ILKLEY. 



Let us now turn to the old church of the parish ; the wall 
enclosing the ancient kirk-garth having, I find, been entirely pulled 
down and rebuilt in 1849. At this time the Rev. Robert Collyer, 
the well-known American divine, worked as a blacksmith at 
Ilkley, and made the new gates for the churchyard, at a cost to 
the parish of ^7 los. There was also a blacksmith's bill from 
Sampson Speight for 255. 8d. ; the Speights having dwelled in this 

* I do not know which is the oldest authenticated inn still existing- in Yorkshire, 
but in Lancashire the sign of the Seven Stars, in Shudehill, Manchester, is proved by 
the license records preserved in Lancaster Castle to have been an inn since 1350-60. 
The Blue Posts, at Stockton-on-Tees, is said to date from 1485 (see also page 52). 



neighbourhood and over the hill in the adjoining parish of Kildwick 
from the time of the Poll Tax of A.D. 1378. [See also "Speight 
I low," under BOLTON ABBEY]. The old church at Ilkley, dedicated 
tu All Saints (see p. 32),* is interesting in many ways. It stands 
within the old Roman castrmn, like the old church at Aldborough, 
and probably on the same site successively and alternately occupied 
by heathen altar and Christian temple since the days of Agricola, the 
Roman vanquisher of Ilkley, eighteen centuries ago. The existence 
of this building on such a site may prove an exception to the 
received opinion of many authorities that the Anglo-Saxons did not 
occupy the sites previously held by the Romans, but preferred to 
colonize a new site ; at any rate for a long time after their first 
coming. Here, where the mother church now is, undoubtedly stood 
the church of her Saxon forefathers, as mentioned in the Domesday 
record. What was here before is left to conjecture ; perhaps only that 
trinity of beautiful preaching-crosses now in the churchyard and 
bearing the mission of the evangelists, as described in the last 
chapter. Or there may have been a still earlier Celtic or Roman 
church similar to that discovered in 1892 within the Roman fortress 
at Silchester, or like that at Aldborough, where the foundations of 
the Roman basilica (doubtless afterwards a Christian temple), still 
exist. 

The oldest existing part of the present church is the south 
doorway, unless we are to take into account the massive, even 
cyclopean character of the masonry of the tower, with its diagonal 
tooling, some of the stones of which are above three feet by two 
feet. One I measured is nearly two feet square (or cubical, like the 
masonry of the Roman Wall), and some of them are curiously marked ; 
while the interior walls of the church seem to have been built of the 
Norman or Early English irregular undressed stones at the rebuilding 
and enlargement of the church shortly before the Reformation. But 
the original church, erected on such a site and under such an 
influence as I have explained, would have been of the usual Celtic 
type, with square-ended presbytery at the east end and baptistery at 
the west, perhaps altered into the Roman basilican form after the 
preaching and reconversions of Paulinus. It must, however, have 
been a very primitive building, without aisles or tower, and possessing 
no architectural substance or beauty worth preserving, otherwise 
some portions, particularly the doorway, would have been retained 
when the church was re-erected in the time of King John. It has 
been enlarged and extended eastwards, and there seems to have been 
no tower until the i5th century. The principal entrance, always the 

Although the church is dedicated to All Saints, Ilkley Feast is reckoned from the 
Festival of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (discovered by the Roman Knij>res-. 
Helena), being the first Sunday after Sept. I4th. 



208 

most ornate and seductive part of the church, dates from about A.D. 
1200, and is of somewhat unusual construction. The arch is pointed 
but there are no shafts ; the jambs and arch being formed of one 
continuous plain and deeply-cut moulding of two orders, having a 
corresponding double row of dog-tooth ornament. The bases are 
modern, otherwise the doorway is quaintly original. In 1378 the 
rectorial profits were appropriated to the Prior and Convent of 
Hexham, and a vicarage was ordained.* The monks seem to 
have done nothing for a long time towards improving the fabric of 
the church. Having appropriated the great tithes of corn and hay, 
they left the church to take care of itself, and the impoverished 
parson to squabble with his parishioners over his tenth of ducks and 
geese and pigeons, fruit, vegetables, &c., and even the common 
nettle, then cultivated, was not despised, but paid tithe with the rest. 
The nave arcade is late, and has had originally three arches, 
and a fourth has recently been added eastwards. They have pointed 
arches and octagonal columns, with capitals, one of which is rather 
oddly moulded in a semi-Norman style. A piscina in the south aisle 
marks the original extension of this aisle to the east, and it has had 
an altar dedicated to St. Nicholas.! This chapel was founded by 
Wm. Middleton, Esq., by will dated 1474, and endowed by him with 
rents of certain tenements, &c., in Ilkley, and a cottage-residence of 
the chantry-priest, the whole yielding in 1538, when it was dissolved, 
an annual revenue of 4. ys. od. There is a finely-conditioned 
life-size cumbent effigy, cross-legged, but in a bad position, concealed 
by modem pews in a plain, low, flat-arched recess near this 
piscina. The recess is quite out of keeping with the character of 
the effigy, which has doubtless at one time reposed beneath a 
crocketed canopy of the best period of Decorated architecture. The 
effigy, as appears by the once painted arms on the shield argent, 
fretty sable, a canton of the last represents a Middleton, clothed in 
chain-mail cap-a-pie, with surcoat reaching to the feet. On his left 
side is a plain cross-hilted sword, sheathed, partly broken away. The 
shield is rounded and not flat. The sollerets have prick-spurs, and 
the knight wears mail chausses, not with jambs or shin-plates (as 
represented by Whitaker), and the knee-pieces have small escutcheons, 
originally painted. The effigy is characteristic of about A.D. 1280-90, 
and probably intended to commemorate Sir Peter de Middleton, 
father of Sir Adam de Middleton, who according to the Compotus of 
Bolton Abbey died ca. 1315. 

* See. Lawton's Collections, p. 256-7 ; also Surtees Soc. Pub., xlvi., p. 147-51. 

) St. Nicholas was born at Lycia, a province in Asia Minor, and died in A.D. 342. 
He was the patron of children, the original Santa Claus, gracious and kind to them, and 
from his own infancy was a model of innocence and virtue. In manhood he was 
Archbishop of Myra, and was one of those who attended the great Council of Nice (see 
page 30). There was also a chantry dedicated to this saint at Skipton. 



209 

In 1830 the church was partly restored, and again in 1861 a 
considerable restoration took place. The nave and aisles were then 
lengthened eastwards about sixteen feet, and the chancel, with the 
south wall, entirely rebuilt. The old piscina from the Middleton 
Chapel was set in the south wall of the chancel, but why this was 
done is not very clear. A vestry was added in 1880. In 1854 2 
IQS. was expended in painting and gilding the clock-dial. The brass 
tablet at the west end of the church stating that the church was 
restored in 1882 refers to the insertion of the clerestory windows and 
the removal of plaster from the walls, with the addition of a new 




CHURCH STREET, ILKLEY. IN 1880. 

( The old Vicarage, mnv drntolished, is in front t<> the left.) 



organ. The north aisle appears to be early i6th century, having 
plain square-headed windows of three lights each, without foils. The 
clerestory has windows only on the south side, which have square- 
heads of four lights. The late alterations at the west end are 
observable in the odd position of the tower-arch, which .appears at 
unequal distances between the north and south walls, due to the 
addition of the south aisle. The latter has plain reproductions of 
Perpendicular trefoil-headed lights. At the west end of the north 
aisle is a rather good specimen of Jacobean carved oak screen-work, 



216 

which bears the initials and date I.W. 1633. Some oak panel-work 
of similar age is on the south side. There are numerous memorial 
tablets and stained lights in the church. The five-light east window, 
depicting the Crucifixion, was erected to the memory of Samuel 
Margerison, a native of Ilkley, who died in 1858. In the Household 
Book of Lord Clifford for 1510 I find an entry of 4d. expended on a 
"plowe light in Ylkley." Can this have reference to a monster candle 
placed on the altar of the church on Plough Monday? In some 
places it was customary to ring certain bells on Plough Monday, as 
well as on the occasions when country-folk were called to seed-sowing, 
harvesting, &c. 

In the chancel is a stained-glass insertion to the memory of 
the wife of the late Rev. John Snowdon, vicar, who died in 1853, 
and of Elizabeth, their eldest child, who died in 1844. In tne south 
wall of the chancel is a beautiful window in memory of Joseph 
Ravenscroft Elsey, who died in 1858, also of Emma, his wife, who 
died in 1884, and of Jane Frances, their daughter, who died in 1886. 
Also on the south side of the chancel is a stained window in memory 
of Mary, daughter of the Rev. Geo. Rowley, D.D., who died in 1866. 
At the east end of the south aisle is a stained window representing 
the Good Samaritan, in memory of Dr. Edmund Smith, of Ilkley 
Wells House, who died in 1864. The west window of the tower 
(repaired in 1850) is of three beautiful lights depicting the Ascension, 
&c., and dedicated to the memory of Benjamin Briggs Popplewell, of 
Beacon Hill, who died in 187*. In the south aisle at the west end 
near the font is a stained window representing Christ blessing little 
children, and dedicated to the memory of the Rev. John Snowdon, 
M.A., vicar of Ilkley for 36 years, who died in February, 1878, aged 
72. At the west end of the north aisle in a well-designed window, 
with brass beneath inscribed to the memory of a respected son of the 
vicar, Jasper Whitfield Snowdon, historian and expositor of change- 
ringing, who died in 1885, aged 41 ; the window having been erected 
at the sole cost of the change-ringers of the country. Mr. Snowdon 
was widely known by his published works on campanology, and he 
also contributed to various magazines articles on this and kindred 
subjects. He was the originator of the Ilkley Amateur Society of 
Change-Ringers, and on the formation of the Yorkshire Association 
of Change-Ringers in 1876 he was elected first president, a position 
which he held until the day of his death. 

On the walls of the chancel are eight small old brasses, crudely 
engraved with inscriptions and quaint devices of arms, &c>, most of 
them to members of the Heber family of Hollin Hall. They date 
from 1633 to 1687. One of them is couched in terms of superfervid 
piety, remarkable even for that age of religious zeal : 

Here lyeth the body of Christofer Heber, second sonne to Master Reginald Heber, 
who died the 8 of May, 1649, his age 26. For I am perswaded that neither death, nor 



21 I 

lilr, m>r angel-, nor prineipalitie--, nor powers nor thinge- present nor t hinge- (o conn-, 
nor height, nor depth, nor ;in\ other creature -hall he able to separate nie from the love 
o! ( iod which i-- in C'hrist Je-.ii-- our Lord. 

( 'an language go further than this? On the north wall of the chancel 
there are also two tiny brasses to the Hodgsons (one vicar of Ilkley 
whose name is spelt Hoghon on the brass) dated 1639 and 1640. 
There was formerly on the chancel floor (and since removed to the 
Ilkley Museum) a palimpsest inscription on brass, the obverse 
dedicated to a family named Robinson, date 1562, and the reverse 
engraved in large black letter to John Reynald, prebend of Becking- 
ham, Southwell Minster, 1492-4, afterwards prebend of Stillington 
and Archdeacon of Cleveland 1499-1506.* In the body of the church 
on the north side are several seventeenth and eighteenth century 
brasses to members of the family of Joseph Watkinson, Wilfrid 
Lawson, Godfrey Lawson and Edward Boiling. In the south aisle 
is a tablet, indicted in Latin to the memory of William Middleton, 
of Middleton Lodge, who died in 1800, in his eighteenth year. In 
this aisle are memorial tablets to the families of Lister, Hauxworth, 
and Beanlands, who are of long standing in Ilkley.f On the north 
wall of the chancel is a marble tablet in memory of the Rev. Henry 
Leathley Armitage, M.A., of Osmaston, Derbyshire, who died in 
1851. Another tablet in the north aisle commemorates David 
Wolryche Stansfeld, who for many years devoted himself unweariedly 
to the improvement of the church and the welfare of the parish. He 
died at Leamington in 1889, aged sixty-eight years. Such are the 
many and various family memorials in the restored church. 

Many are the simple inscriptions too, of bygone parish worthies 
in the old churchyard, as well as of those who in feeble health have 
come from a distance and found a last resting-place in this historic 
God's acre. But happily the deaths of strangers is infinitesimal when 
compared with the thousands who annually visit the spa and reap 
renewed health and vigor from a sojourn amongst the grand bracing 
moors. It is a common saying in the district that a walk on the 
Ilkley moors is worth a bottle of the best champagne. But probably 
most folk would prefer the climb to the liquor, which reminds me of 
a "climbing" story told by an Ilkley lodging-house keeper who had 
just received an old Scotch acquaintance for a visitor. The host 
remarked at bed-time. "Now, take a wee drop more before you 
go!" "Na, na," answered the Gael, "I'm in a new lodgin', ye see, 
an' I'm no vera weel acquainted wi' the stairs." A very wise and 
canny precaution of the Scot! 

* See the Antiquary, vol. xxviii., p. 61. 

f The Beanlands have resided in Ilkley from the beginning of the iyth century. 
William Beanlnnds, who married Mary Stead in 1632, had a large family of sons and 
daughters, who arc mentioned in the will of George Beanlands, of Ryecroft, in the 
parish of Bingley. Benjamin, one of the son- ol William Beanlands, married Mary 
daughter of Captain Thos. Heber. See Surtees Soc. Pub., vol. xl., p. 222. 



212 

Among the old churchwardens' accounts, which begin with the 
year 1618, and which I have in various places quoted, there is an 
interesting terrier or register of the various possessions of the church 
in 1672, which I will print in full: 

A TERRIER OF ALL THE GLEBE LAND, TITHES, OFFERINGS AND OTHER 
ECCLESIASTICAL DUES BELONGING THE VICARAGE OR PARISH CHURCH OF ILKLEY, 
IN THE DIOCESE OF YORK, DELIVERED IN AT THE VISITATION OF THE REVEREND 
FATHER IN GOD, RICHARD [STERNE] BY DIVINE PROVIDENCE LORD ARCHBISHOP OF 
YORK. 
ist. A small house and g-arden adjoining-, value about two pounds and ten shillings per 

annum. 

2nd. A moiety or part of a farm in Netherdale. Rent five pounds and thirteen shillings. 
3rd. A customary duty upon every hall of sixpence each and one penny eggs, and 

upon every house of threepence each and one penny eggs, and upon every 

pauper's dwelling-house of two-pence each. 

Every person of the age of sixteen pay two-pence each as communicants. Two 

gardens in Ilkley a penny each, and every corn-mill a composition. 
4th. The tithe in kind of pigs, calves, swarms of bees, goslings, foals, rape, wool and 

lamb, half-a-one at five and a whole one the second best at six, deducting in the 

same proportion for what is short of ten when six or upwards, as is taken for each 

under five. 
6th. A small composition for hay for all lands on the south side of the river Wharfe 

and for three farms on the north side thereof. 
7th. The surplice dues as fees for breaking the ground in the churchyard. One 

shilling offerings for each woman after child-birth. Eight pence publication of 

banns of marriage. Sixpence marriage by banns, one shilling by licence. Ten 

shillings mortuaries according to Act of Parliament, 

As witness our hands : Wilfred Lawson, 
Anno Dm. 1672. John Breary, 



-T,, {Churchwardens. 

1 homas Jackson, 

William Holms, 
Robert Falkiner, John Holms, Michael Hudson, Christopher 
Hodgson, senior, Overseers for ye Poor. 

The old Ilkley inhabitants were slow to overcome superstitious 
scruples, and I find that so recently as 1833 a special minute is 
entered in the parish accounts ordering the sexton to use his best 
endeavours to persuade the relatives of deceased persons to bury the 
corpse on the north side of the church. This prejudice was universal 
in Yorkshire, but at Ilkley it has continued longer than at most places. 
At the same time reference is made to the customory duties of the 
dog-whipper, and at Ilkley he is ordered to be "decently attired on 
the Sabbath Day, and to be ready to hand company to their seats in 
the church according to their condition, and to preserve decency and 
order during divine service in the churchyard and street adjoining." 
Dogs also followed their masters and mistresses to funerals, and the 
dog-whipper, who also combined the office of sexton, was ordered to 
"preserve decency and order; if possible, at funerals." 

But to continue the story of the local institutions. We often 
find the old Grammar Schools reared out of the revenues of the 
dissolved chantries, but the one at Ilkley seems to have had an 




o 



213 

independent foundation. One George Marshall, of Ilkley, left by 
will in T6oo, the sum of ;ioo for the purpose of establishing, or 
what seems more likely, of extending an already existing scholastic 
foundation in the district. This was afterwards increased by the 
gift of a like sum to be laid out in lands, by Reginald Heber, of 
Ilkley, who died in 1697. I have seen a number of deeds relating 
to the school at Weston Hall, from one of which it appears that Lord 
Fairfax of Denton, anil Mr. Vavasour of Weston, had ;ioo in their 
hands to give to some charity, which they gave for a salary to the 
schoolmaster of Ilkley if the parishioners of Ilkley should within a 
limited time erect a building for a school. Upon which Lord Fairfax 
and Mr. Vavasour made themselves, with the Archbishop of York, 
trustrees for the said ^100, and by that means became patrons of 
the school. Mr. Vavasour, of Weston, always kept the securities. 
Another old paper fixes the date of the building. It is headed: 

ILKLEY, 2 January, 1635. By a gen'll consent of the inhabits, of ye parish of 
Ilkley, wet- whose n;imrs are here subscribed doe undertake to pay our proportionable 
rates towards the erection of a schoolhouse, &c. [Signed] Reginald Heber, Christ. 
Hainton, and twelve others. 

The vicar was schoolmaster until 1871-2 when the Endowed 
Schools Commissioners formulated the new scheme, which provides 
that the governing body shall consist of twelve persons, of whom two 
shall be ex-offico governors, viz. : the vicar of Ilkley and the Chairman 
of the School Board of Ilkley, four representative or nominated, and 
six co-optative. The value of the old School property is estimated 
to be worth ; 10,000, and this amount formed the endowment fund 
of the new school erected in 1893 in Cow Pasture Road. The old 
building on the Skipton road, nearly opposite the Museum, was for 
a long time after its discontinuance in 1872, used as a shoemaker's 
shop, but about 1883 it was taken over by the Christian Brethren 
who still hold services in it. The accompanying view is from a 
photograph taken thirty years ago, and shews the master, Mr. Thomas 
Wood, at the door, together with his pupils, including Mr. John 
Beanlands, Mr. Francis Green and many another old Ilkleyite. 

The rapid growth of Ilkley during the past thirty years rendered 
additional church accommodation necessary, and the handsome new 
edifice in Queen's Road, dedicated to St. Margaret, was accordingly 
built and consecrated by the Lord Bishop of the diocese, on Sept. 
loth, 1879. The interior will seat 1,000 worshippers, but in the 
summer season when Ilkley is full of visitors, the capacity of the 
church is much too small. The building is in the late Gothic style, 
after designs by Mr. Norman Shaw, R.A. The interior contains a 
very handsomely carved stone pulpit. The east and west windows 
have recently had insertions of stained-glass, which are considered to 
be amongst the finest specimens of modern glass-work in the country. 
The west window is erected in pious memory of a deceased worshipper. 



214 

A tablet in the chancel records: 

In thankfulness for manifold blessings enjoyed by the people and realm of England 
during the sixty years' reign of Victoria n.d. R.I., the east window of this church was 
dedicated to the glory of God 1898. 

From the churchyard there is one of the finest views in Wharfedale. 
Three of the remarkable inscribed rocks, mentioned in the chapter on 
the antiquities of Rumbalds Moor, are kept within the railed enclosure 
on the north side of the church. 

The ancient vicarage in Church Street pulled down in 1894 and 
which stood on the site of the new Arcade, see page 209, was returned 
in 1818 as fit for residence, but in 1834 as unfit. When the Rev. Geo. 
Fenton, .curate of Ilkley, started the Ilkley Hospital in 1829, the 




"CHARITY HOLE" OLD VICARAGE, ILKLEY. 

parlour of the old vicarage was used as a dispensary, locally known as 
the "Charity Hole." The house was not occupied by the vicars after 
Mr. Fenton's time, and a new and more suitable residence was built on 
the glebe land in Wells Road in 1847, when the Rev. John Snowdon was 
vicar. Parson Fenton was well-known for his thorough-going, business- 
like robust character, and he was also an ardent supporter of Tories 
of the old school. He was to have been vicar of Otley, but that 
town being decidedly Liberal, a strong local feeling was raised 
against the appointment. The late Mr. Peter Garnett, of Otley, and 
two others were deputed to wait on Lord Brougham, then Lord 
Chancellor, who was then a guest of the Duke of Devonshire at 



"5 

Bolton Abbey, and their objections so far prevailed that Mr. Fenton 
was appointed vicar of Roystone instead, and the living of Otley at 
the express wish of the congregation was given to the Rev. Ayscough 
Kawkes. Mr. Fenton was also a prime mover in various matters of 
practical utility to Ilkley. He opened out the "Canker or Sore-K\> 
Well" in Green Lane, had the steep gradient in Cow Pasture Road 
much reduced, and was generally active in seeing the place improved 
and beautified with planting. 

On 'the north-west side of the church stands the substantial old 
manor-house, now known as the "Castle." It is a rather good 
example of a "strong" domestic house of the Tudor period consisting 
of a centre with wings, having pointed doorways and transomed- 
mullion windows. The upper rooms are not ceiled, and there are no 
cellars. Here in the old days the courts of the manor were held and 
many a scene of importance and picturesque bustle must the old 
house have witnessed in other times. It is now let off in cottages. 

The Nonconformists are a numerous body in Ilkley, though 
none of the denominations except the Society of Friends, may be 
said to be of ancient standing in the town. The Friends have a 
small but well-built Meeting House in Queen's Road. The Wesleyans 
have been established here for the best part of a century and have 
a beautiful and commodious chapel, with schools &c., erected in 1869 
in Wells Road. They have also a new chapel at Ben Rhydding. 
In 1829 they met for worship in a room of the house of Mr. Wm. 
Bell, grocer, Brook Street. The Congregationalists have a large and 
handsome place of worship in the Grove, erected at a cost of about 
j^ 5,000. It was opened in 1869. It is in the Decorated Gothic 
style, with spire 130 feet high, and on the south side is an excellent 
lecture-hall, with class-rooms &c. The Primitive Methodists have a 
chapel in the Leeds road, erected in 1878 at a cost of about ^2,000. 
The Baptists have also recently started a mission here. The Roman 
Catholics who had long held their services in the chapel attached to 
Middleton Lodge, built in 1879 a new and more convenient place of 
worship near the Middleton Hotel. The chancel is apsidal in the 
manner of the early Latin churches. Ilkley also possesses a Roman 
Catholic College, established in 1894 on the foundation of the old St. 
Paulinus' Academy at Catterick, which for many years was carried on 
by Mr. T. Skelton. There are also good Church National Schools 
and a number of excellent private schools, where pupils are prepared 
for the University and other courses. 

Ilkley also possesses an excellent Museum, as might be expected 
in a place overflowing with historic interest. An account of its 
principal treasures written by Mr. Wm. Cudworth, the well-known 
Bradford archaeologist, appears in the Reliquary, for 1898. Among 
the various Roman objects to be seen is a somewhat rare example of 
a triple- vase, consisting of three conjoined receptacles having connected 



2l6 

holes inside. There is also part of a Roman sepulchral monument, 
inscribed : D.M. PVDE JESSEI LEG n A., and another Roman grave-slab 
found in 1884 near the Rose and Crown hotel, which bears the design 
of a female figure seated, and an imperfect inscription beneath. Mr. 

Watkin reads it as follows : DIS MANIBUS VK . . . ic . . . 

NCONIS FILIA ANNORVM. xxx. ccoRNOviA H.s.E. [To the divine shades 
of .... daughter of .... thirty years of age, a Cornovian citizen. 
Here she is laid.] According to Mr. Watkin this stone possesses a 
unique value, inasmuch as it is the only inscription to a Cornovian 
citizen which has been found in Roman Britain.* The stone 
measures 6 feet 2 inches by 2 feet 9 inches (see plate). There is an 




ILKLEY MUSEUM. 



interesting collection of Roman coins presented or lent by Mr. W. 
Mitton, ot Ilkley, Mr. J. Lister, of Rockwood House, Mr. John 
Lambert, of Leeds, the proprietors of the Ilkley Free Press, and 
others. Likewise a large collection of querns of various ages, stone 
mortars, and Roman millstones, including specimens of the grooved 
type in volcanic material imported from Italy. 

The Ilkley Hospital and Convalescent Home, established in 
1829 as the Ilkley Bath Charity, had a permanent building erected 
in the Grove in 1861, and this was the first convalescent hospital 
erected in Yorkshire.! There is also the Semon Convalescent Home, 
founded in 1874 by the late Mr. Charles Semon, a Bradford merchant, 

* Royal Archaeological Journal, vol. xlii., p. 153. 
f See Mr. Cudworth's History oftJte Home (1893). 




ROMAN GRAVE SLAB FOUND AT ILKLEY 



- i 7 

and sonic time mayor of that city. Both arc admirable institutions, 
doing a noble service and deserving of the best encouragement and 
support. They are large and airy buildings, under excellent 
management, and their design and sanitation leave nothing to be 
desired. In spite of the rapid development of Ilkley in recent years, 
and the consequent increase in the number of buildings, the local 
authorities have looked well after sanitary affairs, and it is satisfactory 
to know that the Medical Officer of Health for the West Riding has 
repeatedly been able to state that Ilkley enjoys the lowest death-rate 
of any locality within his jurisdiction. There are now (1900) close 




OLD HOUSE IN GREEN LANE. ILKLEY. 



upon 1,500 inhabited houses (an increase of 500 since 1891) and the 
rateable value amounts to ^44,800. Despite this large increase in 
building and population, the health of the district has greatly 
improved. During the five years, 1874-8, the average death-rate was 
16-3 per 1000, whereas in the five years, 1894-8, the average 
mortality (including deaths of visitors) was i2~g, which will compare 
with the most favored towns and watering-places in England. 

Betore the railway to Ilkley was opened in 1865 (August ist) 
the coaches ran into the town daily to and from Leeds and Bradford. 
The Wharfedale Bee. the Ilkley Defiance, the Eclipse, and the Hark 



2l8 

Forward were the busy and pushing names by which these rival 
vehicles were known in the old days, vying and competing with each 
other for the public patronage. The Hark Foward, a Leeds coach, 
came to grief in the autumn of 1832 soon after it had left the Rose 
and Crown hotel at Ilkley. The driver was tightening the reins in 
turning a corner, and he himself seems to have been a bit " tight,'' 
when the heavily-passengered vehicle was upset and one aged female, 
named Hannah Allerton, of Parsley, was killed , others were more or 
less injured. Soon afterwards the Commerce took its place, and in 
two years (1835) this again was succeeded by the British Queen, 
which ran between Leeds and Ilkley, through Kirkstall, Yeadon, 
Guiseley, Menston, and Burley, taking two hours each way.* I find 
in the Ilkley churchwardens' accounts for 1833, that the sexton had 
to attend to the clock in the church tower and keep it to the post- 
time once a week. 

Less than forty years has made a wonderful transformation in 
the aspects of the old place. When the old Sedbergh Grammar 
School lands, in the vicinity of the railway-station, were sold by the 
late Mr. Edward Hirst Wade, the subsequent recent erections 
completely changed the appearance of this important part of the 
town. Ilkley is practically a modern town now, and there are very 
few of the old landmarks remaining. The old Green Lane (now the 
Grove) is completely lost. Here stood, on what is now the site of 
Mr. Hargreaves' shop, what was commonly spoken of as the Manor 
House, and where I am told, the Court Leets were held, but there is 
little doubt from its proximity to the church that the courts-baron 
and other of the lords' business would be held for convenience in the 
"Old Castle." The manor-house, strictly speaking, was Myddelton 
Lodge. The picturesque old thatch in the Grove (see plate) was at 
one time a favorite resort of Madame Tussaud, of wax-work celebrity. 
The ground about it was quite open, and it had a pretty garden at 
one end, where a few nice roses used to, be grown. About seventy 
years ago it was the Ilkley post-office, kept by Thomas Stephenson. 
The office was afterwards removed to the White House on the 
Addingham road, kept by Vickers, and from there it was transferred 
to the Leeds road, in what is now Walmsley's shop, opposite Weston 
Road end. From there it was taken to the top of Brook Street. 

Then there was another interesting old thatch, well-known in its 
day as "Mother Downe's Cottage," of which I am privileged to give 
a full-page view reproduced from a very scarce original in the 
possession of Mr. Win. Brumfitt. This old house stood in Wells 
Road, where the Royal Hotel has since been built. A century ago 
there was also in this locality a small cotton-mill, and old Mr. 
Hezekiah Dobson told me that his father, who was born in 1785, 

* The reader is referred to Mr. Tom Bradley's Coaching Days in Yorkshire for a 
very full account of the numerous coaches formerly on the roads. 



""- 

*- 




22O 

worked in it as a lad. The mill was afterwards converted into 
cottages and eventually pulled down when the Wells House stables 
were built. 

There was as I have already observed, hardly a slated house to 
be seen. Mr. Alfred Austin, the Poet Laureate, whom Yorkshire is 
proud to claim as one of her worthiest dalesmen, used often when a 
boy to turn his pony's head in the direction of Ilkley and the 
charming woods of Bolton, which he has commemorated in his well- 
known "Human Tragedy." Born within two hours' gentle ride of 
the then primitive village, many a time has he stayed at the old 
thatched cottage which stood opposite Butterfield's antique dwelling 
at Middleton road end. The cottage was, I believe, at that time 
kept by a Mrs. Senior, but was long ago pulled down. It had a nice 
little parlour and ample kitchen, where oatmeal cakes were hung 
astride the wires stretched along its time-stained rafters, and its 
quaint diamond-paned windows looked out upon a bit of garden half- 
wild with roses, daisies, sweet-thyme and the old-fashioned lavender. 
The Laureate has said that upon the well-remembered occasions of 
these early visits to the quiet old moorland village he in all 
probability first learned to sing ; listening as he was wont to the 
silvery-toned becks that now hurried, now loitered down what seemed 
to childish eyes its steep hill-side. A little rivulet then zigzagged 
with many a pleasant sound, down the main street (as shewn in the 
picture prefacing this chapter), until its little energy was spent in the 
greater tide of the river below. Although these familiar sights and 
sounds are gone, the prejudices born of the tender reminiscences of 
childhood are not easily eradicated, and memories whose happiness 
gains in the retrospect cannot avoid being tinged with some remorse 
at the many changes that have taken place. But the man who rails 
against progress, even of the mere material sort, seems really to quarrel 
with the divine dispensation in any attempt to allay those natural 
aspirations that incite humanity to better its condition. 

When the railway was brought in 1864-5, the resident population 
did not much exceed 1,000 persons. It is now about 7,000, and this 
number is probably quite doubled by resident visitors in the summer 
season, while the number of day-visitors cannot be far short of 
200,000 in the course of twelve months. These are largely drawn 
from the populous city of Bradford and neighbourhood, who, glad to 
escape from the dust and environment of crowded streets, frequently 
take the familiar walk over the high bracing moors from Saltaire 
and Bingley. A notable step for the public weal in the future was 
made by the Ilkley Local Board in 1892, when the whole manorial 
rights over Ilkley Moor, Hollin Hall Moor, Heber's Ghyll and the 
Panorama Rocks, were purchased from Mr. C. W. Middleton, lord of 
the manor. This important purchase by the local authorities has 
practically given to the public the right of access to upwards of 2000 



221 

acres of fine moorland and woodland, with all rights of water on the 
moors and other privileges, a boon of priceless value as the need for 
open spaces increases. There has been for some time a desire to 
raise the general status of the town by the erection of Public Offices, 
and at a meeting of the District Council held October 4th 1899, 
it was resolved that steps be taken to carry the proposal into effect. 
The buildings are to include provision for a museum and free library, 
on a plot of land purchased for the purpose in Station Road. The 
total cost will probably reach 8,000 to ; 10,000. 

The large hydro's, hotels, and numerous lodging-houses are 
very often full in the summer. The admirably situated hydro's 
erected on the skirts of the moor are amongst the largest and 
handsomest buildings of the kind in the kingdom. The extensive 
CM iblishment at Ben Rhydding, opened in 1844, has the reputation 
of being the first hydropathic hotel erected in Great Britain.* Near 
here was the ancient and original village of Wheatley, whose houses 
were until quite recent times mostly single-deckers covered with ling- 
thatches. Some foundations of thick-walled housesteads have also 
been removed from the vicinity, and these may possibly have been of 
prehistoric age. The place gave name to an ancient family, of 
which Hugo de Whetelay was rector of Leathley in 1302, and the 
name also appears in the 1378 poll-tax for Burley and Killinghall. 
Little remains now save the old Hall, a roomy lyth century building 
having a north and south aspect, close to the south side of the Ben 
Rhydding railway station. There are two transomed mullion windows 
on the south side, and the principal doorway has simple moulded 
jambs and a plain, heavy lintel, bearing no indications of initials or 
date. It is, however, very probable that the house was built by the 
Boilings, who were property owners in Ilkley in the 15111 century, and 
long resident in the district. Mrs. Ann Boiling, widow of John 
Boiling, who died in 1730, and to whom there is an inaccurately-dated 
memorial in the Bradford Parish Church, held the property, and at 
her death in 1772 it was left to her relative Wm. Boiling, of Ilkley. 
At this time Wheatley Hall was in the occupation of his kinsfolk, 
the Ellis family, who afterwards removed to Hollin Hall. William 
Boiling, in conjunction with his brother Edward, was in the tobacco 
business in Ilkley, which he appears to have given up on the death 
of Edward in 1760. He married a daughter of the Rev. Thomas 

* Dr. Collyer writes that when Ben Rhydding was building in 1846 and the 
founders were casting about for a name, the matter came up for discussion one evening 
in the " Pint-Pot Parliament," which had sat at the If/nut Sheaf in Ilkley time out of 
mind. Mr. Hamer Stansfeld (the founder) wanted a "good and ancient name," and 
was particularly wishful to know what the upland was called in the old times on which 
Ben Rhydding is built. Nancy Wharton, our hostess, said she knew, and gave us the 
name Ben (not Bean) Rydding. It had passed out of the common memory, but had 
survived by some good hap in Nancy's mind, and it was from this little seed the name 
sprang again whirh has became famous. 



223 

Lister, vic.ir of Ilkley, b\ whom he had a large family, and on his 
death in 1832, aged eighty-six, the Wheatley estate was left to his 
two sons, William and Lister Boiling, who were then living at the 
Hall and both of whom died unmarried. The property was inherited 
by their kindred the Margerisons, of whom Richard Margerison, of 
Manninghan, son of John of Ilkley, yeoman, married Phoebe, daughter 
of John Boiling, and died in 1851. The old homestead for a long 
time has been tenanted as a farm, and was purchased about three 
years ago of the Margerisons by Mr. John Beanlands, of Ilkley. 
Mr. John Mawson and Mr. Christopher Thornton were tenants for 
many years, and latterly Mr. Joseph Cook rented the house and 
farm. 

I remember calling at the house some time ago when the good 
woman who was in charge kindly shewed me over the premises. I 
asked if any tradition or event of importance was attached to the old 
house, when she replied, "O, yes, Oliver Cromwell has slept here one 
night." "Ah"! I answered, "I suppose that would be before the 
great tight on Marston Moor"? "No, no," she quickly replied, "it 
was the night before he blew up Bolton Abbey"! 




CHAPTER XV. 



RUMBALDS MOOR : ITS PHYSICAL FEATURES AND ANTIQUITIES. 

Unrivalled attractions of Rumbalds Moor Meaning- of its name St. Rumold, a 
Christian martyr View from the top of the Moor Local geology Glacial 
evidences Curious rocks and traditions Advent of man Original Goidelic 
settlement "Cow and Calf" rocks Marked stones and circles Their universal 
dispersion Local workers Descriptive list of antiquities on the Moor Theories 
and ideas respecting them Symbols of time &c. Evolution of the Sun-Snake 
The doctrine of the ascending spirit The marked stones, the basis of Ilkley's 
existence Necessity for their careful preservation Projected military encampment 
on the Moor An unrivalled playground. 

HAT wide and noble expanse of rugged moorland 
which rises above Ilkley, with its life-giving breezes, 
pleasant walks and memories of primeval occupation 
possesses, as I have before remarked, an almost 
unrivalled interest. To write fully of its wonderfully- 
formed rocks and hanging-cliffs, abundant remains of the glacial 
epoch, its story of the first footsteps of man in Wharfedale, its 
Celtic fairy-lore, the many mystic-marked stones, with all their 
strange traditions augurs of a happier faith ; the passing of the 
Roman, the Angle and Dane along its crested steeps, the camps, 
cairns, and rude stone-circles , its mediaeval history down through 
the stirring episodes of the great Civil War, even to the recent 
period of those hapless sprites, Wise Robin of Rumbalds Moor and 
the old hermit, Job Senior, who chose this solitude against all 
others ; not to mention all that might be said of its natural history 
productions, the birds and butterflies, flowers and mosses and 
reindeer-lichens, would forsooth make the story of this grand old 
moor a tome in itself. 

Many have been the conjectures respecting the origin and 
meaning of its name. In old documents it is variously spelled 
Rumbles, Rummells, Romalls, with variants of a single or double 
m, also Rumolds, Rumbalds, Rombalds, sometimes the first syllable 
with o, sometimes u. There are at least a score different spellings 
of the name. Many are of opinion that it is derived from the first 
Norman owner of the great lordship of Skipton, Robert de Romille, 
and that the correct spelling should be Romille's Moor. But my 
impression is that the name goes back long anterior to the Conquest, 
and that the local pronunciation which the moor has borne from 
time immemorial has been Rumbalds or Rumbles Moor, the latter a 



22 5 

possible contraction or corruption of Rumbalds or Rumolds. In the 
Skipton Parish Registers I find these entries : 

1621, August 3 Matthew Brigge of RUMBLBSMOOR, buried 

1644, Feb. 9 John hargraves, a snuldier slayne on tin- top ot Ri MLKYSMORE. 

1665, July 22 William \Vade \vlio lived att London, i-omeing to see his Father, 

Anthony Wade, dyed on Rt MKU.SMOKI:, a-> it was suppled <m the Plauge, 

Therefere buried there. 

The latter by the way is an interesting note on the great Plague, 
when all who were able fled from the stricken city, and thousands 
of bodies were weekly given over to the dead-cart and pest-house in 
that terrible year, 1665. 

Whether the family name of Romille or Rumbold be at the 
root of its meaning,* or what may be the true explanation, will 
probably never be known. Perhaps I might suggest that the 
moor, with its abundant ante-Norman remains, was as elsewhere 
explained, in the heart of Christian Elmete, and that after the first 
coming of the pagan Danes, the Anglo-British Christians fled to 
this wild solitude, and dedicated the moor for all time to the martyr 
St. Rumold (A.D. 775), who embraced, like the British Christians 
of old, voluntary poverty, and who, though he was ordained Bishop, 
frequently withdrew frum the vanities of the world to renew his 
spirit before God in pensive solitude. This aloofness from the 
world was but the expression of the monastic spirit of the age 
which had first taken root at Lindisfarne. It was on lonely 
Lindisfarne (long the chief citadel of Christian piety in the north), 
that the pagan Vikings fell in 793 ; Jarrow yielded to them next 
year, and all Northumbria seemed likely to fall into their hands. 
The great collapse however, did not take place until seventy years 
afterwards, when all Yorkshire was harried, and save in the least 
accessible places, Christianity ceased to exist with all its visible 
belongings. At this time, too (A.D. 870), the steadfast Archbishop 
of the extensive Province of York was flung into exile on the skirts 
of Rumbalds Moor, by the pagan Danes, as we learn from Simeon 
of Durham. Though it seems much more probable that Archbishop 
Wulfhere had escaped from the Danish massacres with numbers of 
others, and had found a strong refuge among the Christians centred 
about Rumbalds Moor. 

The fame of the pious Rumold was not allowed to slumber, and 
in North Yorkshire, the conjectured boundary of Prof. Green's 
kingdom of Elmete, the ancient church at Romaldkirk (in Domes- 
day spelled Rumoldescherce) is dedicated to St. Rumold. In Celtic 
Ireland especially was his greatness celebrated, and every first of 
July his anniversary was kept in the capital Province of Dublin with 
much ceremony. In the eighteenth century his festival became 

See "Notes <>n the History ot the family of Kurnold in the 17111 Century" in 
f i\i us. f\<n-. Hist. .W. X.S. Vol. VI. pp. i45-H\v 



226 

general in that country, and though not observed here, there is little 
doubt but that in earlier ages St. Rumold would be commemorated 
by the Christians of Deira, as in other places.* It was to Mechlin, , 
in Germany, that his relics were taken for ultimate preservation in 
the grand church there raised in his honour. 

Let us now climb the rugged brow, and up beside the old White 
House on the moor edge, a familiar landmark since our childhood's 
days. Higher still we climb until above the beetling crags we feel 
the fresh breezes sweep over the boundless tracts of heather. The 
air perchance is filled with sunlight and we have to screen our eyes 
to enjoy the vast and lovely expanse of country that opens around 




VIEW OF ILKLEY FROM PANORAMA WOODS. 



us. Far away to the east we scan the hills that bound the great 
vale of York, with the twin towers of the Minster just visible. With 

Doubtless the celebrations would have been kept up here and in Wharfedale, had 
not the Romish influence of Wilfrid proved too strong- for the Celtic priesthood and 
ritual to continue. The synod of Whitby in 664, though its effect was not felt among 
the Celtic Christians of our western Yorkshire for a long period, prevailed in the end. 
It was the cause of a severance between the English and Irish Churches, the consequences 
of which has survived even to our own day. St. Wilfrid sowed the seed of destruction 
in Wharfedale, and those three Romish sculptured crosses in Celtic Ilkley, elsewhere 
spoken of, remain contemporary memorials of this great Christian separation. 



tin 1 aid of a field-glass the distant range of the Hambletons reaching 
almost to C'rathorne on the Durham honlerland, may even be descried 
forty miles awa\ ! Looking northwards and westwards beautiful 
\Vharfedale fills the intermediate prospect that is bounded by the 
classic heights of Rylstone and Cracoe Fells, while the old Armada 
beacon-cones of Flasby Fell, with distant Whernside and flat-topped 
mighty Ingleborough loom far away on the pale horizon. Climbing 
to the very summit of the ridge (1323 feet) the prospect westwards 
over the valley of the Aire is not so interesting nor so wide, some of 
the Lancashire border hills including legendary Pendle, being the 
most prominent features. There is a lovely peep over the valley, 
with the winding river and spreading to\\n, from the Panorama 
Woods, shewn in the accompanying picture. It is from a beautifully 
clear photograph taken by Mr. Joseph Pollard, a local amateur, 
whose lantern lectures from his own views have delighted many 
audiences at Ilkley and elsewhere. 

Wandering with an inquisitive eye among the crags and huge 
tumbled stones of this grand moor, I have sometimes been asked by 
strangers to the district if these rocks are granite. The dark, 
weathered, and compact masses, with their partly granitic constituents, 
may easily deceive the uninitiated, and the keen but uninstructed 
vision of Charlotte Bronte mistook these rocks in like manner for 
granite. But there is no true granite in Yorkshire, save what may 
have been imported by the agency of glaciers in the far-off Ice Age. 
The surface structure of our county was built up long, long after such 
plutonic deep-seated, and non-fossiliferous matter as granite was 
formed. The following little table will shew our position in the 
geological age, beginning with the interior of the earth : 

Feet approximately Feet approximately 

Primary Unascertained CARBONIFEROUS 10,000 

Cumbrian 10,000 Saliferous 2,000 

Cambrian 20,000 Oolite and I.ia- 2,^00 

Silurian 7i5 \\Caldcn 1,000 

Upper and Lower Cretaceous 1,100 

Old Red Sandstone 10,000 Tertiary (most recent) 2,000 

Nearly the whole of West Yorkshire is comprised within the Carboni- 
ferous group, which consists of mountain-limestone (the lowest) 
millstone-grit, with shales and sandstones, and the coal measures. 
When I say that the neighbourhood of Ilkley is on the millstone-grit, 
it will be seen at once where we stand in point of geological antiquity. 
To the student of the millstone-grit group of rocks, Ilkley forms a 
very convenient centre, as within a very few miles, the whole series, 
from the Kinderscout Grit (the lowest) to the Rough Rock on the 
summit of Rumbalds Moor, may be examined and studied. 

In walking towards the Panorama Rocks or to the well-known 
"Cow and Calf," it will be observed that the hill-side is broken into 
escarpments of varying height and extent. Each ascent is composed 



228 

of hard beds of rock, while the intervening level spaces mark where 
the softer shale has been denuded away. The process of denudation 
is still going on, widening the spaces, and which in course of time 
has also widened and shaped the valley as we now see it. Probably 
the greater portion of the scattered rocks which now lie thickly and 
in all sorts of positions on the hill-sides, have been dislodged and 
dropped into their present places, during the closing rigours of the Ice 
Age, when the violent alternations of heat and frost, acting along 
natural joints and fissures in the strata, burst it asunder and caused 
masses to fall in. In this epoch of more equable temperature the 
effects of rain and sun and frost in such places are scarcely 




THE "Cow AND CALF" ILKLEY. 

perceptible. Some of the gritstones have no doubt been dropped in 
their present positions by the movement and break-up of the glacier, 
as amongst them in places may be found blocks of calliard where no 
such stone is in situ.* 

* Mr. Edward Sewell, M.A., F.R.G.S., accounts for the tumbled rocks on the 
moor sides above Ilkley as due partly to " the action of the sea (when Rumbalds Moor 
was partly submerged) first undermining the cliffs, then carrying the blocks down-hill, 
and lastly placing them or piling them up in their present positions ;" likewise "the 
action of coast-ice during the glacial period, which must have been adequate to detach, 
launch, and desperse blocks on a large scale on a sea-coast such as the north-east 
escarment of Rumbalds Moor must have formed." 



229 

Man) uf the rucks have been broken up for making the roads 
and other purposes in recent times. The largest and most notable 
of these was a monster slipped-boulder which stood near the road 
below the "Cow and Calf." It was as large as an ordinary cottage 
and was known as the "Bull Rock." To the regret of many it was 
destroyed. Old people tell me that these isolated rocks have borne the 
names of Bull and Cow and Calf time out of memory, but no legend 
is known to attach to them. I have sought through the traditions of 
Celtic and Teutonic fairy-lore to account for their names, and have 
only met with the following possibly parallel case : 

Several centuries since, a family residing on Durzy Island, off Bantry Bay, found a 
beautiful little coal-black bull and cow on a verdant spot near the beach. The cow 
furnished sufficient butter and milk for all domestic wants, and next year a calf was 
added to the number. When this youngster was come to the age of affording- additional 
support to the family, a wicked servant girl, one day milking the parent cow, so far 
forgot herself as to strike the gentle beast witli the spancel and curse her bitterly. The 
outraged animal turned round to the other two, who were grazing at some distance, 
and lowed to them in a sorrowful tone, and immediately the three moved rapidly off to 
the sea. They plunged in and forthwith the three rocks, since known as the Bull, Cow, 
and Calf arose, and continue to this day to protest against the wickedness and ingratitude 
of cross-grained servant-girls.* 

Story and tradition cluster round these old time-stained 
Wharfedale land-marks, which if they had but tongues could reveal 
to us many a tale of those whom they have sheltered in centuries 
long past and of riddles to the antiquary still unsolved ! 

But if these stones are speechless, the sculptures upon them are 
pregnant with meaning, and are evidence of a strange people who 
once dwelt here, and who witnessed, perhaps, the last reign of the 
great Ice King ! This may be so, yet I think the many strange 
marked stones exhibit to us the presence of a settled community 
rather than that of a nomadic tribe who followed the retreat of the 
ice northward with their herds of reindeer. There can however, be 
no doubt from what I have already said that these moorland and 
rocky solitudes above Ilkley harboured the first refugees of the great 
Celtic immigration. Whether they actually sheltered the primitive 
pigmies that are now known to have inhabited the caves of Western 
Europe, (doubtless the stunted beings of the Ice Age),f and from 

* Kennedy's legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts, p. 1 10. 

f The "Midden Men" of Hastings, described by Mr. \V. J. Lewis Abbott, F.G.S., 
in "Primeval Refuse Heaps at Hastings" (vide Natural Science for July and August, 
1897) seem to have been similar diminutive post-glacial nomads, using no cereals, 
carrying no querns or mealers, and ignorant of polishing flint and of barbing arrows. 
They had no human enemies to contend with, and no kind of offensive or heavy weapons 
accompany these interesting remains. The primitive lake-dwellers of Yorkshire may 
also have been of like antiquity, though it seems more probable from the discoveries 
made near Pickering and at Ulrome that they belonged to the later Stone or Bronze 
Age, The human remains found, however, shew them to have been dwarfs. Herodotus 
(400 B.C.) the earliest Greek historian mentions the Lake Dwellers as his contemporaries. 
This was in thr Bronze Age. 



230 

whom sprung the traditions of our dwarfs and fairies, there is at 
least one fragment of local evidence to offer. Under the famous 
Hanging Stone, with its mystic "cup and ring" sculptures, the rock 
is hollowed out forming a deep overhanging cavity, and I am told 
that this ancient rock-shelter has been known from time immemorial 
as "Fairies' Kirk," and traditions of its having been tenanted by those 
tiny sprites, the fairies, still exist among old people in the 
neighbourhood. When the Saxons established themselves at Ilkley 
they were going to build a church up here, but the fairies strongly 
resented. They would have none of it, and so their little temple was 
erected in the vale below. The fairies distrust any intrusion upon 
their own sacred places, and is it not Sir Walter Scott who relates how 
somebody long ago was going to erect a church at Deer, when the 
fairies with one voice cried out : 

"It is not here, it is not here, 

That ye shall build the Kirk o' Deer, 

But on Taptillerie 

Where many a grave shall be"? 

I cannot go into all the details I have heard of the antics of these 
mysterious little people here and in the neighbouring gills;* it is 
sufficient to note the survival of an interesting and eminently Celtic 
tradition. I have already broached an opinion on the situation of the 
ol-y-ceann of the Britons, the Olicana of the Latins, and the beetling 
rocky headlands terminating in the fortress-like "Cow and Calf," are 
just the kind of place we might expect to be occupied during the 
Brigantian epoch, when the valley was a forest-fringed swamp, with 
its exhaling mists. The "Cow" which I find was called in 1807 
"Inglestone Cow," a name now quite forgotten, bears no mean 
resemblance to a castle, while the "Calf" may be likened to a keep, 
the two rocks having possibly been united by a wall or bulwark of 
turf and stones forming a secure and chief enclosure. The "Cow," 
as it now stands, is I should say the largest detached block of stone 
in England, measuring eighty feet long, about thirty-six feet wide and 
upwards of fifty feet in height. From one point of view it presents, 
like the jutting face of Kilnsey Crag, as seen from the north side, 
the appearance of a huge sphinx, which may be intentional, or it may 
be natural, probably the latter. The face of the rock bears a 
depression that looks like a human foot, and the local tradition 
concerning it is that the genius of the moors, a certain giant Rumbald, 
was stepping from Almias Cliff on the opposite side of the valley, to 
this great rock, but miscalculating its height his foot slipped, leaving 
the impression we now see. Both the "Cow" and the "Calf" have 
cups and channels on their surfaces, which were conjectured by 

- In ancient Celtic territory, above Middleton Lodge, is a deep ravine, which so 
far as I can make out has always been known as Fairy Dell. The fairies had a strong 1 
dislike not alone- to Christian Churches, but also to holy wells. See remarks on Our 
Lady's Well near Grassington Bridge. 



231 

Mi-sM's. Konvst and OrainiM' in [869 to !< connected with Druidical 
priestcraft, and that their purpose- was "to retain and distribute the 
liquid furl whirh fed the sacred flame on grand festivals of the year." 
Borlase in his Natural History <>/' Comical/ refers to similar cup- 
sculptures, on rocks known as Karn Letkys, or the Cairn of Burnings. 
But whether they have any connection with the Druids is very 
questionable. Mr. Worth maintains to the contrary and holds that 
so far as Devonshire and indeed all the West of England are 
concerned, neither history nor tradition, nor folk-lore, nor archaeology, 
afford the slightest trace of Druidic existence, whether in the sense of 
( '.rsar and Pliny, of the Welsh bards, or of the constructive ideal of 
Borlase and Pohvhele.* The same may also be affirmed of our 
so-called "Druids' Circles," those rude stone erections in isolated 
places sung of by Ossian and the ancient bards, but in no sense 
hinting at any Druidical connection. See however note to Simon Seat. 

The Ilkley and adjacent moors, as I have said, abound with 
such remains. The marked stones, cairns, and circles, are certainly 
more numerous in this locality than in any spot of equal area in 
Britain. Consisting of shallow cup-like depressions connected by 
channels with larger rock basins, or entirely separate and enclosed 
with concentric rings, the "cup and ring" markings have excited 
wonder and stimulated interest in the beholder far beyond our own 
realms. No one now doubts their purely artificial origin, for they 
have been observed on rocks in every one of the four divisions of 
the home dominions, in the Isle of Man and in the Channel Islands, 
likewise in France, Switzerland, and Scandinavia. In North and 
South America they are also met with, and in parts of Asia and 
Africa, as well as in Fiji and other islands of the South Pacific. 
They are especially numerous in the East, and a very large number 
bearing the peculiar cup and ring incisions have been found in Moab.f 
But in no part of the world has anything been discovered with the 
peculiar cups and ladder-like markings on the rocks, now laid within 
an enclosure before St. Margaret's Church at Ilkley, and to which I 
shall presently refer.J 

It is little more than thirty years ago the Ilkley stones were 
discovered. They seem to have been first observed by a Mr. Terry, 
while on a visit to Ben Rhydding in 1X67. But this is disputed, as 
in the same year Mr. Chas. Forrest, of Loft house, visited them and 
soon afterwards published his little book which contains the first 

* Trans, of the Dii'nnshirc v/.vwr., xii., 228-42. 

f See Mnah'x Patriarchal Stii/trx, by the Rev. Jas. King-. 

+ Small cups with three or more concentric ring's connected with perpendicular, not 
hori/ontal or ladder-like grooves, have been found engraved on bron/e ring's, brooches, 
and other objects of personal adornment found among- the remains of the primitive Lake 
Dwelling's in Switzerland and other places on the Continent, of a date approximately 
300 to 1000 years B.C. See also Shaw's liarbary (1757) where is an illustration of a 
Mosaic pavement of the time of Alexander, shewing cup and ring marks. 



232 

published reference to them. There soon followed in 1869 Mr. Jas. 
Wardell's Historical Notices of these Moors describing the camps and 
cairns and the "Cow and Calf" markings, stating that they were the 
only ones of their kind yet discovered in this neighbourhood. But 
further examination soon brought others to light, and nowhere so 
abundantly as in the proximity of Ilkley. From some of them much 





DR. THOMAS J. CALL. 

peat had to be removed. No one, I may say, took greater interest 
in these discoveries than the late Dr. Thomas J. Call, who was medical 
officer to the Ilkley Hospital, and who died in 1883. Dr. Call was 
in fact one of the first, if not the first practical archaeologist who 
called public attention to them, though so far as I can make out, 



233 

none of his writings an- dated.* He discovered some of the stones 
himself, and at various times made sketches and took rubbings of 
.several of the more important sculptures, several of which are of 
espeeial value at this time as the original stones from which they were 
drawn have been broken up or despoiled. These records of Dr. 
Call's usefulness are now preserved in the Ilkley Museum. Twenty 
years ago Mr. Frederick W. Fison, M.P., rendered valuable service 
by uncovering and carefully noting some of the marked stones, and 
he with Dr. Call, was, I believe, the first to introduce them to the 
notice of Mr. J. Romilly Allen, whose important work and writings on' 
the Ilkley stones are now well known. Others, as for example the 
late Mr. John Holmes, of Roundhay, Mr. Win. Cudworth, of Bradford, 
and various members of local societies, have been scarcely less 
indefatigable in their efforts to note, photograph, and elucidate the 
mystery of these inscribed rocks. Mr. T. C. Gill, the Ilkley District 
Council's moor-keeper, has also taken great interest in the work of 
their discovery and preservation, and at Silverwell Farm he has a 
fine collection of flints and other relics obtained while ranging the 
moor. Having had the benefit of Mr. Gill's guidance on several 
occasions, I have noted, I believe, in the following table every known 
antiquity on this unrivalled ground: 

LlST OF Ru.MBALDS MOOR ANTIQUITIES, 

i. Cow and Calf, basin, cup, and channel marked. Described above. Some think 
the "basins" are due to natural weathering. I have heard it said the "Calf" (ell 
from the " Cow" during a terrific storm about a century ago, but this is extremely 
doubtful. Anciently the Cow was known as the Inglcstonc. 

J. Hanging Stone (west of Cow and Calf), cup and ring- marked. Some vandal has 
been imitating the primeval sculptures by chiselling on the same stone, but the 
freshness of the recent work is at once seen. It is to be regretted that quarrying- 
ha- been permitted to get so near this exceedingly valuable monument of antiquity, 
a relic which, as the ages roll on, must gather an ever-deepening- interest. The 
sculptures are figured in Forrest and Gramme's Kiimlialiis Moor (Part iii). Under 
it is the equally interesting 

3. Fairies Kirk, described above. 

4. On the slope of the hill below the Fairies Kirk and also below the "Cow and Calf" 
are several deep entrenchments that have the appearance of Prehistoric Dykes. 
Whether these have afforded cover to the ancient settlements on the heights above 
I am not prepared to say, but it is certain they have been cart-roads to quarries in 
former times, the old ruts being- still visible. 

5. A few hundred yards directly south of the "Cow and Calf" is the Pancake Ridge 
and well-known curious Pancake Rock, bearing cup-marks. 

o. About 200 yards west of the last named is a very large, solitary boulder, almost as 
large as a cottage. It has a coped top like the roof of a house. On the north slope 
of the top are a number of cup-shaped hollows. Described by Mr. Allen in Jourl. 
lirit. Arch. Assoc., vol. 3^. p. 19. 

7. Going in the direction of Green Crag- (1118 feet), a grassy slope extending- east and 
west, a little south of the last named, are some extensive ancient enclosures. The 
ramparts of turf and stone, occupy three sides of a rectangle, the north, east, and 

Mr. Romilly Allen holds Dr. Call to be the first discoverer in 1866. See No. 300 
of "Local Notes and (Queries" in the Leeds Merciuy Supplement, Also 301-3. 



234 

west, while the south is commanded by the elevated slope of Green Crag-. This 
portion shews that the ground above must have been strongly occupied by the same 
people who held the enclosures, I should say they are in all probability enclosures 
tor cattle, thrown up with a stockade by the Romani/.ed Celts on the Anglo-Saxon 
irruption. Mr. Gill tells me that nothing to his knowledge has ever been found on 
the site. See also Arctueologia, vol. xxxi. 

8. A short distance to K. of these enclosures is, on Green Crag* a unique sculptured 
stone, the surface being almost level with the ground. It is about three feet by 
thirty inches in its greatest measurement, and has incised upon it a line of seven 
cups enclosed within a continuous groove. No doubt these seven marks so 
enclosed have reference to the "perfect seven," a symbol of the highest antiquity 
evolved from the mystic triang-le enclosed within the terrestial square, and employed 
both in pagan and Christian times as the symbol of perfection. "God made all 
things by measure, number, and weight." He made the world in six days and the 




PREHISTORIC SCULPTURE ON GREEN CRAG, RUMBALDS MOOR. 



seventh was consecrated to rest. Every seventh year the ploughshare was laid aside 
that men might bless the Creator while the land lay fallow. $n-en years of plenty 
and seven years of famine were foretold in Pharaoh's dream. Noah had seven days 
warning of the flood, and was commanded to take the fowls of the air in by seven, 
and the clean beasts by seven. Solomon was seven years in building the Temple, at 
the dedication of which he feasted seven days. In Scripture are enumerated seven 
resurrections. Our Lord spake seven times on the cross, on which he was seven 

* It might be suggested that despite the present greenness of this moorland bank 
the name may reflect the Goidelic greine, the sun. Brown on these moors is most 
likely the Celtic Iron, a. slope ; and the local Black I have already sufficiently proved. 
See Ellice's Place Names of Glengarry, p. 105. 



235 

hour". He ;ip]n-;irrcl teVtn liiiu-s and alter sci'cii time-- M nn day-- '(lit tin- Holy 
(ilnist. There were also .vi-j'c;/ heavens, (the perfection ot delight) xiTi'ii star--, vc7'< // 
wise men, ,s< -.'('// champion-- of Christendom, .M -.-/;/ deadly sins, and AVTVV/ sacraments 
in tlic Holy Catholic Church. The seven churches i>t the Celtic priesthood was a 
continuation of the same idea of religious perfection, and there were Sfi'i'H churches 
at (Jargrave (according- to tradition) on the north-west side of Rumbald's Moor. 
The xi-.'O/t/i son of a family has always been held in Craven to be supernaturallv 
endowed, and there is an entry to this effect in the Skipton registers for 1664. Such 
is the sacred and perfect number sii'di. ( >n the Green ( 'rat;' stone are parallel rows of 
cups on the outside of the groove. Such an orderly arrangement of rock-marking's 
in this form is, I believe, unknown elsewhere. A, r I'late opposite. 

. About twenty yards from the last are on Green ('raff three immense boulders, each 
bearing- cup-marks. 

10. Some 200 yards south-east of these is a curious pillar-like stone, having 1 curiously- 
weathered llu ting's down its sides, while the top presents a ridged, uneven surface, 
like a number of small cones. It is known as the Idol Rock. 

11. About 250 yards south-east again, on Qrecn Crag, is a large old boundary-stone, 
inscribed "T.I'., \V.M., 1785," and it bears live basin-shaped incisions on it. 
Kastward of Creen Crag runs Woo fa Bank. There is a Woo fa Bank between 
Silsden and Draughton, west of Counter Hill; and a Woof Stones on Cowling- 
Moor. L'lpha Church in Cumberland is called by the older country folk, " Oopha 
Kirk," hence our Woofa may be a dialectal form of Vlpha. .SVr \nrtli I.onsdale 
.\/<i.if., II. 17. 

u. Crossing the level ground from the last-named, about a half-mile southwards we 
come to a long and conspicuous ridge of glacial debris, part of a lateral moraine, 
running- east and west, or parallel with the valley, for more than half-a-mile. The 
debris has contained a very large percentage of limestone boulders and black 
chert from the limestone country of the upper Dale. The ridge in every part has 
been turned over, forming a series of heaps and hollows whence the limestone 
has been extracted and burnt in primitive kilns on the spot. The remains of these 
kilns may still be seen. The ridge has probably been dug or di-h'cd in the i6th 
and 171!) centuries, as described on pp. 241--; of my CkrontdeS of Old Bingley. The 
spot is known as Lanshaw Delves, which Forrest and Grainge mistook for a British 
village. The name is probably a contraction of Langshaw (A.S. Innif itvW), 
indicating the site of old forest-land, and in a citation of the boundaries of the 
manor of Ilkley in (1500) it is written " Langshawe Ladde." There is a Langshaw 
Bank at l.angbar on the opposite side of the river, anil set- also p. 122. 

i; v Last o) above is Lanshaw Dam, formed in the bed of an old glacial tarn. The 
moor-becks are drained into it. 

14. North of this point is a cairn (originally 100 yards in circumference) known as the 
Great Skirtful of Stones, a burial cairn of some forgotten chief. 

" Heap the stones of my renown, 

And let them speak to other days," is the cry of Ossian. 

In the middle of it stands an old boundary-stone on which is cut, "Walter 
Hawksworth. This is Rumbles La we. Mr. Wardell says that it was 8^ feet in 
diameter and 5 to 6 feet in height, in 1869. 

15. South of this and not far from the Dam is the Little Skirtful of Stones, which 
tradition says was let fall by the aforementioned giant Rumbalds, while hastening 
to build a bridge over the Wharfe. See Dr. Richardson's letter (A.D. 1709) in 
llearne's ed. of I. eland's ///';/. Vol. I. p. 143. 

i<>. South ol the last is the familiar Qrubstone Shooting Tower, which it it cannot be 
strictly regarded as an "antiquity" is by no means a recent erection, while it is 
associated with many valuable "finds." Upon this elevated tract of flat ground 
a larger number of (lints, in the shape of arrow-heads, knives, hammers, and stone 
implements have been picked up than on any other part of the moor. 



236 

17- Near the Shooting Tower are several cup-marked rocks. 
18. -To the S.E. is a stone circle about 80 feet in circumference. 

IQ. A good half-mile east is a group of barrows, both of the round and long- types. 
Described by FmTcst and Crainge in Tart III. r.l Kitmbalds Moor, (1869). 

20. South of this we reach the Horncliffe Keeper's House, near to which on Hawksworth 
Moor is a Stone Circle, figured and described in my Chronicles &>c. of Old ft in ff lev. 

21. About ten feet above the circle is a stone six feet square and two feet thick 
bearing cups on its edge. On the top of the ridge above Horncliffe is a large 
barrow, or tumulus. 

22. At the summit of the main road over the moor from Kldwick to Ilkley, and a little 
to the rig-ht of the road, is another Stone Circle of twelve upright fragments and 
boulders known as the Twelve Apostles. Constantine the Great (who is so closely 
associated with this district), surrounded the Holy Sepulchre with 12 pillars, after 
the number of the Apostles. Many pillar-stones employed in the service of pagan 
ritual were afterwards used as Christian memorials. Many circles are found to 
consist of 12 stones or multiplies of 12, as at Stonehenge (60) and it is consequently 
assumed that they represent the 12 signs of the Zodiac, or 24 hours' time circle. 
But see Professor Petrie's Stoitehenge : its Plaits, Descriptions and Theories (1880) 
and Mr. Edgar Barclay's Stonehenge and its Earthworks (1895), the two ablest 
contributions to this subject of recent years. 

23. About 300 yards to the south, or Eldwick side of last-named, is an ancient boundary- 
stone known as Lanshaw Lad. In Anglo-Saxon lad signifies a way or journey also 
in Lappenberg's History of England under the Anglo-Saxons (Thorpe's translation) 
it is interpreted as a supplying of beasts of burden for a journey, or the service ot 
finding the lords with beasts of burden. I.ad-man, a leader, a guide. In Calderdale 
there is a "Lads Lowe" and near it "Toby's Cave." See Dearden's Star Seer p. 
133. There is a stone pillar on the Lower Brown Knowl marked "Lad of Law," 
on the boundary of the manor of Midgley. See Leeds Mercury Supplement (X. & Q. 
No. 978), October 2nd, 1897. 

24. A good half-mile east of above, and on Lanshaw Delves, is another old boundary- 
stone latterly called by way of comparison with above, Lanshaw Lass. 

25. About a mile south-west of Lanshaw Lad, on the same boundary, is the Ashlar 
Chair, a very ancient land mark, at the junction of four ownerships. The stone is 
couch-shaped about seven feet long, open to the south, and is sometimes spoken of 
as the Druids' Chair. It bears numerous cups and channels. 

26. A few yards to the east is a curious rock about fourteen feet long and five feet broad, 
bearing cups and grooves on its topmost angle. 

27. Between the Ashlar Chair and moor-road from Keighley to Ilkley are a couple of 
large isolated boulders known as Two Eggs, though by no means egg-shaped. One 
is almost square, measuring over forty yards in circumference, and the other is 
fourteen feet long and about eight feet high. Both are channelled and bear cups. 

28. On the opposite side of the road, a good half-mile west of the last named, is part of 
a Stone Circle. It is in the corner of a piece of enclosed land and about a dozen of 
the stones are still in situ. 

29. A half-mile due north of Two Eggs stand a group of rocks known as Thimble 
Stones, bearing cups and grooves. 

30. A little north of the last-named is a large barrow, about 150 yards in circumference. 

31. On the moor a short distance to the left of the road going to Ilkley, stands tin- 
conspicuous Cowper Cross. No satisfactory explanation has been given of the 
origin of this old stone cross. It stands in proximity to the Roman road, but has 
nothing Roman about it. The shaft has originally been a plain obelisk and has 
been broken at the top and formed into a Latin cross. It may have been erected 
by some member of the Cowper family, who were numerous all round this wide 



237 



Minor, iii Ilkley, Kildwick ;in<l Skipton parishes in ilic loth ami lyth cent uries. 
Some believe il In l)c an old cross when- markets were held when plagues were rite 
in the surrounding villages; (In- French coiifit'r, A.S. <-i'ii/>ttn, meaning In barter 
nr buy. Sonic folk --ay il \sa- creeled by one of the Middlctnns, lords of the manor, 
who were devout Roman Catholics, and that they used to pray at tin- foot of this 
cross e\erv morning, foul or fair, winter and summer, the whole year round. 
"The scenes of heathen worship were selected by the first apostles of Christianity 
as the most judicious spots lor erecting the standard of the (rospcl." Dearden's 
.Star .\i cr p. i_^. l-'or illustration .see tail-piece on page ^4.v 

V- About a furlong S.\V. of Ilkley Baths is an isolated rock 7 leet (> inches b\ (i feel, 
bearing cup and ring sculpture- St-i- Mr. Allen's paper in the//, lint. Arch. /f.v.vw. 

XXXV. p. 21 &C. 

.vv Near ( trainings Head, above Barmishaw Hole, is a block ol gritstone 12 leet long, 
7', teet broad and 4 feet high. On the sloping top are newly go cup*, 16 of which 

are surrounded with single concentric rings. At one end is a curious ladder-like 
pattern surrounded by a double groove. Mr. Allen observes that this is one of the 
lew instances of cup and ring sculpture occurring- on a vertical surface ol rock. 

,54. About 100 yards west of the well-known Panorama Rock were three of the most 
remarkable sculptured rocks yet loiind on the moor. They lay almost in a straight 
line, east and west, the first stone being 5 feet from the second, and the second 100 
leet from the third. Less than twenty years ago the first was covered with a thick 
accumulation of turf, and when bared the sculptures were particularly fresh and 
distinct. This stone measures 10 feet by 7 feet and on its surface are 2^ cups, i,H of 
which are surrounded with concentric rings, varying 1 from one to live in number. 
The rings enclosing each cup are connected with ladder-like markings (.S'<r the 
accompanying plate). It is a form of rock-sculpture hitherto recorded from no other 
locality in the world. The other two stones bear numerous cups, some of winch 
are enclosed with rings (.SVv _//. lint. Anh. Assoc. xxxv.) These valuable stones 
were purchased and removed by Dr. Fletcher Little and replaced in a more 
accessible position within an enclosure near St. Margaret's Church. They should 
be under cover. In their original 
position on the moor they lay within 
a rude enclosure where Mr. F. \V. 
Fison found several Hint Hakes. Five 
or six of the stones near are cup- 
marked, and one seems to have 
been a rocking-stone. 

35. Halt-a-mile west of the Panorama 
Rock, on the extreme edge of the 
cliff forming the north boundary of 
Addingham High Moor, and over- 
hanging the valley is the famous 

Woodhouse Crag Swastika stone. // VVsb^X O 

The block is nineteen feet long by ^~~ 

seven feet broad and four and a halt 
feet thick. At the east end are two 
rock-basins, fifteen inches across, 
and at the other is carved t In- 
curious swastika emblem of the 
Buddhists. This stone, says Mr. 
Allen, is by far the most interesting 
of all the Ilkley sculptures, and is 
identical with a carving found at 
Tossetie in Sweden, illustrated n 
Holmberg's Skand'ntavu'iis ffallrist- 
ningar. It is also very similar in SWASTIKA ON WOODHOUSE CRAG. 




form to a tetraskelion engraved on a wooden button, clasp or libula, covered with 
gold plates, found at Mycena-, and figured No. 161 in Mr. Wilson's monograph. 

The Swastika is almost unknown among Christian peoples, but it occurs on all 
the sacred foot-prints of Buddha, and may be seen on the cast of Buddha's feet in 
the Indian Museum, London. Dr. Schliemann found it engraved upon a very large- 
number of spindle-whorls unearthed at Troy, as well as on other objects at Mycena-. 
The Ilkley device is explained by Mr. Allen to be a modification made by doubling 
the lines and curving the arms. It is noteworthy, says Mr. Thomas Wilson of 
the U.S. National Museum, that while in modern times the Swastika is practically 
unknown among Christians, the fret, chevron, herring-bone, crosses, and circles ot 
every kind, have remained in use since Neolithic times, but no Swastika. The latest 
use mentioned in the literature upon this subject appears to have been in the 
Archepiscopal chair in the cathedral at Milan, which bears the three ancient 
Christian crosses, the Latin cross, the monogram of Christ, and the Swastika, Hut 
it has not died out all over the world. It is still in use in Lapland and Finland and 
has continued in use among the Orientals. 

There may possibly be others not enumerated in this list, as there 
are also a great many of a similar character on the adjoining moors. 

Various theories have been advanced respecting the origin, 
meaning, and age of these remarkable carved rocks. Their association 
with the many wild conjectures on the fiery rites of the Druids 
must be dismissed.* No doubt they are all born of primitive 
Nature worship, in which the sun, as the all-giving sustenance, has 
through countless ages taken the principal part. But it must not 
therefore be assumed that they are monuments carved in honour of 
the visible sun, or direct symbolical offerings to the sun, as many of 
them are found in places that the sun never touches. But the sun 
as the chief factor in Nature is at the root of this worship and was 
honored in most religious rites by all the ancient nations and in our 
own country by the Celtic and Teutonic settlers markedly so. Mr. 
Allen, in referring to the Ilkley stones, believes the cup and ring to 
be " the symbol of some deity, perhaps the sun-god, who is indicated 
by substituting a cup and ring for his head." Others hold the same 
view. In the evolution of paganism and Christianity we have the 
same idea expressed in the nimbus of the glorified Christ and the 
saints. Likewise in the evolution of the cross from the primitive 
crux ansata, probably represented in the Ilkley rocks (as it is in an 
altered form on a late capital in the pre-Conquest Church at Weston 
over the river) and in the five glorified wounds the symbolism is 
continued.! Unfortunately no traditions survive in respect to the 

* Although in Celtic worship the doctrine of atonement by blood did exist, and 
the belief in burning alive prevailed in Ireland in much the same manner as in India, a 
form and ritual in fact attributed to the Britons by Caesar. See Cormack's Glossary by 
Whitley Stokes, page 63 (Irish Archael. Society). 

f Mr. Pugin in his Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament gives plates (undated) in 
which the five wounds are symbolised by five crosses flory, glorified with rays and 
crowns ; and also proper, with the sacred blood flowing into chalices. Is not the 
same idea represented on the ancient arms of Christ (a shield of twenty quarterings) 
preserved in the Cathedral of Mayence? The Mass of the Five Wounds is shewn to 
be as old as the 8th century, and probably belongs to a still more ancient ritual. 



239 

Ilklev stones, .UK! MI f.ir .-is I can discover very few exist in other 
parts of Britain. The natives around Dartmoor tell you that the 
rock-basins there were used by the Jews to keep their money in 
when they paid their workmen in the tin-mines. But this is obviously 
a verv practical modern tradition and has nothing whatever to do 
with Nature or sun worship. 

The Ojibbawa Indians regard the concentric circles as the 
symbols of time, out of which is evolved the sacred circle of eternity.* 
And this brings us back again to the sun, the symbol for which as 
used by the Chinese, as well as by other nations, is a circle with a 
dot in the centre; afterwards it was a ring enclosing a cross, 
representing its rays. Thence was evolved the wheel of the sun-car 
and a rude-boat (like the golden bowl given to Hercules by Apollo) 
is the sun-ship (which led to the adoption of the navis for the longer 
part of the Christian Church), and so on multiplying into a great 
variety of complicated devices. Three converging rays indicate the 
in) stic triad, and bent or hooked at the ends become the triquetra, a 
sacred emblem in many mythologies, and presented in various ways.f 
One of the most interesting of its later developments (probably of 
the Iron Age, if not later, as working on millstone-grit is not like 
carving on metal)}: appears on the now famous Woodhouse Crag 
rock above Ilkley, shewn in the illustration on page 237. The 
same figure may have come down to us in the peculiar form of three 
human legs conjoined and still used in the civic arms of the Isle 
of Man, though some contend the latter are an importation of the 
triskelion from Sicily. 

Again, the figure 8 is the sun-snake, connected with several sets 
of early cults, and representing the vivifying powers of Nature. 
These combined into a line make a rope pattern, into a double line 
the plait, which however readily derived from other necessities of 
manufacture, are thus adapted to the service of mystic symbolism. 
And thus from the mystic triad or triquetra and sun-snake we get 
those beautiful designs so exquisitely carved on our early Christian 
crosses, of which the Wharfedale examples at Ilkley and Otley are 
the most notable. On bronze ornaments of the primitive lake- 
dwellers the triquetra is also engraved. 

With regard to the precise meaning of every form of rock 
sculpture, nothing positive can be advanced until we are in possession 
of most of the facts and traditions relating to them in other parts of 

A. e 1'ninx. of the IMHC. and Cheshire Ant. .S'wr. (1889) on the astromical theory of 
tin- Ilklt-y rock-markings. 

I .Sec Collingwood'.s I'hilnsopliy <>f Ornamrnl (1883) page 14. 

; I hid \i. 109. Merc crude-ness is no criterion of antiquity any more than the 
ili-covcry ot a Him <>r stout- weapon can be -aid to belong to that particular age. In 
Fiji, t<>r example, the natives were living in the Stone Age almost up to our annexation 
of the island in 1874. .V.r the chapter on Cl I.IK ( IKASSIXC; I ox. :< Ibid page 14. 



246 

the world. Amongst the North American Indians and in parts of 
Asia, the cup depressions and furrows are known to be connected 
with the universal desire for posterity, as sanctioned by Nature 
through the all-giving life of the sun.* On the other hand single 
cup-stones in some places, notably in Scandinavia, are associated 
with the sacred rites of burial. The cups are filled with an unctuous 
preparation, which on being ignited produces a slow-burning fume, 
and as this ascends the spirit of the deceased is believed to be aided 
in its journey to the better sphere. There is little doubt but that 
this belief is a survival of some primitive cults which have existed 
and may still exist among Eastern tribes. f The doctrine of the 
ascending spirit and of after-life is, of course, older than Christianity. 
Plato, the great Athenian philosopher, living 400 years before Christ, 
recognized this doctrine, then old enough to be well-known, that 
Death is but the Gate of Life. " My body," he says, " must descend 
to the place ordained, but my soul will not descend. There is no such 
thing as death, it is only change from one condition to another." 

This leads me now to consider briefly the cause of the present 
being and status of Ilkley, as illustrated by the story of these 
wonderful stones, of which the town of Ilkley ought to be justly 
proud and every endeavour made to spare and preserve them. My 
impression is that lying chiefly along the line of crags overlooking 
the present town (how many have perished or have been destroyed, 
I know not) they mark the position and strength of the original 
Goidelic settlement during the Bronze Age. As similar inscriptions 
are now found among primitive people throughout the world, but 
chiefly in the East, it is evident that so far as Britain is concerned 
the same people on a westward migration brought the practice with 
them. I can indeed see no reason why the practice should not have 
survived at Ilkley until the Cymric-Celtic occupation, as Goidel and 
Brython were so intimately related, and only on the Roman or 
perhaps the great Teutonic irruption, with its alien rites, in the fifth 

* The following volumes, amongst others, (privately printed) have appeared on 
this aspect of the question: (i) Ophiolatreia: Rites and Mysteries connected with 
Serpent Worship, with traditions, serpent mounds and temples, a phase of Phallic or 
Sex Worship. Crown 8vo. (1889) (2) Archaic Rock Inscriptions, an account of the cup 
and ring markings on the sculptured stones of the Old and New Worlds. Front. Cr. 
8vo. (1891) (3) A description of the Worship of Lingham-Yoni, with account of ancient 
and modern Crosses, Crux Ansata, and other symbols of Sex Worship. Cr. 8vo. 
(1892) (4) Fishes, Flowers, and Fire, as Elements and Deities in the Phallic Faiths and 
Worship of the Ancient Religions of Greece, Babylon, Rome, India &c., with illustrated 
myths and legends (1892). In Williams and Rowe's Fiji and the Fijians (1858) cups and 
rings are associated with a debased and degraded form of Nature worship. Pillar 
stones were the recognized symbols of propitiation or memorial in the time of Jacob, 
and stone Ezels were known in the days of David and Jonathan. 

f In Mr. Rivett-Carnac's Ancient Sculpt lit Ings on Rocks at Kainaon, a province 
lying in the shadow of the Himalayas, he shows how some of these archaic markings 
are connected with native religions in India. 



24! 

<vntur\, \voulil their use be abandoned and in time forgotten.* I 
have elsewhere said sufficient to justify the Goidelic occupation of 
the Ilkley Crags as far hack as the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age 
led that of Iron, and the early iron-using people came into 
England probably from South Germany" about 300-200 i;.c. 

1 shall now contend that from the Goiclel to the second Celtic 
conquest \ve are brought down to this period, and that at this era the 
Celtic settlements on Rumbakls Moor and the adjacent commons 
were amongst the most important in the North of England. What 
may have been the rites or practices prevalent on these high lands at 
this era is not, as I have remarked, sufficiently known. Nor dare we 
say much of the stones themselves. Whatever may be their relative 
position in other places, at Ilkley they mostly lie along the moor 
having an outlook to the east, and if there be any meaning in this, it 
is interesting to note again how Christian symbolism is based on older 
custom, for all our churches are made to point to the rising sun, the 
symbol of the Christian's Saviour and of his future expectations. f 
I think there is little doubt that apart from any religious significance, 
the strength of this Celtic settlement was the prime factor in the 
Roman Conquest here, and the motive for fixing their station lower 
down in the usual position beside the river. I am not aware that 
even a single relic other than of a Roman or of a Romano-Celtic 
character has ever been found on or near the site of the Roman 
camp, and the same may likewise be said of Grassington, to which 
many Britons withdrew. The steady retention of the site by an 
increased population on the Roman evacuation subsequently led to 
the Anglo-Saxon seizure. The flight of the Britons once more to the 
hills, their ultimate amalgamation until the religious controversy of 
A.D. 664, again divided the race ; the building of the Christian church 
before the Normans came in 1066, and the growth of Ilkley to the 
present time, I have already elucidated. And this may be said to be 
entirely due to the original settlement on the Ilkley moors, whose 
primitive memorials the very basis of Ilkley's existence, and indeed 
of her prosperity are still with us, and it is to be hoped will long be 
preserved to a still more enlightened and appreciative posterity. 

As the present-day guardians of these precious memorials of 
Old Ilkley the District Council are primarily responsible for their safe 
keeping. The time may come when points not now observed may 
require close scrutiny of the stones themselves which photographs or 
rubbings of them may not reveal. Some of them have been 
uncovered from beneath live, six, and even ten feet of peat. When bared 

Sec an article by Mr. H. W. Young F. S.A., on the Elgin Stones in tin- Reliquary 
for January 1897, in which lie traces tin- connection between the cup and ring marks 
and certain symbols prevalent in Scotland as late as the beginning of the Christian 
period. 

f Sec 1'oole on Ecclesiastical Symbolism, 



242 

of this protective clothing the inscriptions were in several examples as 
fresh almost as the day when first cut. But the heavy moor-rains 
and sun-heat are gradually but surely effacing the sculptures. In the 
case of the Green Grag stone, the Woodhouse Crag swastika-rock and 
the "cup and ladder'' stone before St. Margaret's Church, would it not 
be well to have them temporarily covered in? The last-named might 
be placed under a liftable lid or beneath a low sloping awning to 
carry off the rain, and in such a position that it may still be open to 
the inspection of visitors. 

With regard to No. 12 of the list, this lateral moraine can be 
traced nearly to Hawksworth, and there is no doubt that the present 
Ilkley Tarn was originally a small morainic lake, enlarged when the 
present encompassing walks were laid out. Ice-groovings are still 
discernible on rock surfaces near the Cow and Calf, parallel with the 
lateral moraine, but no ice-markings have been discovered at a higher 
elevation than the Lanshaw Delves, which apparently marks the 
westward limit of the ice-flow down the valley. Between Menston 
and Yeadon the accumulations of glacial debris are considerable. 
On the east side of the valley moraine detritus may be seen in long 
mounds running from Langbar, parallel with the valley southwards 
to Askwith and Weston. Another linear rubbish-bank extends from 
Middleton towards Denton, where it curves to and crosses the river 
at Escroft, forming the only ascent on the road from Burley to Ben 
Rhydding, and which must have originally dammed back the river, 
forming a large lake. The composing debris includes boulders of 
limestone and grit from the higher reaches of the valley, and as in 
Airedale down to Shipley, occasional boulders and fragments of 
Silurian origin from Ribblesdale may be picked up. 

Long and varied as is the history of this wide and accessible 
moorland, yet another important fragment of history attaches to it. 
In 1872 it was selected by the War Office as the site of a great 
military encampment in Yorkshire. The engineers reported there 
was not such another suitable site in Great Britain. An extent of 
five or six miles in length was fixed upon, and either the Government 
or the Midland Railway Co. would have had to make two branch 
lines to Rumbalds Moor, one from Bingley by Morton and the other 
from Guiseley. A canal wharf for cannon and war material was to 
have been made between Bingley and Morton, and nine stations 
erected within five miles of the moor, to which troops could be 
simultaneously marched, and 100,000 men, horses, cannon, etc., 
could be despatched to Barrow, for Ireland, or to any other part of 
England within twenty-four hours. It was to have been a great 
depot for war material, and permanent barracks for two regiments of 
infantry and one regiment of cavalry. It was intended to camp 
60,000 to 80,000 on the moor every summer. 

Considerable local opposition to the proposal followed, and on 



243 

Jan. yth, 1873, at a largely attended meeting of the- inhabitants of 
Ilkle\. a resolution was adopted condemnatory of the scheme, and a 
memorial was drawn up and forwarded to tin- Secretary of War. 
K\entually Rumbalds Moor was in veil up and the present site at 
Streiisall Common, near York, adopted instead. No one can now 
doubt the wisdom of that decision. The Ilkley Moors are a grand 
and unpolluted breathing-ground to a vast surrounding population, 
and to this health-giving moorland, with its priceless antiquities, the 
prosperity of Ilkley is almost entirely due. And while the open moor 
with its amplitude of air ami sky, is above all others the place 
where one might expect to enjoy the calm and freedom of Nature 
without restraint, it is to be regretted that an ever-increasing number 
of visitors has rendered some restrictions necessary. Visitors are 
now bound to limit their perambulations to certain well-defined 
foot-paths, which are prescribed by notice-boards on various parts of 
the moor. 

On several occasions the moor has been the scene of disastrous 
conflagrations. Perhaps the most serious of these occurred in the 
very dry summer of 1826, when upwards of 500 acres were burnt on 
Ilkley Moor, and Hawksworth Moor was entirely consumed. The 
flames raged for over a week and in the night-time looked weirdly 
grand , the sky being reddened with the glow for many miles around! 




CHAPTER XVI. 




AROUND ILK LEV. 

Great changes about Ilkley Hebers' Gill, formerly Black Beck An ancient tribal 
boundary Silver Well Hollin Hall The Hebers, Maudes, and Currers Ilkley 
Bridge Myddelton Lodge and the Middletons The late William Middleton Esq. 
His private benevolence Sale of part of the Myddelton estate. 

CHANGE more sweeping and sudden could hardly 
be found anywhere than that witnessed in the 
neighbourhood of the old Green Lane of only a few 
years back. In place of straggling thatched farms and 
humble cottages, there is the present Grove Road, a 
handsome, well-laid carriage-drive, with its rows of stately villas, 
leading towards Hebers' Gill (I prefer the true Norse spelling to the 
Cumbrian distortion, ghyll) \ This side of Ilkley has been from 
earliest times, old forest-land extending far up to the moor. Not 
very long ago a trunk of black bog-oak was dug up in the Grove at 
a depth of 16 feet from the surface, and a piece of it, forty inches 
long, is now in the Museum. The picturesque moor-side stream, 
Hebers' Gill, with its rustic bridges and convenient seats, so familiar 
to Ilkley visitors, was formerly known as Black Beck. This is a 
very interesting name, which carries us back far beyond the days of 
the Hebers or any other local family, even unto the time of the first 
Celtic dwellers in these parts. It helps to confirm what I have 
advanced in the last chapter respecting the occupation of Ilkley 
during the Bronze Age, for this word, black, is a modern contraction 
of the Goidelic (Irish) bealach, a boundary, or passage from one 
land-claim to another. The word also helps us to determine what 
have been the old Celtic tribal divisions, many of which are retained 
as boundaries to this day. But here the ancient boundary has not 
been retained - } it passes a little to the west of Black Beck (Hebers' 
Gill) and comes down near Hollin Hall, which is in Ilkley parish. 
A little west of it and we are in Addingham. At the top of Hebers' 
Gill is a spring of very pure water, called Silver Well, which it is not 
unlikely was an old Celtic tutelary spring, and bits of metal or other 
articles may have been thrown into it as offerings for protection from 
the saint or presiding genius of the well. St. Helen's Well near 
Gargrave, and St. Helen's Well, near Thorp Arch, are of this class. 
In the general transition of religious belief many of these sacred 
springs received Christian dedications. 

Hollin Hall is a very interesting old place. It formerly belonged 
to Hexham Priory and is associated with many notable families, such 



2 45 

as the Maudes, Currers and Hebers. It is often said that the 
celebrated Bishop Heber was born here, but this is quite a mistake. 
He was of the same stock as the Hollin Hall Hebers, but as a 
matter of fact was born at Malpas in Cheshire where his father was 
rector. Parties driving this way to and from Ilkley are frequently 
told that this was the birthplace of Bishop Heber, but there is at 
least one "cabby" in Ilkley who knows better. He was taking an 
interested party for a drive along the Addingham road when he 
suddenly pulled up in front of the old house, and exclaimed, "Ladies 
and ge'men, this is not the birthplace of Bishop Heber, as you'll 
sometimes hear, it was his grandfather who was born here." Not a 




HOLLIN HALL. 

bad shot for Jehu, though still something off the mark. Bishop 
Heber died in 1826 at the early age of 41, and was descended from 
the old Marton-in-Craven family ; his grandfather, Thomas Heber 
having been born at Marton Hall and died there in 1752. He was 
great-great-grandson of Thomas Heber, of Marton, who died in 1659, 
whose father, Thomas, removed from Stainton to Marton, and was 
treasurer for lame soldiers in the time of James I. He died in 1633, 
His younger brother, Reginald Heber, resided at Hollin Hall, near 
Ilkley, and died there in 1653. His grandson Thomas Heber of 
Hollin Hall, born 1670, was a scapegrace, and when a young man 
was concerned in a burglary freak at Ilkley and narrowly escaped 



246 

hanging. What became of him in after-life is not known, but perhaps 
an entry in the churchwardens' accounts at Bradford may throw 
some light on the conditions of his old age : 

1713. Gave to Mr. Heber, an old decay'd gentl'n p. Vicar's order as. 6d. 

The Hebers continued at Hollin Hall for several generations, and I 
have already noted some of their quaint old brasses in Ilkley Church. 

Hollin Hall three or four hundred years ago was a small hamlet, 
comprising three substantial homesteads, a cottage and a watermill 
but only one of the houses, the old home of the Rogers (who afterwards 
took the name of Rogerson), still stands. It is now the property of 
Mr. John Ellis, whose family has lived here for the best part of a 
hundred years. Christopher Ellis settled here in the first decade of 
the century, and his wife, Judith Davis (a Welsh woman) was well 
known for her activity of mind and vigorous constitution. She lived 
to the age of ninety-five. Their son William Ellis, succeeded to the 
farm, which was purchased from Mr. Middleton some years ago by 
the present owner, Mr. John Ellis, who was born in the house and is 
still living there, now in his 7oth year. The house, a Jacobean 
building, contains a fine oak-wainscotted room, over the doorway of 
which is a decorated panel, bearing the initials and date TR, ER 
1623 (Thomas Rogers who died in 1635 and his wife). The estate 
had been purchased in 1567 of Sir Godfrey Foljambe (ancestor of the 
present Lord Hawkesbury)* by William Rogers (father of the builder) 
Wm. Wade, Thomas Maude,-f- and William Currer. 

These Maudes and Currers have a long and interesting ancestry, 
and the pedigree on pages 248-9 shews their connection with Hollin 

* A daughter of Sir Godfrey Foljambe married in 1392 Sir Robert Plumpton, 
brother of Richard Plumpton, of Nesslield, on the opposite side of the river to Hollin 
Hall. (See DC Raiiat Roll, ////. <jth Eli?, in. lO-ff, also Cull. Tup. ( -t. Ceneal. (Roberts), 
Vol. 2 p. 72). The above Sir Godfrey was son and heir of Sir James Foljambe, Kt. of 
Walton and Akhvark, Co. Derby, and married Trothea, daughter of Sir Wm. Tyrwhitt, 
of Ketelbv. Sir James had a brother Godfrey Foljambe, of Croxden, who died at 
Aldwark in I^SQ. He married Margaret, sister and co-heir of Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam, of 
Aldwark, anil through her this Godfrey Foljambe inherited another manor of " Holling 
Hall," in all probability the one just outside Farl Fitx.william's park at Wentworth. 
Again in 1560, the above Sir Godfrey Foljambe and Trothea, his wife, were deforciants 
respecting the manors of Penistone, Waterhall, Holleyhall &c., which after a term of 
three days remain to Francis, son of James Foljambe Kt. , deceased, for his life, and 
after his death to Godfrey and his heirs. This Holly Hall is in the township of Hunshelf 
and parish of Penistone. 

f The will of Thomas Maude of Hollin Hall, dated 1602, is a very important 
document in the history of the family. It is given in full in Hunters MSS. in the 
British Museum (Add. : 24,476). The fact that Thomas Maude of Hollin Hall left 
legacies to the sons of Arthur Maude, of Riddlesden, is assumed by Hunter to be 
evidence of relationship. It is however only inference I may add that Anthony 
Maude, from whom descends in the fifth generation, Sir Cornwallis Maude, created 
Baron Montalt, was sole executor under the will of his cousin the above Thomas 
Maude of Hollin Hall. 



247 

1 lall, and is continued on a subsequent page by tin- marriage in i 754 of 
Margaret, daughter of Henry Currer, gent., with Dr. \Vm. Moorhouse, 
of Skipton, to the humble author of this book. In my history of 
Bingk-\ I have shewn on page 74 how the Montaltes or Maudes of 
Riddlesden, in the parish of Bindley, arc descended from the Karls of 
Northumbria, before the Conquest. Tlieir subsequent lineage will be 
found in the Visitations. Christopher Maude, of Hollin Hall, was 
great-grandson of Constantine Montalte or Mohaut, who was living at 
West Riddlesden in 1480. Christopher had a daughter, Isabel, who 
married William Currer of Marley, in Bingley parish, who died in 
1604. In his will dated 1562, John Maud, of Brandon, (buried in 
Harewood Church) mentions "my friend William Currer, lease of 
tenement at Ilkley" who may be the same.* His brother Henry 
Currer lord of the manor of Kildwick, married Ann Wade, of 
Addingham. Their son, Hugh Currer, of Marley, purchased the manor 
of Bingley from the Walkers, and it was sold by Henry Currer, his 
grandson, in 1668 to Robert Benson, father of the first Lord Bingley. 
Of the Moorhouses, who intermarried with the Currers, more will be 
said when I come to deal with some of the old homesteads in the 
neighbourhood of Bolton Abbey. 

Later in the i7th century a family named Bolton was living at 
Hollin Hall, and in the Ilkley registers I find that one Wm. Bolton, of 
Hollin Hall, was buried, i8th August, 1678, "in woollen without 
anything of linnen about him according to the Act of Parliament." 
This was an Act for encouraging the home woollen-trade. In the 
Ilkley registers there are nearly a score such entries in 1678. 

There are, by the way, several Hollin or Holling Halls in 
Yorkshire, a circumstance which has led to some confusion amongst 
them. There is a Hollin Hall just outside Earl Fitzwilliam's park at 
Wentworth, another about three miles south of Ripon (most probably 
the original seat of the Woodd family of Langstrothdale); a third is 
in the township of Warley, three miles from Halifax; a fourth is in 
the township of Rathmell, near Settle, whilst there is a Holly Hall 
in the township of Hunshelf, four miles from Penistone. There is 
likewise a Hollin Hall in Coquetdale Ward, Northumberland, and 
another in Darlington Ward, Durham. The name has no doubt to 
do with old holly-plantations, which in former times were protected 
as a winter provision for deer and sheep, as well as for necessary 
decoration at the great winter festival of the Church. In the 

* Among- the witnesses to tin- will are William t'urrcr and Thomas Maud, 
presumably the co-purchasers of I lollinifhall. In an Inq. p.m. 1563, of the said John 
Maud, it is affirmed he held lands and mcs^ua^es in the parishes of Harewood, Hardsey, 
Ilkley, and he also held the rectory of Ilkley of the Oueen as of her manor of Kast 
Greenwich, and that William Currer had taken the profits of all the premises, with a 
small exception, to the use of Arthur Maude, but by what title the jurors know not, 



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Household I'.ook of Lord C'litYonl for 1510 I find this entry: 

IIM. [Live! the xiiijth (lay <>l May by the hands nl Mr. Stewart lor holk-n tall the 
la^t wynter in Harden, v.v. 

The tree was anciently known by the- names of Hulver and Holme. 

Let us now cross Ilkley Bridge to the Middleton side of the 
river. \<> <me knows when the first bridge was built, but it is 
marked on the oldest map of Yorkshire that is known, namely 
Christopher Saxton's, printed in 1577. In 1639 it was washed down 
by a Hood,* and this old bridge and a subsequent one stood about 
thirty yards below the present erection. It is a picturesque structure 
standing high out of reach of the great floods that sweep with such 




Low HALL, ILKLEY. 



impetuosity down the valley. Occasionally fine limestone corals and 
other fossil shells, including Proditctus gigctHfeu, are picked up in the 
vicinity, having been washed down from the neighbourhood of 
(irassington. 

Having crossed the bridge we have on our right the substantial 
and picturesque old house of Low Hall, the old home of the 
Aldersons with its fine walnut tree in front, and ancient fish-pond, 
once famous for its tench. Climbing the pleasant slope we perceive 
the strongly-built old home of the Middletons before us on our left, 

* Yorks. Anil. //., v. 374. 



252 

which is a notable feature in the landscape of this sunny hill-side for 
many, miles around. The old Lodge, of which I give a view, is a 
picturesque sixteenth century building, having a Tudor oriel window 
in front and a very massive stone entrance. The square tower at the 
north-west angle appears of like age, having similar wall-coursing 
and quoining, and flat-headed windows with plain label mouldings. 
The modern chapel built up to the tower was added, and up to 1879, 
when the new Roman Catholic Chapel was built in Ilkley, served the 
spiritual needs of the local inhabitants, who were mostly Roman 
Catholics. Before the erection of the chapel services were held in 
one of the rooms of the Lodge. 

At an early date that wealthy and numerous body of crusading 
monks, the Knights Templars, obtained possession of certain lands 
at Ilkley, and there is a document of local interest preserved among 
the records at York which shews to what degree of legal power the 
order had attained by the end of the thirteenth century. Henry III. 
granted them numberless privileges and exemptions, and at Ilkley 
we learn how they could and did enforce them. Peter Middleton, 
then of Nessfield, (temp. Edward I.) had, it seems, some dispute with 
the tenants of the Templars in Wharfedale, and was compelled under 
a penalty of zos. to be paid towards the fabric of York Minster 
(doubtless the present nave, then being built) to withold at any and 
all times, proceedings of whatsoever kind against the Templars in any 
court, canonical or civil. That if he suffered injury from any of 
their tenants he must bring his complaint before their court at 
Whitkirk, in other words he was to be tried before a prejudiced 
tribunal.* Well might this arrogation of power and public injustice, 
to the detriment of the national courts of law, have led to the 
Templars' downfall, or at any rate have proved, as it did, one of the 
prime motives for their suppression. 

Myddelton Lodge has been the home of the Middletons for 
several centuries, and since the time of Richard III. they have been 
lords of the increasingly-valuable manor of Ilkley (see page 204). The 
Ilkley branch from its foundation has always been devoutly attached 
to the Roman Catholic religion. The family's lineage and descent 
have been so often cited that it would be needless repetition to detail 
the succession of all the De Middletons and their inter-marriages with 
distinguished northern families, from the Norman period to the present 
time. But whatever bright and noble acts may have characterised 
any of the early members of this ancient house, they reappeared with 
unfading lustre in the person of the late Mr. Wm. Middleton, whose 
good deeds and large-hearted benefactions no present-day writer can 
willingly pass unnoticed. "The Good Mr. Middleton," as he is still 
fondly spoken of by the older race of Ilkleyites, was one of the most 

* The evidence is printed in full in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1857, page 645. 



253 

generous and sympathetic of men who ever owned fair acres. No 
one will ever know the full extent of his gifts to the poor of Ilkley, 
nor of his unending private charity in various other directions. In 
fair weather or foul he might often have been seen going about 
dispensing charity witli his own hand, and making not very close 
enquiry into cases that had been represented to him as needing help. 

"Careless their merits or their faults to scan 
Mis pity gave ere charity began." 

He also gave every facility to sportsmen and anglers on the estates, 
and his leniency to poachers on his well-stocked preserves was looked 
upon by some with much misgiving. But his fame was so fair that 
even many a hardened spirit could not thoil (as the Yorkshire saying 
is) to take the good man's possessions thus dishonestly, and it is said 
he suffered less from these stealthy depredations than many another 
who meted out retribution on the offenders. During severe winters, 
or when employment was scarce, his thoughts ever turned to those 
in need. At Christmas his bounty was considerable and must have 
come like warm sunlight to many a poor man's home. His last 
years were much given to religious meditation and to constant yet 
unostentatious charity. At the very hour of his death on December 
1 6th, 1847, tne I'kley shop-folk and merchants were busy delivering 
flour and meal, meat, coal, blankets, and clothing, to many ill- 
provided families in the parish, and these in double quantities to what 
they had received before, by his express wish. He died indeed 
beloved as a father taken from his children, unambitious of honours 
or office, " more bent to raise the wretched than to rise." These 
words of Goldsmith may be aptly applied to him : 

Kven children followed, with endearing wile, 

And pluck'd his gown, to share the good man's smile: 

His ready smile a parent's warmth expressed 

Their welfare pleased him, and their cares distressed: 

To them his heart, his love, his griefs were given, 

But all his serious thoughts had rest in heaven. 

As some tall cliff that lifts its awful form, 

Swells from the vale and midway leaves the storm, 

Though round its breast the rolling clouds are spread, 

Kternal sunshine settles on its head! 

Full of years he was laid to rest in the little burial-ground 
adjoining Middleton Chapel. His eldest son and successor was the 
late Peter Middleton Esq., who died in 1866, having married Juliana, 
daughter of Charles Phillip, :6th Lord Stourton, a nobleman, who 
purchased in 1805 the manor of Allerton Mauleverer, Co. York, for 
^163,800.* This Mr. Middleton formed the curious "Calvary" in 
the grounds north of the lodge, which is entered by a doorway 
bearing these apt words in Latin : "-Sad is my soul unto death.'' 
The passage winds in the gloom of overhanging trees to a secluded 

.Sec the author's \idd?rdale, pages 197-200. 



grotto which was formerly titled up as an oratory. The stations of 
the Cross border the narrow way, and there is a large figure of the 
Blessed Virgin placed beneath a canopy, on which appears a verse 
of the well-known Latin hymn, Stabat Mater dolorosa* Some of the 
relics found at Ilkley have been brought here, including several 
fragments of early crosses &c. Since 1896 the Lodge has been let 
to tenants, the present occupant being W. H. Longbottom Esq. 

The late Mr. Midclleton dearly loved the old ancestral home and 
everything about it. He would have no interference with the beauty 
of the estate, which in his day was richly wooded almost all the way 
from Denton to Middleton. And there was some fine timber too, 
such as one could only find on the richest river-side pasture-land. He 
used sometimes to say: "Ah, me! the axe will go ding dong, ding 
dong, when I am gone." While he lived it is said only one tree was 
cut down, and this was out of pure kindness of heart to oblige a man 
named Dobson, who was very anxious to have a stump grown on the 
estate out of which to make a new wooden leg, as the one he had 
carried for many years had worn two inches below its original length. 
The old squire at last promised to remove a small tree, but it was 
with a sorrowful heart. He would much sooner have parted with ^50. 
When he died nearly all the grand old trees on the banks of the river, 
especially from Bow Beck to the circling deep pool called the Crum 
Wheel, was, as he had anticipated barked and felled. Now within 
the last two years a large portion of this part of the estate, comprising 
about 450 acres, has been sold to a company for ,55,000, together 
with all fishing rights, &c., and the great arm of modern Ilkley is to 
stretch to this side of the water. The land is to be laid out in broad 
avenues, with villas and houses of not less than a certain value. But 
are we to murmur at this encroachment upon a lovely bit of Old 
Wharfedale ? Tempus et homines edax rent in \ 



* One would like to know if the Robert Middleton, "a native of Yorkshire," who 
Was hanged at Lancaster in i6ot tor refusing to give up the faith of his fathers, was ot 
this family? Another Roman Catholic Yorkshireman of the name, Anthony Middleton, 
was so resolved in his faith that he was ordered to be hanged and embowelled and cut 
down while alive, at Durham, in May 1590. 



CHAPTER XVII. 




AROUND BKA.MSLKY BKACON. 

I lowlier Hill, it-- meaning Supposed tumuli Beacon lig-hted during- the threat of the 
French invasion -- Fine prospect Lang-bar An ancient paved way Barnbowers 
Currer Hall Karrand House -\Ve.-i Hall and the Kcrrands Beacon House The 
Briggs family The late Mr. B. B. Popplcwcll Church services at Beacon Hill 
Local Weslevans Ling Park and the Kendalls. 

HE majestic Hill of Hovvber, or Beamsley Beacon, as it 
is now commonly called, presents about its wide and 
airy expanses many features of interest. Myddelton 
Lodge, described in the last chapter, stands at no great 
distance from it, and was no doubt originally a hunting- 
seat for the old lords who delighted to sport about these forested and 
heathery uplands. The Roman road from Ilkley to Aldborough 
crosses its eastern Hanks, and at one time Roman tiles and other 
evidences of the constant passage were not infrequently picked up, 
while in the name of the Hill there is just a suspicion of its having 
been the scene of a great contest between Roman and Celt, or perhaps 
of the Romanised Celts and the later Teutonic conquerors. Howber 
literally is the Hill of Tombs, from the Teut. haugr, Ang. how, a burial 
mound, and berg als. her, a hill, often fortified. I have noticed, 
however, but one hoiv on all this wide moor, and this lies about 400 
yards north of the plantation behind Ling Park. It is thickly covered 
with ling, and measures eighty yards in circumference, and has a 
hollow centre as if it had been disturbed. As it lies on an undoubted 
Celtic boundary which runs northwards to Black Fell, and still marks 
the division of the ancient parishes of Skipton and Ilkley, it may 
possibly not cover an interment, but have been thrown up, as we 
know these mounds sometimes were made, to indicate a boundary or 
way-mark, like the "lad-stones" of the Saxons I have mentioned on 
Rumbalds Moor. Be this as it may, no apparent traces of other 
mounds exist on Howber, though I have heard it said there are some 
nearer the summit. But in the absence of fuller evidence, may I 
suggest the A-S. hawe, v. hhiwan, to view, to prospect; though Lye 
in his Diet. Sax. et Goth. Lat. (1772) gives hon as a mountain, and 
beorh, a citadel or fortress? In old local writings it is variously 
spelled Houber, Howbar, Hoober, and even Rubber. Whether it 
has ever been actually fortified, or has formed a summer camp, like 
the top of Ingleborough, there is now nothing to shew, but of its 



256 

long use as a prospecting-point and beacon there is no doubt. In 
the Bolton Abbey registers, under date 1803, is this entry: 

Apprehensive of a French invasion, Beamsley Beacon was put in a state of repair, 
and four people appointed to watch it. About of the inhabitants of this chapelry 
in rolled themselves as Volunteers, the whole number of whom in Craven amounted to 
1,200 Infantry and 200 Cavalry. A Sergeant was appointed to drill the volunteers <>t 
this chapelry at Bolton. 

The beacon at this time received light from Pinhavv on Carlton Moor 
and sent it forward to Otley Chevin, as appears by an old chart at 
VVakefield, dated 1803. 

The summit of the Beacon (1,300 feet) which is capped with the 
Kinderscout or Peak of Derbyshire grit, commands one of the widest 
views in West Yorkshire, and as a well-defined path can be followed 
all the way up, the trip is well worth making. On Jubilee night in 
June 1897, a fi re was lighted on a point of the beacon, (800 feet 
elevation) from which more than a score fires could be seen, including 
Pendle Hill, Cracoe Fell, Rawdon Billing, Otley Chevin, Rylstone 
Fell, Whernside, &c. 

The scattered hamlet of Langbar or Langber lies down below on 
its southern slope, and like Howber appears to retain in its name a 
distinctive kind of her* Some names, however, around the Beacon 
proclaim the presence of the old Gaelic Celt, such as Black Hill, Black 
Foss, already explained, while the name Oliver close to the same 
ancient Celtic boundary, is perhaps of similar antiquity. There is 
on the line of the Scots Dyke, near Richmond, in the North Riding, a 
spot known as Oliver Ducket and Oliver Gill, which I have suggested 
may be a corruption of the Celt, oirirgael, the dike or boundary of the 
Gael.f There is evidently a very ancient right of way across Langbar 
Moor, which has been paved with single-file stones probably within 
the last two centuries, when there was a general reparation of country 
causeways. I have traversed this road from the direction of Middleton 
northwards under the Beacon towards Storiths, where it joined the 
road, mentioned later, from Bolton Bridge over Hazlewood Moor, and 
was used in the days of the monasteries. An invigorating and 
appetizing walk it is too, when the sun lights up the hill, with the 
heather in bloom and wild birds are winging between you and the sky! 

In and around Langbar are a few interesting old houses, notably 
Currer Hall, Farrand House, and formerly an ancient and picturesque 

* Langbar is three and a half miles north-west of llkley and there is a Langbar on 
the moor a few miles north of Bewcastle, in Cumberland, which has some early Anglian 
crosses of similar age and beauty to the llkley crosses, and like llkley its church stands 
within the ruins of a Roman camp. Opposite our Wharfedale Langbar is Acldingham, 
and singularly, too, south of Bewcastle and Carlisle is the ancient parish of Addingham. 
One might conclude that the Anglian settlers, together with the energetic art of St. 
Wilfrith's time, had followed the Roman road from llkley to Aldboro' and thence to 
Catterick, Kirkby Stephen, Addingham and Bewcastle. 

f See the author's Richmondshire, p. 193. 



257 

homestead called I5:irnbowers, which was unfortunately pulled down 
some thirls years ago. In the early part of the century it was the 
residence of Major ISriggs, whose daughter, Mary, married Wm. 
Pullan, who died at I-'arrand House in 1X52. aged seventy-five, and is 
buried at Bolton Abliey. I have M-en an old indenture, dated 1648, 
wherein it appears the house was then occupied by a family named 
l.owcocke, and one Laurence Lowcocke, of Barnbovvers, purchased 
of Francis and Thomas Hodgson, of Hovvber Hill, a cottage, garden 
and close, occupied by Richard LJmpleby, of the yearly rent of 8s., 
and a parcel of meadow ground "lately taken of a certain close called 
Black Howber Hill," which adjoined the said cottage and close. A 
rustic old home this must have been where the good man and his 
wife found decent shelter, a garden to grow vegetables, and a field 
perhaps for a cow, and all for the magnificent annual disbursement 
of eiiiht shillings. 




CURRER HALL. 

Currer Hall, the property of John Cunliffe Kaye, Esq., is a very 
pleasantly situated, substantial building, apparently erected in the 
early part of the eighteenth century, and is now in the occupation of 
Mrs. Douglas. The entrance-hall is of handsome black oak having 
carved panels. The Currers, as I have before pointed out (see page 
246) were an old Wharfedale family* and in the seventeenth century 
were living at Langbar. In the Skipton church registers I find there 
was a Thomas Currer, of Langbar, who married Ann Raykes, of 

: It is essentially a Craven name, and I have sometimes thought it may have 
originated when Cymric-Celtic bird names were in common use in Craven, as part of 
the ancient kingdom of Strathclyde, which kingdom came to an end about A. I). 1018. 
They -urvived in Cumbria till last (eighteenth) century. The Celtic word for a heron 
is nirra. Sec also Specht (Speight) in chapter of Foundation of Bolton Priory. 



Addingham, in Nov. 1667, and in the April following, Henry Currer, 
of Ilkley, married a namesake, Dorothy Currer, of Langbar. A Wm. 
Currer is witness to the sale of Farrand House, close by, in 1695; and 
in 1716 Wm. Currer is witness to the will of a Kendall of Nessfield. 
Doubtless the present house occupies the site of an older dwelling, I 
am informed there was a small, low antique building which stood 
within the area of the present kitchen-garden. It was always known 
as the Chapel, and was pulled down nearly fifty years ago. 

Farrand or Ferrand House, just mentioned, was also pulled 
down and rebuilt about 1875. ^ was an early Jacobean building, 
having long mullion windows with leaded panes. I have seen the 
deeds of this property for the past two centuries and no Ferrands 
appear to have owned or lived there within this period. But in an 
indenture made in 1687 when the property was sold by John Fawcett, 
of Haverah Park, gent, to Francis Bradley, of Stainburn, in the 
parish of Kirkby Overblow, yeoman, there is a reference to a piece 
of newly enclosed land, formerly part of the Upper Wood, which was 
had in exchange from one Peter Currer by Thomas Ferrand, deceased. 
The dwelling is there called Hog Close House and is always 
described by this name in deeds of transfer and sale down to 1740. 
There was about eight-and-a-half acres of land attached to it. The 
property was eventually bought by Major Briggs and on his death, a 
century ago, was inherited by his daughter Mary, wife of Wm. Pullan, 
whose grandson, Mr. Walter Pullan, of Langbar, is the present owner. 

The Ferrands were a family of some consequence in these parts, 
and in the days of Queen Elizabeth resided at the good old mansion 
of West Hall in the valley below Langbar. William Ferrand, who 
built Carlton Hall, near Skipton, in 1584, whose descendants are now 
represented by the large land-owning family at St. Ives, Bingley, had 
two sons, Thomas, the elder, of Carlton, and William, the younger, 
of West Hall. But in the Skipton registers are entries of the baptism 
and burial on the same day, March 3ist, 1600, of Thomas, son of 
Wm. Farrand, of Carlton, the younger ; and again on April i5th, 1601, 
there is entered the baptism of Mary, daughter of Wm. Farrand, of 
Carlton, the younger. William, senior, died at Carlton in 1601, when 
it would appear Thomas succeeded him at Carlton and William took 
up his residence at West Hall by the Wharfe. The Ilkley registers 
contain several entries of baptism of children of Wm. Ferrand, of 
West Hall, and of his two wives, Anne and Brigita, who were buried 
from West Hall at Ilkley, the former in 1621 and the latter in 1624. 
I find also that an Ellenora Ferrand was married at Ilkley to Thomas 
Maude of Bingley parish, Aug. 3oth, 1614.* In a compotus for 

* This Thomas Maude is not in the Visitations, but there is no doubt he was the 
son of Arthur Maude of Riddlesden, and is mentioned in the will, dated 8 Feb. 1602, of 
Thomas Maude, of Hollinghall. The above Thomas Maude married secondly Elizabeth, 
daughter of Richard Brighouse, of Bradford. 



259 

1610, which I h;i\c seen at Bolton Abbey, William Ferrand, gent., 
appears as officer and collector of rents for the Clifford*' estates at 
N'esslield and Langbar, no doubt the Ferrand of \\'est Hall. Thomas 
Ferrand succeeded his father at West Hall, and a son of his was 
buried at Ilkley, A 1114-. ist, 1639. He is no douht the one mentioned 
on the last page as owning land at Langbar, and in all probability 
the builder of I-'errand House. He died in 1076. In the Ilkley 
registers I find a John Ferrand, gent., of West Hall, buried April jth, 
1673. How long the family continued to reside here is not certain, 
but a century ago it was in the occupation of a worsted spinner 
named Midgley. The old hall with its timber window-sills, has long 
been a farmhouse and has a good acreage of land attached.* Not 
very far from it is the charming dell, with waterfall, called Black 
Foss, and the upland country round about is thoroughly rural and 
retired, and rises with ever-expanding views to the Beacon. 

The conspicuous Beacon House is quite a modern mansion, 
built in 1848 by the late Mr. Bern'. Briggs Popplewell on a site known 
as Brass Castle, suggestive of some guard-house to the Roman road.f 
His family on both sides has resided in the neighbourhood for fully 
two centuries. (See pedigree on page 260). A long elevated tract of 
land on the south side of the Beacon is marked on the Ordnance Map, 
Popplewell Ridge, no doubt after some former owner of this side of 
the moor. The late Major Briggs belonged a good deal of land in 
this locality, which at the time of his death was divided between his 
only son, by his first wife, and three daughters, by his second wife. 
The eldest daughter Ellen Briggs, married Matthew Pullan, whose 
brother William Pullan of Langbar, married another daughter, Mary, 
the third, Susannah, being the wife of Benj. Popplewell, of Guiseley, 
malster, father of the late Mr. Benj. Briggs Popplewell, above 
mentioned. Mr. Popplewell took great interest in all works of a 
philanthropic and charitable nature, and was one of the original 
promoters and largest contributors towards the erection of the Ilkiev 
Hospital. He married Hannah, daughter of the late Mr. John Sharp, 
of Bingley, who died at the Beacon House early in 1898 in her goth 
year. Shortly before her death she generously gave the sum of 200 
to the Bradford Children's Hospital for the endowment of a 
"Popplewell Cot" in that institution. 

Mr. Popplewell was an enthusiastic pedestrian and few men 
engaged in business life performed such remarkable feats of walking 
as he did. He had a more than ordinary belief in the efficacy of 
long country walks as a restorative and builder of the constitution. 
Before the railway to Ilkley was opened in 1865 he was accustomed 

Set riianptiin Corrt-xp. (Camden Soc.) p. rxxvi. 

I Then- is ;ilso another " Brass (.'astir' on tin- moor above thr Lower Harden 
reservoir! 



260 





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to walk daily from his house on the Beacon to Steeton station, and 
hack again in the evening, climbing the long road through Silsden to 
Addingham and thence up the brow two miles to the Beacon, a 
distance out and home of fourteen miles, and this was done continually 
for many years, fair weather or foul ! So punctual was he in this 
daily performance that I am told many people in Silsden set their 




BENJAMIN BRIGGS POPPLEWELL, ESQ. 

clocks by him. When the days were excessively hot he usually 
walked with his coat thrown over his arm, clad in the whitest of 
shirt-sleeves, the envy of many a Silsden housewife as he passed up 
and down the long main street. Sometimes when the skies of winter 
looked threatening or snow lay deep upon the ground, his good wife 



262 

would send the carriage and horses to meet him at Steeton station. 
But to no purpose. The carriage was invariably sent back empty, 
and he would push along all the way home, often through a blinding 
storm of sleet or snow, and many a difficult task he encountered when 
the old lane leading up to the Beacon was choked with the drifts. 

The house which he built on the Beacon is, notwithstanding its 
elevated situation a charming place, being well protected in the rear 
with large thriving plantations backed by still ascending moorlands. 
From the front of the house there is a marvellously grand view. The 
pleasant grounds and gardens around the mansion are of great extent 
and are most ingeniously laid out. Paths are formed on the slope or 
along levelled terraces, turning and dropping most unexpectedly, with 
curious grottoes and alcoves formed out of the natural rock, while 
here and there are revealed beautiful prospects over the far-extending 
valley. In summer time the open parterres and rockeries contain a 
surprising amount of bloom. 

Of not less interest is the admirably fitted-up interior of the 
house. Especially noteworthy is the superb Elizabethan black oak 
furniture, which has been a family possession ever since it was made. 
It bears the initial 'P' and the unusually early date ' 1569.' A fine 
old grandfather's clock has been made out of a piece of the family 
furniture, having original Elizabethan carved panels, while the clock 
itself is one of the celebrated Wensleydale make, being inscribed 
" James Ogden."* There is also an almost unique collection of old 
pewter plates and dishes, and an original delf-rack. Some of the 
pewter bears the family initials of Briggs and Popplewell. An old oak 
box from Windsover has carved upon it, R.W.A.G. 1688, having 
belonged originally most probably to a Gill. 

For about thirty years one of the rooms of the house was fitted 
up for Sunday services in connection with the Parish Church at 
Ilkley. The services were held every other Sunday in summer, and 
in winter on the two Sundays nearest the full moon, and they always 
received the generous assistance and support of Mrs. Popplewell and 
of her son and daughter-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. John B. Popplewell, the 
present owners. The curate usually came up from Ilkley, a duty that 
in latter years fell upon the Rev. W. H. S. Hartley, now vicar of 
Morton. During the three years that Mr. Hartley took these 
services, he was only once prevented by deep snow from fulfilling the 
fortnightly mission, though many a rough experience he and his past 
coadjutors must have had in journeying to and from Ilkley by the 
wild moor road under the Beacon. When the church was built at 
Nessfield in 1892 the services at Beacon Hill were discontinued. 

The Wesleyans have also had a place of worship at Langbar 
now many years, and it would be hard to find a place so lonely and 

*See the author's Richmondshlre, pag-e 455. 



263 

exposed as that on the moor edge where the old chapel stands. A 
neat new building of corrugated iron, lined with wood, has lately 
been erected on a better site, and was formally opened on July icth, 
1899, by the Rev. Silvester Whitehead, when nearly 200 persons sat 
down to tea provided in a marquee adjoining the chapel. It was a 
red-letter day in the annals of local Wesleyanism, and the occasion 
will long be remembered. 

I might go on page after page describing every other house, 
together with the old yeoman families who have been born and 
reared on this grand old moorland brow, but space forbids. Black 
Hill farm, Wards End, and Dene Head, the old home of the Priors, 
where John Prior, the clock-maker (whose family were in the same 




OLD WESLEYAN CHAPEL, LANGBAR. 

trade at Skipton), made his wonderful astronomical clock, and Ling 
Park, a home of the Kendalls for generations, have each and all a 
history to relate. The pedigree on next page shews the descent of 
the Kendalls of Ling Park for about a century. They are one of the 
most numerous old yeoman families in Wharfedale, long resident in 
the parishes of Leathley, Askwith, Ilkley and Bolton Abbey. As 
long ago as 1278 a William de Derley and Roger de Kendale appear 
in a plea of rent in place of William de Wyndsore, against the Abbot 
of York.* The last of the family who lived at Ling Park was old 
Andrew Kendall who died about ten years ago, leaving some 
daughters who soon afterwards gave up the farm. 

* Assize Roll 7th Kdw. I. 



264 




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CHAPTER XVIII. 



NESSFIELD. 

Meaning <>f Nesslk'ld C'astlrl><-ri, r , a prehistoric camp Local discoveries Low Mill 
Scar Norman land-cultivation Plumpton family Manor-house and mill Old 
homesteads John Prior, clock-maker The Kendalls and Nessfields The new 
church The swing-bridge. 




ESSFIELD-with-Langbar forms one township in the old 
parish of Ilkley. The first-named village may be 
reached from Ilkley by a pleasant walk of two miles, 
keeping the river on the left beside the green expanse 
of the golf-links.* Round about it are flowery lanes 
and lush pastures, where cows are kept browsing well into the winter, 
and provide much of the sweet milk that is consumed by the 
increasingly populous town of Ilkley. Pleasant woodlands and gill- 
becks resonant with the music of leaping rills, cover and indent the 
sunny slopes of the wide uplands that sweep northwards to the 
historic Beacon. Cosily nestles the little hamlet beneath embowering 
trees and sheltering crags, and I have seen the name, probably for 
this reason, sometimes written Nestfield. But there can be little 
doubt it is derived from the A.-S. nces-hleoth, or ti(?s-feld, the cape-like 
ascent and cliff overhanging the Wharf, whose verdant slope is 
doubtless the oldest bit of cultivated land in the township. 

Locally it is known as Castleberg, and I am disposed to think 
it was a winter-station of the old Britons of Howber, and afterwards 
of the Teutonic settlers. An urn containing ashes has been found on 
the site, and Mr. James Pickard, who has long occupied the adjoining 
farm, tells me he has excavated several parts of it and found human 
bones, but no relics. This premises Anglo-Saxon interments and the 
urn late British, but the few discoveries hitherto made are insufficient for 
historic proof of any particular people. No interments are known to 
have been made on the site since Norman times. Whitaker writing 
in 1805, holds the enclosure to be Roman and says that a massive 
key of copper, nearly two feet in length, which was found here has 
probably been the key of the castle-gates. One would like to know 
what purpose a Roman camp at this point would serve? Formed on 
a natural hill and following the configuration of the lofty and abrupt 

* A member of the Ilkley Golf Club, Miss K. Gascoigne Moeller, is proved by her 
numerous successes to be one of the best lady players in the kingdom. In the Spring 
of 1000 she won both the long and short course competition at St. Annes against all 
comers, which included several well-known champions. 



2 66 

scar which constitutes an impregnable front on the Wharfe side, the 
camp is rudely rectangular, and has been protected by a double 
stockade and intervening trench on its eastern or most accessible side. 
At the south-east angle is a circular depression, about thirty yards in 
circumference, with a low mound in the middle which looks like a 
burial circle, probably where the urn was found. At the northern 
extremity is an observatory or watch-mound, which the denuding 
effects of rain and the weather are gradually altering. At the south 
end is a depression about six yards square, and on the east side 
behind the uppermost (stockaded) rampart are several horse-shoe 
shaped hollows, with their back parts formed out of the sloping 
earthen bank, after the usual design of Celtic housesteads. Their 
backs are against the north-west, from which quarter the storms down 
the valley usually blow, while they are open to the east, or that side 
requiring most vigilance and protection. 

This ancient elevated encampment is opposite the Low Mill, 
Addingham, and is generally spoken of by Addingham folk as Low- 
Mill Scar. Its precipitous face is thickly wooded, and I am told that 
formerly this natural thicket was a well-known haunt of adders and 
hag-worms, which might often be found as much as a yard in length. 
Bats, butterflies, and glow-worms were likewise to be seen in great 
numbers, making the place a favorite resort of old-time natives, who 
found questionable diversion in capturing and killing or carrying off 
as many as they could. 

At the Conquest Nacefeld, as it appears in Domesday, was a 
manor comprising three carucates of land for geld where two ploughs 
may be. It was held by our old Teutonic friend, Gamelbar, who had 
to give it up to William de Percy, who in the final adjustment of A.D. 
1086, is stated to hold two carucates in Nacefeld. The probability 
is there were three carucates, like the Percy lands at Askwith and 
Ilkley, worked in the same amomalous manner each by two ploughs. 
I have already explained that where the three-field system of cultivation 
prevailed, the most common method in Wharfedale, the carucate of 
Domesday consisted of 180 acres, of which 120 acres annually paid 
tax and the third part lay fallow and paid no tax. So that in a 
manor of three carucates worked on the three-field system there were 
540 acres under cultivation. 

The above dispossession did not bring with it, as one might 
suppose, complete annihilation of local interest. There was living at 
Nessfield before the Normans came, one Orm, brother to the Eldred 
of Domesday, and Peter, son of this Eldred, assumed the name of 
Plumpton, on his coming into possession, as mesne lord of Gamelbar's 
manor of Plumpton near Knaresboro'. Sir Peter most likely also 
succeeded to his uncle Orm's estate at Nessfield at the same time, 
inasmuch as this family, though deprived of the first interest in the 
soil, remained virtually lords of the manor of Nessfield for centuries. 



267 

The Plumptons were also landlords in other parts of Wharfedale. 
notably at Grassington. They erected a manor house at NY ss field 
and held their courts here, and their tenants were obliged to- grind 
their corn at the lord's mill. In 1280 Robert de Plumpton obtained 
by royal grant the right of free warren within his lands at Xessfleld. 
Ik' also obtained license to establish a chapel here on condition that 
In- gave a pound of frank incense annually to Ilkley Church. 

Richard Plumpton, son of the unfortunate Sir Wm. Plumpton, who 
is buried at Spofforth, may have resided at Nessfield. He made a will 
dated 1443, and left no issue.* His grand-nephew, William Plumpton, 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas, Lord Clifford, but he fell on 
Towton field, fighting for the Red Rose and left no male issue.! His 
daughter Margaret wife of Sir John Roucliffe, of Cowthorpe, 
succeeded to the estate and thence through the Cliffords the manor 
of Nessfield now belongs to the Duke of Devonshire. But a fine 
entered in 1587 shews that the manors of Nessfield, Westhall, and 
Langbar had passed to John Morley Esq., from the buccaneering 
George, Earl of Cumberland, who also about the same time mortgaged 
all his tenements at Grassington. This was just previous to the Earl's 
sailing against the Spanish Armada, in the defeat of which he took 
a conspicuous part. In 1593 he appears as plaintiff against Edward 
Talbot Esq., for the recovery of the said manors and twenty messuages 
ten cottages, with lands and a rent of one pair of gloves in the same 
and in Ilklev, Addingham, and Beamlsey. I have seen a compotus 
of Francis, Earl of Cumberland, dated 1610, wherein it appears the 
the rents and farms of the tenants at Nessfield and Langbar yielded 
half-yearly 10 175. 2C\. Long and favorable leases had been lately 
granted to some of the tenants, who were thus raised to the status of 
yeoman proprietors. Their forbears in pre-Reformation days had 
been little better than serfs to the monasteries, but who now throve 
mightily on what the old monks had lost, and who also began to 
erect substantial homesteads for themselves and their families. 

The descriptive writer who calls every striking i7th century 
farmstead in our dales, no matter how late in the century the style 
may be " a fine old Elizabethan mansion," cannot surely have 
reflected on the history of the times. All these yeomen-built houses 
of the better-class in our dales are the product of the more general 
agricultural benefits of the i7th century, and such Elizabethan 
buildings as remain, to except the houses of the gentry and public 
schools, must be mere cottages, perhaps re-roofed or enlarged. At 
Nessfield there is a picturesque i7th century farmhouse of this 
description, which is additionally interesting from the- fact that it 
holds the first clock that John Prior, the celebrated mechanician, ever 
made. I have already mentioned this eminent local clock-maker. 

* See Plumpton Correspondence page xxxiii. t Ibid p. xcii. 



z68 

He received considerable rewards from Government besides valuable 
medals from the Royal Society, for his great improvements in this 
industry. The clock at Nessfield is not unlike the famous and 
important one in the Greenwich Observatory, by which the nation 
regulates its time. 

Among the older yeoman families in this neighbourhood are 
those of Petty, Lowcock, Kendall, &c. Ralph Kendall, of Nessfield, 
who made his will in 1716, bequeathed dwelling-houses, barns, 
lands and tenements that he bought of Jonathan Fort in the 
townfields of Nessfield, also land he bought from William and 
Richard Bullock called Priest Ridding. His son Richard Kendall, 
born in 1708, lived at the old farm of Grassgarths in the parish of 
Weston, where the Kendalls had resided since the Reformation, and 




SEVENTEENTH CENTURY HOUSE, NESSFIELD. 

was father of the first Richard Kendall of Norwood, as well as 
ancestor of Samuel Pullan who lived at Hardisty Farm in Langbar 
a century ago. 

Five centuries ago there were at least a score families living at 
Nessfield, and in 1378 the Poll Tax gives the name of Nicholas de 
Scardeburghe, esquire, as the principal tax payer at Nessfield. He 
was of the family of Scarborough who were large landowners at 
Glusburn in the old parish of Kildwick, and the said Nicholas I find 
was a party to several property transactions in this parish in the 
latter part of the reign of Edward III. Their old family mansion, a 
restored Elizabethan house, dated 1587 (ten or a dozen years ago 
when I saw it, one of the oldest house-dates in Craven, it was quite 






269 

legible), is still standing by the main road at Glusburn. Probably 
the oldest local family, of whose original ancestory, history has no 
record, is that of Nessfield or Nesfield, as the name and place are 
variously spelt, and who perhaps sprung from the old Teutonic 
settlers, took their name from the ancient fortified site I have already- 
explained. Their name occurs in the oldest local deeds and charters, 
shewing their relationship to the Plumptons, and at Bolton Abbey I 
have seen a box of about a score old deeds, some of them much 
tattered and decayed, all carefully mounted by a member of the 
family, relating to grants and bonds made to and by various scions 
of this ancient house. The family, however, appear to have left 
Nessfield and to have settled at Knaresbro' in or before the time of 
Edward III. From an unpublished document in the Public Record 
Office I find that in 1367 a William de Nessefeld gave 20 marks for 
pardon of the trespass which he made by acquiring to himself and 
his heirs a certain annual rent of 10 marks issuing out of the manor 
of Conyngham and the Keepership of the free chase and warren of 
Kirkby Malzeard and Nidderdale from John de Mowbray, Lord of 
the Isle of Axholme, who held the same of the King in chief, and 
entering upon them without the license of the King. I have elsewhere 
cited an indenture dated 1362 of Wm. de Nessefeld of Scotton, M.P. 
for Co. York in 1368 and Ismania, his wife,* and in the Poll Tax of 
1378 for the vill of Knaresburgh appear the names of Robert de 
Nesfield, franklain, and his wife, taxed at 3s 4d, and of their grown-up 
daughter, Imayn de Nessfeld, taxed at 4d. An influential branch 
of the family was likewise settled at Flasby in Craven before the date 
of this Poll Tax, A.D. 1378. One of the Bolton Abbey deeds cites a 
renunciation by Thomas son of William Grandorge, of all claim to 
Flasby in favour of his niece, Margaret, the wife of William Nesfield, 
36th Edward III (1362). A pedigree of the " Nasfields of Flasby" 
appears in the Harleian Society's Publications, vol. 16. The present 
representatives of the family trace their origin to the neighbourhood 
of Londesborough in the East Riding, the old seat of the Cliffords. 

The church at Nessfield, previously referred to, is a very neat 
edifice in the Early English style, with seat accommodation for 120 
worshippers. It occupies a site given by the Duke of Devonshire, 
and the building was consecrated by the Bishop of Richmond on 
August 25th, 1892. 

Much more might be written on this retired little place, its 
bygone worthies and old-time " characters," did space permit. The 
long swing-bridge over the Wharfe connecting the place with 
Addingham was erected about four years ago. Before it was put up 
communication with the two sides of the river was by way of Bolton 
or Ilkley bridges, a journey of some miles to or from Addingham. 

.S'cc tlu- author's Xiddvrdalc, pag'f 337. 




CHAPTER XIX. 



PRE-NORMAN ADDINGHAM. 

Banishment of an Archbishop of York to Adding-ham in A.D. 870 Abounding' pre- 
historic sites Discovery of a bronze spear-head Roman road through Addingham 
The coaching' days Close House Roman camp on Counter Hill Prehistoric 
tumulus Ancient boundaries Curious field-names Local discoveries. 

;-^f ONG before the first historic mention of Addingham in 
the ninth century, when the Christian Archbishop of 
York was banished to "Hatyngham in valle quae 
vocatur Hwervedale," by the pagan Danes (A D 870), 
the district, as I have amply shewn in the chapter on 
Rumbalds Moor, had been one of the most important centres of 
religious life in the north. The Danish ravages put an end to the 
public worship of Almighty God over a great part of Yorkshire and 
many devout Christians must then have found their way to this 
ancient stronghold of the faith, there to find safety and shelter among 
the sacred, protective rocks of St. Rumolds' Moor. What strife there 
was hereabouts in these early days of Roman and Saxon and Dane, 
history does not recount, and we are left to put together as best we 
can the story as it is revealed to us in the remains of ancient dike 
and camp and mound. Year by year have I been in this locality 
until my note-books are full of various reminiscences ; of notes and 
plans of earthworks, camps, and cairns and ancient sites in and 
about this interesting parish, that to tell the story of Addingham 
from its first occupation would absorb a whole volume. Some time 
ago when I was looking at an old bronze spear-head which had been 
picked up some twenty-five years ago by a man called Young Steele, 
of Addingham, who found it sticking out of the beck-side not far 
from the bar-house on the Lippersley side of the Silsden road below 
the Roman camp, what images of contesting forces, of feud and 
warfare did not that old relic awake! Yet long before the sturdy 
soldier from ancient Rome had borne that weapon of bronze through 
old Addingham, there had been natives of the place who had used 
weapons and implements of stone and flint before bronze was known 
in these parts in the first century A.D.* 

Many an ancient trod of the early Britons, paved in the after- 
times for public service, traverses the parish, the most important of 

* It must not be assumed that bronze was not known in England before this date, 
as Caesar distinctly asserts (vide Lib. v. 12) that bronze was imported into this country 
in his time, 60-44 B - c - 



27* 

these being the present Street, which runs by Gildersber* and Street 
House over the moor by the Roman camp on Counter Hill towards 
Skipton. I have followed this road (which is now disused over a 
great part of the way), from Addingham over Draughton Heights to 
the old castled town of Skipton, between which place and the camp 
at Broughton it is lost. Precious little can be seen now of the work 
originated by the Romans, as in the last century the road was 
re-made and widened for the coaches to ply their weary way over 
these wild moorland heights between Skipton and Long Addingham. 
A very old and neglected mile-stone stands by the Draughton road 
side and is marked, "To Skipto" 3 m. To Addingh ani 2 m." 
seeming to mourn the departed glory of this old coach ing-way. 
Another stone pillar stands in the field about 100 yards to the east 
of it, and close by the Roman road, but why placed there I know 
not. It has been marked with the letters "J.C." on its east face.t 

Forty years ago the road from here to. Addingham was all open 
moor, and it was as wild and as rough a bit of coaching-route as 
could be found in Britain. The old road is now fenced between 
walls from 30 to 32 feet apart, and I cannot but think that the Roman 
highway lay within its compass, as much of the way on either side 
of it is impassable swamp, with here and there a deep, spongy beck- 
course. These have been bridged with large stones and built up 
with turf. To the west of the Draughton road it traverses the open 
moss, forming a raised way, 18 feet wide, and ditched on each side. 
Successive repairs have raised it to its present elevation of about 
four feet above the ditches, and I should say a section cut across it 
would disclose the Roman substratum. Further on it runs through an 
enclosed plantation and into a lane again above the head of Potter 
Gill, a deep, secluded ravine descending northwards to the new road 
between Skipton and Addingham, and so above Close House by 
Short Bank towards Skipton. This was the road that Thomas Gray, 
author of the immortal Elegy, took when he journeyed from Skipton 
to Otley in the autumn of 1769, and he declared Short Bank to be 
the steepest hill he ever saw a road carried over in England. 

I have heard some raw stories of the latter days of coaching by 
this old moorland route, of horses conscious of the cruel drag before 

* It may be interesting to note that in Oct. 1896, a horse died on Mr. ListerV t'arni 
at Gildersber, which was found to have in its stomach a stone, 22 in. in circumference 
and 12 in. long. The stone was egg-shaped and weighed 15 Ibs. 

| Perhaps it is the stone mentioned in the following perambulation ot the manor ol 
Silsden in i68r : " Beginning at a place called Street Gill and going from thence to a 
great stone,- being in the upper end of Draughton Pasture (now in the possession of 
Thomas Waynman, of Draughton) and from thence south-eastward to a well there 
called Wesimbusk's Well, from thence to a place called Theefe Thorne, which divydeth 
between Skipton, Addingham, and Silsden, &c." What may this "Theefe Thorne" 
be? There is a Gallion Thorn at Grassington, and a Skyrethoni, a hamlet in the *ame 
locality. 



272 

them refusing to proceed until fire and lash had done their very- 
worst. Many a poor beast has dropped beneath a merciless load 
in the effort to drag the ponderous vehicles through the deep ruts 
of this stormy fell-side. Close House (my old ancestral home) 
lay nigh this ancient highway, and many a sorry tale of storm and 
adventure could a former generation of the folk that dwelt here have 
told you as you sat round the glowing hearth-stone, with the wind 
roaring in the ample chimney, on wild winter nights. All the gills 
and crags thereabouts were the haunts of goblins, elves and fairies , 
Close House itself being under the special protection of a certain 
useful fairy of whom I will tell more anon. 

To return, however, to Roman Addingham. Before these 
conquerors had pitched their camp on Counter Hill it had been 
occupied by native Britons, and it was these primeval wiseacres of 
Old Addingham who ordered the tribal divisions that still constitute 
the boundaries of the parish. Running on the Silsden side, where 
the Britons were strongest, by Low Marchup and Black Beck, and 
across Parson Lane on the west side of Counter Hill, this Celtic 
division was adopted by the Anglo-Saxon after-comers, as the A.-S. 
mark, Norman-French merche, now the scattered locality of Marchup, 
plainly indicates. The terminal "up," is doubtless a contraction of 
hope, a small valley, as in Bramhope, Brad hope, sometimes written 
Bradup. Thus we see by such names how old landmarks and lines of 
demarcation are respected and retained from the remotest times. The 
story of how the Romans drove the natives from this commanding 
site of Counter Hill, of how debate or controversy had failed and 
the sword had to be drawn, is told I think in the apparent Celtic 
name of the hill (conaltradh, Celt. Irish conaltra, conversation)* as 
also in the old bronze spear-head I have already mentioned, and in 
the lonely isolated mound, to be seen in Parson Lane about a 
hundred yards west of the Celtic boundary, Black Beck, where some 
old dying chief has called his friends around him bidding them 
" heap the stones of his renown that they may speak to other years." 
It is a tumulus 80 feet in circumference and does not seem to have 
been disturbed. 

The necessity for such a Roman stronghold at this point is 
obvious when it is considered that the whole of Rumbalds Moor 
from the opposite side of the valley along Addingham Edge to Ilkley 
was one of the strongest British positions of which we possess sure 
evidence. Some idea of the size of the garrison on Counter Hill 
may be obtained when it is stated that a protective earthwork has 
completely environed the whole face of the hill, enclosing an area of 

* Riddlesden, on the Anglo-Danish boundary of the parish of Bingley, I have 
shewn to be the hill of counsel or debate. See Old Bingley page 307. Perhaps 
Counterside in lonely Semerdale betokens some such debating-ground between later 
conquerors and the primitive lake-dwellers. 



273 

at least 150 acres, an area scarcely less than that embraced by the 
High Close encampment at Grassington. There have been two 
fortified or stockaded camps, one of which when broken up contained 
a number of rude stone lire-places. The other known as "Round 
Dykes" is thickly overgrown with ling, but its outline is almost as 
perfect as when made seventeen or eighteen centuries ago. The form 
bespeaks a rather late date, having the characteristic angles, which 
makes the ordinary straight-sided rectangle into an octagon, giving it 
the appearance superficially of a round or oval. Its dimensions are 
based on the most approved form of Roman castrametation, the 
length being one-third greater than the breadth, namely sixty yards 
wide and eighty yards long. A watch-mound has been thrown up 
within the south-west angle, and the whole camp defended with a 
double rampart having an intervening ditch. There is an old and 
excellent spring of water on the east side of the camp, the site having 
been well chosen, commanding as it does, a splendid view of the 
valley and Street* as it runs southward to Olicana. 

This is all within the watershed of the Wharfe, which reaches up 
to the Draughton road from Silsden a little above High Marchup, an 
old home of the Breare family. At Hollindrakes farm the rain water 
from the roof of the dwelling drains into the Wharfe, while that from 
the roof of a barn adjoining the west end of it is drained into the 
Aire. Parson Lane, above mentioned, is laid at an elevation of 760 
feet above sea-level and was the old road between Silsden and 
Addingham before the present excellent highway was made in 1826. 
It is doubtless a very ancient right of way, though not used now, 
running just below Counter Hill, and is paved in places with large 
square stones for the use of drovers and foot passengers.! But what 
a road in the old times for vehicles! O! if those stones could speak! 

The road below Counter Hill has within recent years been 
enclosed, formerly it was all open to the Moor. The lane terminates 
in the terrible old coach-road to Skipton, above described, and opposite 
to Cross Bank farm. A man named Lowcock who has lived for nearly 
half-a century at the farmhouse below, tells me he used often to 
plough up lumps of iron scoriae near the old Roman Street, the 
remains no doubt of Roman smelting works. The farm below is 
called Causeway End, and the fields attached to the farms here are 
called Hownas (pron. as how) or Howness, in which is a long 
artificially-formed earthern bank running east and west for about 100 
yards and thrown up about three feet above the ground-level. The 

* The Street gave name to a local family which still exists in the neighbourhood. 
In 1371 a complaint was made against John del Strete [John of the Street] and others 
for obstructing a road from Brerehaugh Thorpe to Brerehaugh Grange. See Yorks. 
Arch.Jl., Rec. Ser. xvii-ii5. 

t In the Addingham Township Books I find an entry under date, 1747, of 2 paid 

"lor eij;-lltrvM roods of C'a\v'\ oil yc Moor." 



274 

origin or purpose of it is not known. There is also an extensive 
range of land in three several tenancies, called Haidness or Adeness, 
with a gill-beck beside it called Adeness Gill, adjoining Hownas, and 
this Adeness is a piece of "gated" uncultivated land, comprising 
eight-and-a-half cow-gates to the three tenants who occupy it, and 
near it is a two-acre pasture called Simon Close. Whether this is the 
Celtic Simon, explained in the account of Simon Seat, I cannot 
positively say. There are also many other ancient sites, camps, dikes, 
roads and ramparts, which I must leave unnoticed for the present. 




CHAPTKK XX. 



ALL ABOUT AnniM.iiAM I<ROM TIII NUKMAN CONMJI !,->!. 

l.itllc hitherto recorded ;ilx>iu Addinghum Addin^liain in Cumberland I )omesda\ 
testimony Meaning of Addingham Historic evidence-; The Halll<- cit Modden 
The Reformation A local martyr The Parish Church Local families A 
centenarian Remarkable discoveries -Titlie-harn K\cnt* at Addingham during 
the Civil \\'ar Abstracts from the old parish books Pinfold and ducking-stool 
Petty Sessions Old customs Some old houses The old School The manor-house 
1 ufieldllall Local Nonconformists Old trades The power-loom riots. 

KYOXD the few paragraphs recorded by Whitaker little 
has ever been printed about this interesting old parish, 
whose written evidences antecede the Conquest of A.D. 
1066. There is, by the way, another Addingham, in 
Cumberland (where are some fine early stone crosses), 
but as Cumberland (being then not in England), is not reviewed in the 
Conqueror's great survey, we have no contemporary mention of this 
place. In Domesday our Wharfedale Addingham is described as 
Ediham, where one Gamelbar, a large landowner in Yorkshire, had 
two carucates of land to be taxed, sufficient for one plough. He was 
deprived of this and the property was given by the Conqueror to one 
of his followers, Gislebert Tison, who in 1086 had three villanes or 
tenants in bondage and one bordar or cottager there with two ploughs 
and two acres of meadow. There was also an extensive wood. 
During the gallant strife between the original owners and the Norman 
invaders the place had been well-nigh ruined, and the value of the 
estate reduced by nearly one-half. So the record tells us. The King 
retained one carucate to himself, calling it a royal manor, thus we 
had a manor within a manor. In the final adjustment of the survey 
the King is stated to hold one carucate and Gislebert Tison one 
carucate, while both carucates were stated to belong to the great fee 
of Bolton (Abbey), that had belonged to Earl Edwin. Tyson's share 
subsequently fell to the King. The name no doubt indicates the 
home of the descendants of the original Anglian owner, one Eddi ' ; the 
participle ed in the name being used by the Saxon poet Caedmon in 
the sense of certain continuance or regeneration. Headingley. 
anciently Hedinleia, has probably the same meaning. 

Addingham, which included part of Beamsley, was merged in 
the great honour and fee of Skipton on its formation by grant of the 
Conqueror to his powerful aider in the Conquest Robert de Romille. 
The latter gave Beamsley to the Mauleverers while Addingham was 
granted at some subsequent early period to the Vavasours, who 



27* 

continued mesne lords for several centuries. The precise date of the 
transfer is not known, but it would be after the forfeiture of Tyson, 
temp, Henry I., and it would appear from the grant of free warren at 
Addingham in 1251 to have then belonged to John le Vavasour. In 
1284 three carucates in Addingham are stated to be held of the 
castle of Skipton by the rent of 3^d., and in 1302 William le Vavasor 
held from the lord of Skipton /#/// carucates, a marked increase due 
to the rapid extension of cultivation during a very prosperous era in 
the history of Yorkshire. But the weak government of Edward II., 
followed by the disastrous battle of Bannockburn in 1314, completely 
subverted one of the most- progressive eras in northern history , 
starvation and bankruptcy, with their concomitants squalor and 
plague, reducing the country to an ebb which took nearly two 
centuries to recover. 

When the poll-tax was levied by Richard II. in 1378 for carrying 
on the wars with France, the people of Addingham, we may be sure 
reluctantly contributed gs. iod., the sum at which the whole township 
of Adyngham (so spelled) was assessed. Each married couple, and 
there were twenty-nine, paid 4d., except one Wm. Manne, the fuller, 
and his wife, who paid 6d. Singularly no unmarried persons are 
registered at Addingham under this levy, and one is at a loss to know 
what had become of all the young folk. The tax must have been a 
severe strain on the inhabitants, following so soon on the Scottish 
raids and the Black Death of 1350, which carried off, it is said, half 
the clergy in Yorkshire. 

In 1452 Henry Vavasour Esq., is stated to have held the manor 
together with the advowson of the church, and with this family it 
continued till 1714, when the living was presented to as a Catholic 
benefice, in possession of the University of Cambridge. The Smith 
family have held the manor for about a century, but by what title I 
have been unable to ascertain. Richard Smith Esq., of London, is 
the present lord of the manor. 

During the Scottish invasion which led to the crowning battle of 
Flodden in 1513, the lusty lads of Wharfedale gallantly followed the 
" Shepherd Lord " to the field of victory, or as an old ballad says : 

From Penyghent to Pendle Hill, 

From Linton to Long Addingham, 
And all that Craven coasts did tell, 

They with the lusty Clifford came. 

Addingham contributed nine men, of whom William Wade was able 
horsed and harnessed, the others were bill-men and archers. Their 
names were Henry Man, Richard Cryer, Richard Riley, Richard 
Lofthouse, Thomas .Stotte, Christ. Swyer, Thomas Barker, and 
John Greene. 

The next great event was the Reformation, which gave unending 
trouble in Wharfedale, as I have shewn elsewhere. There were two 



277 

houses, with appurtenances, in Addingham, which paid 8s. 4d. 
annually towards maintaining the chantry of St. Nicholas in Skipton 
Church, which was dissolved at this time. They then probably went 
to form part of the endowment of Skipton Grammar School in 1548. 
Many of the farmers and others had been largely dependent on the 
neighbouring monastery at Bolton, and their livings were gone and 
many were thrown on the roads. The bulk of the people prudently 
and quickly became converts to the new religion, but there were 
many who resolutely stuck to the faith of their fathers and had 
to pay dearly for their pertinacity. One unfortunate native of 
Addingham, named Richard Kirkeman, seems to have escaped the 
"heresy" of the Pilgrimage of Grace, but was taken in 1582 before 
Justice Wortley, two miles from Wakefield, and refusing to give up 
his pious adherence to the old ways of the monasteries, was thrown 
into York Castle, and brought hence to the gallows and publicly 
hanged Aug. 22nd 1582, a martyr to his religion. 

The church (St. Peter's) at Addingham, though not mentioned 
in Domesday, is of high antiquity and doubtless owes its origin 
to the munificence of one of the early Vavasours. Unfortunately not 
a vestige remains of the original building, nor cross nor stone of 
any kind is left to shew that God was worshipped here in Norman 
centuries, as we know He was even in those far-off days when 
Archbishop Wulfhere sought Christian protection from the idolatrous 
practices of the Viking invaders more than a thousand years ago. 
Indeed a more infamous annihilation of what must have been a 
conspicuous monument of Christian antiquity, the emblem of a 
heritage of which few parishes could boast, cannot surely be found in 
the county of broad-acres! The church has evidently been rebuilt 
under the patronage of the Vavasours early in the reign of Henry VIII, 
as the windows and columns of the north aisle plainly prove. Leonard 
Vavasour, of Addingham, gent., was buried in the chancel in 1598. 
The arms of Vavasour also appear on one of the capitals of the piers. 
The chancel was rebuilt in 1858. The tower and south side have 
been wholly rebuilt in the most debased style of churchwardens' Gothic, 
displaying an utter disregard of historic preception and artistic taste. 
Indeed the old church has been ruthlessly shorn of all the graces of 
architectural similitude, and like a bride who has lost her lover, one 
half the church is left to mourn the loss of its consort. 

Moreover, any interest which the internal walls has possessed 
has been completely obliterated with a thick coating of lime wash, 
renewed again and again. At the west end of the north wall is an 
Elizabethan Scripture text, now partly lost beneath a coating of yellow 
wash. Also on the west wall near the entrance from the south porch 
were two ancient frescoes representing Time and Eternity, the one 
holding an hour-glass and scythe and the other a torch. It was not 
unusual to depict " Father Time " at the entrances of old churches, 



2 7 8 

as a warning to passing generations of worshippers of the fleeting 
hour of mortal life, but such emblematical paintings are now rarely 
seen in country churches. The figures at Addingham are life-size 
and are unfortunately covered by yellow wash as well as by a modern 
gallery, which was reseated about ten years ago. Moses and Aaron 
were also depicted over the chancel-arch, in a position sanctioned by 
the early Church to hold the two tables of commandments. These 
have been also washed out. There was a similar painting on the 
wainscot of the screen in Otley Church, bearing the Lord's Prayer, 
the Commandments and the Creed, referred to on page 64. 

There are numerous sacred memorials in the church. Within 
the chancel are these : 

To the Rev. Wm. Thompson, upwards of 40 years rector of Addingham, who died 
Nov. 27th, 1786, aged 86 years; also Mary, his widow who died June ist, 1789, aged 
75. Also Elizabeth, their daughter, who died in infancy, 1762. Also to the Rev. Wm. 
Thompson, their son, who was rector of Addingham, who died Nov. 28th, 1789, aged 
33, and Mary his wife who died Nov. 26th 1789, aged 22. A brass on the chancel floor 
gives the date of her death as Nov. 271)1, and continues " Both buried on one day, and 
in one grave, cut down in the prime of life like two beautiful flowers." 

John, third son of John Cunliffe Esq., of Addingham, who d. Nov. 2nd 1804, in 
his 2ist year. 

John Cunliffe Esq., of Addingham, who d. March 171)1, 1^13, in his 7istyear; also 
Mary his relict, and daughter of the late Rev. Wm. Thompson, formerly rector of this 
place. She d. June i^th, 1834, in her 8oth year. 

Wm. Cunliffe Esq., D.L., J.P., of Farfield Hall, d. loth Feb., 1823, aged 47. lit- 
was the second son of the late John Cunliffe Esq., of Addingham. 

Eliza, wife of Richard Parr, of Algarkirk, Co. Lincoln, and second daughter of 
John Cunliffe Esq., of Addingham, who d. June 3rd, 1809, aged 31, leaving an only 
daughter. 

Thos. L. T. Cunliffe, Esq., youngest son of the late John Cunliffe, Esq., of 
Addingham, who d. May 2nd, 1851, aged 62 years. 

Thos. Thompson Pickersgill, son of John and Sophia Pickersgill, of Tavistock 
Square, London, and grandson of late John Cunliffe Esq., of this' parish, who d. at 
Glasgow, July i8th 1847, aged 26 years. 

John Ellis Esq., of Addingham, who d. Jan. 4th, 1847, aged 70 years; also Harriet 
Ellis, wife [widow] of above, who was third daughter of late John Cunliffe Esq. She d. 
Dec. 3ist, 1866, aged 87. 

Rev. Wm. Coates Thompson, rector of this parish for 55 years. Born March 6th, 
1815. Died April 22nd, 1893. He was the younger son of the late Rev. John Coates, 
grandson of the late John Cuncliffe Esq. and great-grandson of the late Rev. Wm. 
Thompson. 

Thomas Thompson Cunliffe Lister Esq., J.P., died June I7th, 1892, aged 71 years. 

Other memorial tablets in the church are to Wm. Cunliffe Lister Esq., Barrister- 
at-law and M.P. for the Borough of Bradford, eldest son of Ellis Cuncliffe Lister Esq., 
of Manningham Hall, Co. York, who d. Aug. I2th, 1841, aged 31 years.* Also of 
Ellis, third son of Ellis Cunliffe Lister Esq., M.P., who d. May 2Oth, 1833, aged 
20 years. 

John Pickersgill Esq., of Tavistock Sq., London, and Netherne House, Merstham, 

Mr. W. C. Lister had been returned M.P. for Bradford in 1841, in conjunction 
with the late Mr. John Hardy, father of Lord Cranbrook, but being taken ill while on 
a visit to Fartield Hall, he died there within a few weeks of his election. He was a 
gentleman of considerable ability and promise. 



279 

Sum v, who il. Nov. i ilh, 1805, agc< 1 So years. Also of Sophia, hi- widow, youngcsi 
daughter of the late John Cimliffe Kso., of thi- parish, who <1. Dec. Joth, 1874, aged 
84 year--. 

TluTc art- al-o sonic beautiful stained memorial windows io Rev. John C'oates, 40 
vears rector of this parish, who d. Dec. i(>th 1830, aged 07 years. AKo Mary, his wife, 
who d. June 6th, 1867, aged ox) years. .SVv tablet above. 

John C'oates, elder son of Rev. John Coates, of Addingham, who d. June igtli, 
' S 75- aged 63 years. 

Anne, wife of Samuel Cunliffe Lister 1-Nq., [now Lord Masham) who died 
March ^rd, 1875. 

John Cunliffe Pickersgill Cunliffe, who d. Oct. 6th, 1X73, aged 54 years; also his 
son, John Cunliffe, who d. June iHth, 1879, aped jq years. 

Saml. Margerison Coates, who d. June ."?oth, 1861, aged io years; also Mary 
Coates, d. Oct. nth, 1866, aged 14 years. 

The east window of three lights is a memorial to Mills I'unliffc Lister Kay LM|., ol 
Manningham, and Farfield Hall, eldest son of John C'undiffe Ksq., of Adding'ham, who 
d. Nov. 24th, 185-5, in his Soth year; and also of Mary his wife, who d. March 6th, 
1844. [The parents of Lord Masham]. 

In the churchyard is a sundial inscribed " Topham and John 
Fieldhouse, 1707." The oldest legible stone I have noted is to John 
Bramley, of Gildersber, who died the last day of Sept. 1695. Another 
interesting and now almost obliterated inscription commemorates 
a local centenarian in the person of Mary, relict of Sylvester 
Carterson, who in spite of a " variety of domestic calamities," died 
in the "full possession of her faculties," Jan. 3ist, 1808, aged 101. 
At the south-east part of the churchyard there is a curious old grave- 
stone, uninscribed, which is said to cover the remains of some 
bygone village blacksmith. It is two feet long and a foot in width 
with a central trough-like aperture, in all probability the " cooling- 
stone " which the old worthy had used through life. 

Part of the old Church Orchard has been added to the burial- 
yard on the west side, and many human bones and entire skeletons 
have been found. In fact it is not possible to dig anywhere here 
without finding bones. Singularly two of the skeletons were 
discovered quite entire interred with their faces downward. No 
relics occur with these remains. But at the east end of the churchyard 
a skeleton was discovered together with a plain brass crucifix six 
inches long. This was in a spot not previously disturbed. The site 
has been no doubt appropriated for burial long before the first 
historical records of the church. For some distance westward the land 
falls, having the appearance of an artificial scarp, and at the south- 
western extremity is a hollow locally known as the Monks' Fish-pond. 
But I cannot learn that any land here was ever appropriated to a 
monastery. 

I have examined the old parish books and find an interesting 
terrier of the church property dated 1781, and another dated i7,S6. 
which mentions the ancient tithe-barn, with a stable adjoining the 
west end, being together twenty-three yards long and six yards wide, 



280 

all covered with straw thatch. This old building stood on the north 
west side of the present rectory, where is now the fowl-yard, and was 
pulled down when the rectory was built in 1808. A list of the 
incumbents has been printed from Torre in Whitaker's Craven (3rd 
edit.) from the earliest recorded institution in 1279, down to the late 
rector, the Rev. Wm. Coates Thompson, who died in 1893. He 
was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph W. Hall, the present courteous 
rector, who had been previously curate. 

In the churchwardens' accounts of the parish, which extend back 
to the year 1620, I have found many suggestive and interesting 
items, particularly those relating to the great Civil War, which seems 
to have provoked a good deal of preparation and stir in Wharfedale. 
In 1628 there appears an item for carrying a letter to my Lord 
Fairfax. In 1634 several payments to soldiers with passes, that is 
men who had received their discharge or were incapacitated from 
service, making their way home. If a man had lost his pass he was 
detained until a satisfactory account of him was forthcoming. After 
this such warlike entries become more numerous. Thus in 1639 I 
find the following: 

Payed for three pounds of gunpowder ... ... ... ... ... vis. 

Bestowed on the soulders att Morton and Silsden in ale ... iis. 

For the soulders wages att that time . .., ... ... viiis. 

For my charges ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... is. iiiirf. 

Payed to the soulders att Rippon ... ... ... ... . .. viiis. 

Payed for their wages att that time ... ... ... ... ... vis. 

Payed for two sword girdles ... .. ... ... ... .... iis. viiirf. 

Payed for the armes mending and a pike at Knaresbrough . . . viiirf. 

Payed for oyle bottels and rushes for muskets ... ... ... iis. iiiirf. 

Payed to the Captaine I3th of July att Kighley iiis. viiirf. 

Payed for the soulders wages ... ... ... ... ... ... viiis. 

For my charges att that time ... ... ... ... .. ... is. ii'i'id. 

Bestowed on the soulders in meat and drinke ... ... ... iis. viiirf. 

Given to two soulders which had a passe the xxixth of Maie, and 

for a warrant att Denton the same daye ... ... ... ... xiirf. 

For carriing the armor to Skipton and home again ... ... ... is. 

How strange in these days of advanced warfare, of repeater rifles and 
Lyddite shells, to find our ancient fathers ministering to the freedom 
of England from "all foreign enemies," with "oyle bottels and rushes 
for musketts"! In 1638 I find John Pulan was paid 2d. for bringing 
a letter from York. In 1639 there are payments of 2d. in each case 
"for a hue and crye." Some one decamped, some one wanted ! 
The old Addingham lock-up awaiting the capture! In 1642 more 
disabled soldiers ; two with wives and children go to the Addingham 
constable and get 4d. among them. Then in 1656 we find Richard 
Shires is paid 2S. for conducting his "catiffe"* daughter to the Wells 

* "Which I am sure you would full sore repent, If I to you her deeds should open 
make, And that you should so greatly damage me, for such a wicked catlve as is she." 
Harrington Orlando B. xxi. 



a8i 

th;it she might recover her health, and in the same year Hugh Teal 
does the like journey with his "catiffe daughter." Then in 1695 there 
is an official order about militia men, calling on the stalwart sons of 
Addingham to provide men for the national defences. It reads : 

\\Y, the Deputy l.ieut. tor the Parts at< in-said do herein order and appoint you 
Henry Wright to lincl and provide one Mifticient loot-soldier to he armed with a mus(|uet, 
md \ou \\'m. Midgli 'V one- sut'ticient soldier to he armed with a musquet, and 
yiui \\ r m. Bramlev one to he armed with a musquet, and you Win. Spencer one to 
he armed with a musquet, and \oii Jonathan Parkinson one to he armed with a pyke, 
and you \V'm. Corksliott one to lie armed with a pyke, and such other armcs as the Act 
of Parliament provides, in that ease directs to the Militia of this Riding lor his Majesties 
Service tor and in respect ot ve several Estates in the Constabulary ot Addingham and 
that you have the several soldiers and arms in readiness for the said service, and we 
furthermore order and appoint the several freeholders ot the said Township not otherwise 
charged to be Contributors towards the said charge according to the proportion of their 
several estates within the said Township. Given under our hands and seals this second 
dav ol July Anno Dom. 1695 

II. FAIRFAX 
I.. PII.KINGTON 
RoHKUT HKWANDS 

In 1700 I find a contribution of & ros. made by the Addingham 
authorities towards building and repairing the Castle at York. This 
must have been in compliance with the Act of Parliament authorising 
a tax of 3d. in the pound on the county to defray the expenses of 
renewing the part now called the "old buildings," erected chiefly 
with stone brought from the ruins of St. Mary's Abbey. In the same 
year there is paid to Richard Musgrave the sum of 4S. for "ground 
breaking for ye pinfold wall," and 8|d. for mending the ducking-stool. 
It seems they had women scolds in Addingham at that day, who 
got a sousing amid the mingled jeers and laughter of the usual crowd 
of spectators. No one knows now where the old ducking-stool was 
placed, and few will remember, too, the village-stocks, which stood 
against the garden wall of High House, near the Fleece inn, where 
Mr. Cunliffe, the local magistrate, used to sit with imperial power 
endeavouring to correct, after well-judged hearing, rural reprobates 
and all such violators of the common peace. At that time fifty years 
ago, the public-house was the usual meeting place of the local Justices 
as well as of the churchwardens for the discussion of parish business. 
In 1747 it seems Aynam Bridge was chargeable on the parish, and 
is. 6d. was then paid for "stooping and railing" it.* Sometimes as 
much as 55. would be spent by the village tribunal in refreshments 
while discussing the payment or otherwise of a is. 6d. bill. In 1747 
6d. was spent on a copy of "ye Act against swearing," and ics. icd. 
"spent on Holy Thursday, as usual." This was a great day in 
Ascension week at Addingham and surrounding places, when the 
school-children got a holiday and there was much feasting and 

* In a survey made in 1752 "Addingham Bridge" is stated to he repairable by 
"Addingham Town," 



282 

rejoicing. Doubtless it is a survival of some forgotten custom current 
in the early days of Christianity, when pilgrimages were made to 
holy-wells and other sacred places on Holy Thursday. There is a 
well of ancient repute in Adclingham, though no one now seems to 
know what was its original purpose or virtues, save as a medicament 
for sore eyes. It used to be known as Storr Hill Well, and is in 
Stockinger Lane, a name with a true Norse ring about it, winding 
moreover in true Norse fashion out of the Main Street up to the moor 
side. In 1814 there are the usual entries for killing foxes, and also 
of payments of 55. for singers, and 6s. for ringers, as well as 28. 6d. 
"for singers God's Penny," and in 1825 3*. is paid for " Ringers God's 
Penny," and 55. "for singing girls." This so-called "God's Penny" 
was merely a deposit on account, a kind of sacred vow or obligation 
made when the bargain was completed. 

Years ago I was once talking in the Main Street with a 
patriarchal native on old times in the village, but he cared little for 
old-world life and did not seem to be very proud of the position of 
Addingham among Yorkshire villages: it lacked "betterment" and 
"progress," he thought, and then ejaculated "it's hed time eniff to 
get on; aw've heeard mi father tell 'at Addingham wor one o't varry 
first places 'at God created. Aw sud say 'at fahndations of some o't 
haases are as owd as Adam, an' some on 'em leuk as if they'd 
tum'led fra' t'hill sides into all sooarts o' shaps an' sitiwations. 
There's noan two alike, an' when yo' want to finnd a body's front door 
yo're sewer to get to somebody else's back-door asteead." The village 
certainly does not appear to have derived that advantage from the 
railway with a station here, which the iron-road usually brings. 
Thousands of strangers visit this part of Wharfedale every season, 
but they usually drive or rail through between Ilkley (3 m.) and 
Bolton Abbey (2 m.) Comparatively few find it worth while to stay 
here. Yet the district teems with interest; much of it, however, 
belonging to the past. The older houses are mostly eighteenth 
century erections, though here and there one of earlier date crops up 
in the nooks and corners of the long Main Street. One of these bears 
the initials and date W.H., 1730, and has a characteristic carved 
door-head, shewing the evolution of the preceding Jacobean style. 
Another, dated 1748, is of a similar but less pretentious character. 
In Parkinson's Fold, near the church, is a dwelling-house inscribed 
I.M.D. 1677, which has a characteristic door-head and chamfered 
jambs. The oldest existing building bears the date 1666 over the 
door, and a whole volume might be written about this venerable 
little historic block. For a long, long time it was the Parish School, 
and many a native of Addingham owes his start in life to the 
inspiration he received beneath its humble roof. I cannot enter into 
a full history of the old building, which goes back to the date of its 
erection. I believe Mr. Lee was the last teacher in charge of it, he 



283 

being removed to the new church schools at the bottom of the village, 
sometime aliout iS.|.|. 'J'he rector for the time being appears to 
have been sole manager, and it seems wrongfully claimed it as church 
property. Mr. Richard Sandham, who had charge of the Church 
School from January ist, 1X55, to Dei ember ;}ist, 1890, tells me that 
under the school-room was the village prison, and an infant class-room. 
The upper room was occupied by a joiner, Edward Lister, and the 
lower by a nail maker and barber. Fifty or sixty years ago (ieorge 
Whitaker was the village barber, and the little lather-shop was a 
well-known rendezvous of local gossips. I could tell many a tale of 
the bristly-bearded hermit from Rumbalds Moor coming in for a 
shave! Whitaker used to say, "Job, lad, I shall hev to chairge thee 
a shillin', thou breks up t'best scrapers I hev." But this must have 
been in Job's courting days; for the last years of his life his face 
bristled like the fretful porcupine. The old building is now let in three 
tenancies, the Parish Council having the upper room, the Conservative 
Club, the lower, and a tradesman occupies the one adjoining. The 
tenancies yield an annual income of about 21, half of which goes 
to the Church School and the other half to the Wesleyan School. 

Something might be said of other old buildings, notably of the 
so-called Manor House. The house occupied by Dr, Bates now 
claims the name, but Mr. Thomas Whitaker, the aged poet of 
Addingham, tells me that another old house, situated near what is 
called the Cross, has an equal right to the distinction, as the house 
possesses an ancient importance, though now lost. But as the lords 
of the manor have always been non-resident, there does not appear to 
be any just claim to the title of Manor House in the historical sense of 
the term. Another hardly-remembered homestead was Dockan Hall, 
which stood nearly opposite Dobson's restaurant, and the house dated 
1826 is on its site. Close beside it was the pinfold, above mentioned. 

Among the more recent mansions is Farfield Hall situated in an 
ample park, about a mile from the town. It was built from a design 
made by Richard, Earl of Burlington, who died in 1753 and to whom 
Pope, the poet, refers in the line, 

Who plants like Bathurst, or who builds like Boyle? 

Eor many generations the old house has been the home of the 
Cunliffe Lister family, whose lineage is set forth in various works. 
Mr. Samuel Cunliffe Lister (now Lord Masham), whose life-size statue 
erected by public subscription in 1875, stands near the principal 
entrance to Manningham Park, resided here at a former period of 
his life.* High House is the residence of Mr. John Coates, nephew 

* Farlirld is also memorable as the birthplace of William Lang-ton, who died at 
[ngatestone, Kssex, in 1881, aged 78. He was an eminent antiquary, herald and 
genealogist, and took a principal part along with Richard Cobden and James Heywood 
F.R.S., in the foundation of the Manchester Athena-urn in 1836. A sum of .5000 was 
raised in his honour and a memorial Lang-ton fellowship founded at Owen's College. 



284 

of the late rector of Addingham, and County Councillor for the Sheriff 
Hutton division. Hallcroft Hall was erected in the early part of the 
century, and is the residence of Mr. John G. Oddy, J.P. 

The Society of Friends and Wesleyans are the two oldest 
Nonconformist bodies in Addingham, the former dating from the 
time of George Fox, the founder of the sect, and the latter from about 
the year 1770. Under the Toleration Act the Friends obtained a 
license to hold meetings in 1689. The first Wesleyan chapel was 
built in 1778. Many good and able men have worked in the cause 
of local Methodism, while many a true-hearted native has gone forth 
from the old Wharfedale village, doing God's mission in other and 
distant lands. I cannot mention all, but one worthy who has departed 
this life on a distant shore was the Rev. H. F. Bland, a native of 
Addingham, who died recently at Smith's Falls, Ontario. A more 
thorough and earnest worker never entered the ministry ; his whole 
life being one continual self-sacrifice for the benefit of others. He 
won the greatest respect not only of his own people but also of his 
clerical brethren, and besides discharging many and various duties 
he was for three years chairman of the Canadian Conference. 

I have mentioned that cloth-fulling was carried on at Addingham 

more than five centuries ago, and a long chapter might be written on 

the old trades of the place. Fulling, milling, tanning, currying, 

tallow-chandling, and the cotton and worsted trades have all formed 

active industries in the town and neighbourhood. The second 

worsted mill in England, I am told, was built here by the late Mr. 

John Cunliffe. But in the early part of the century the trade was 

almost wholly cotton spinning and weaving and about 1830-2, there 

were two mills employing nearly 300 persons here in this industry. 

Before that time nearly every cottage had its loom, and in the 

summer time as you walked down the principal street every door 

or window was sure to be open, and the continued click-click 

of the busy shuttle sounded merrily on the still air. During 

that never-to-be-forgotten period of the power-loom riots in 1826, 

Addingham was the scene of much disorder. Honest folk had got 

the notion into their heads that power-looms were to be the ruin of 

themselves and their families, and so they gathered in hundreds, and 

went in large bodies from place to place for the purpose of destroying 

the looms. A goodly number of the new invention had been set 

up in one of the Addingham factories, and the mob lost no time 

in hurrying to the spot. The greatest alarm prevailed, and the 

Addingham householders were at a loss to know how to defend 

themselves and their homes. A meeting was hurriedly called, and 

it was resolved to close and barricade every door, while most of the 

able-bodied men were to assemble in the threatened mill and defend 

it and its contents to the best of their ability. Many of the women 

in their terror took lumps of pottery-mould and chalk, I am told, and 



2*5 

\\rote on tin; outside shutters, "This house to let," and the mob on 
serin- these lictititious notices supposed the town to be deserted and 
so made haste to attack the mill. But I had better let Mr. Henry 
Whitaker, tell the story, as he and his father were eye-witnesses of 
most of the events of this stormy time. It was in May, 1826, 
he says 

M\ laiher and my uncle Henry Whitaker, from Liverpool (wlm was staying" at my 
native place, Greenholme, near (Kiev), called at Mr. Christopher Kemplay's, St. John's 
Place, Leeds, where I was at school, and took me with them to my aunt Clarke's at 
kothwell Haigh to stay all night, and told Mr. Kemplay that they would bring me 
hack the following- day. 

We had had .supper, and were sal round the lire in tin: dining--room (this was 
about hall-past ten o'clock) when the door was suddenly opened by old James Cowgill, 
who acted the part ot footman, who hurriedly exclaimed, " Please, ma'am, here's one 
of the dragoons has galloped up with this," and he presenied a letter to my aunt, who 
handed il over to my father, as it was addressed to him. He quickly opened it. 

It proved to be a letter from our bookkeeper, Mr. Brown, dated from the 
Barracks, Leeds, stating that Mr. Jeremiah Horsfall, of Farficid, had sent word that 
the power-loom rioters had g-ot to Skipton, and then they were going forward to break 
his power-looms in his mill at Addingham, and afterwards would proceed to demolish 
those at Grccnholme mills. So Mr. Brown had ridden over to Leeds to procure the 
military, and a troop of the JIH! Dragoons had just started off for Greenholme, and the 
Colonel thought it right that a letter should be sent to my father, so had kindly ordered 
one of the dragoons to trot up with it. Was there not consternation and alarm! My 
aunt was terribly afraid. The horse was put to the g-ig-, and my father and my uncle 
started back for Greenholme. 

( >f course neither I nor my aunt could sleep, for she had the impression that her 
brothers might be murdered, and I anxiously waited to know the result. 

It appeared, after the mills at Skipton were attacked, the mob moved on to 
Addingham, where the workpeople had made much preparation to resist them. A 
quantity of larg-e stones were taken up to the hig-her stories of the mill to pitch down 
on the heads of the assailants should they attempt to force an entrance. Firearms 
were procured, and every means taken to resist the attack, which took place in the 
afternoon, when windows were broken and shots fired. One man was shot through 
the fleshy part of the neck, and another, who was trying to effect an entrance by 
creeping along a ledge of the building, slipped and fell into the open tank from the 
privies, his being the only life that was lost, as he was smothered. 

The mob were beaten off, and no doubt learning that the military would be at 
Greenholme, they did not go there, but into Airedale, where various Bradford mills 
were stopped. That of Messrs. T. G. Horsfall and Co. was attacked, and there one of 
the rioters wa> shot dead. The Riot Act had to be read in various parts of the country, 
which was in a very unsettled state for some time. 

The Yorkshire Hussars were called out, and billeted in different places. The Hon. 
Henry Lascelles (the late Lord Harewood, who was afterwards killed in the hunting 
field, his skull being fractured in consequence of his horse falling, its foot having got 
entangled in a sheep net over which it was jumping) was Captain of the Harewood and 
Otley troops, which were stationed at Greenholme, and remained there about six 
weeks. The place was put under military rule, guard mounted every night, and a 
picket patrolled Leather Bank Lane and occasionally on the Ilkley Road. The low 
buildings at the end of the old mill were converted into barracks, and many of the 
horses were stabled there. The officers lived and slept at Greenholme and considered 
that they had got into very comfortable quarters. Captain Lascelles was most affable 
and kind, and beloved by all who knew him. In his previous military service he was 
at the battle of Waterloo. He gave to my eldest brother "John" a dagger or dirk, 
which he picked up in the field after the battle was over. 



2 86 

The place for some time was kept' under proper military guard, 
and at Burley every precaution was likewise taken. On the left of 
the bridge crossing the goit that went down to the old mill, a sentry 
was posted every night; no one being allowed to go by without 
uttering the pass-word, which was changed every day. The road 
by the mills to Burley was also closed, no stranger being allowed 
to pass, and the gate at the Iron Row was locked, and all put under 
strict military rule. 

One might go on recounting stories of these old times, of many 
other strange affairs and of old Addingharh " characters," witches, 
and wise men, of noted hunters, racers, poachers, and " eccentrics." 
But this chapter must stop. 



CHAPTER XXI. 




ON THK EARLY HISTORY OF BOLTON. 

Prehistoric evidences Bnlton, a possession of tin- Karls ot Mcrcia Conjectural royal 
residence al Bolton in Saxon times Domesday inquest Superior importance of 
Snavi;ill r. to Skipton Importance ot Kmosay and Ilalton- Probable centres ot 
Celtic missionary work (Jrant lo Komille aiul the building ot Skipton Castle. 

O the importance of Bolton before the Norman conquest 
the official record of A D. 1086 bears ample testimony. 
Some extensive clearances must have been made on 
the Anglian settlement as it became the capital of an 
extensive manor and parish known to this day as the 
Saxon Cure. Before that time the native Britons had, as usual, 
camped on the hill slopes and even summits of the surrounding moors, 
as the valley at this time was a vast and intricate forest, the lurking 
place of many dangerous beasts of prey. Few traces of the ancient 
British inhabitants survive in the immediate neighbourhood of Bolton. 
I have examined the local field-maps, and with the exception of 
Brown Hill and Black Hill, already explained, and perhaps Can Hill, 
original Celtic place-names have been totally forgotten. This Can 
Hill may be like Pen Hill and Pendle, a duplication of alien tongues, 
equivalent to the Cym. -Celt, pen, Goidelic fan, a hill summit. Kinnel, 
near Abercorn, for example, Bede tells us was called Penfahel by the 
ancient Picts, and Kinnel is the Gaelic Celtic equivalent, the Celts 
using a k or hard c, where the Cymric Britons used a / or b. 
Ceanmore or Kenmore being the same word as Benmore, the great 
head. Can Hill, rising above the road to Ilkley, may have a like 
meaning.* 

This absorption of the Celtic element on the Anglian conquest, 
shews how thoroughly Anglian the district was, and how feeble and 
evanescent the Celtic overlap. We must go to outlying places in the 
parish for the little we know of the prehistoric races of Bolton. 
There are traces of ancient housesteads in the Stank Pasture, and 
formerly there existed evidences of cromlech-burials, but not a trace 
of these is now to be found. The tombs consisted of two upright 
stones with another laid horizontally upon them, and one of these, 
on the edge of the moor between Barden and Embsay, was opened 
in the early part of this century. In it was found a bronze tore of 
the kind described by Mr. Birch as the beaded tore, formed in two 
portions, one part representing the string, being slightly elastic and 

* See Bishop Browne's Conversion of the Heptarchy, p. 137. 



adjusted to the beaded portion by means of pins or tenons fitting 
into corresponding sockets, so as to enable the wearer readily to 
remove it from his neck. It is ornamented with twelve knobs chased 
with zig-zag lines, and apparently formed in imitation of the vitrified 
beads ornamented with undulating lines frequently found in British 
tumuli. A few barrows also lie scattered about the hill-sides, some 
doubtless obliterated, while a few others have apparently not been 
disturbed. One of these Mr. Thos. Roose, the interesting gardener 
at Bolton Abbey, opened in October, 1894. He tells me the mound, 
which is situated at High Hare Head (975 ft.) between Halton and 
the low reservoir, yielded an urn containing burnt bones with charcoal, 
and a small quartz pebble. While excavating a hammer-stone of 
chert was also found. The urn was about ten inches in height and 
rudely ornamented around its upper surface with zig-zag lines. 
Another barrow, apparently never examined, lies about 100 yards to 
the north of the one described. All these are late Celtic. 

The compotus of Bolton Abbey tells us that despite the Anglian 
conquest and subsequent destruction of the larger beasts of prey, wolves 
were still numerous in the Abbey woods as late as the i3th century 
and the Bolton Abbey accounts shew that rewards were given for 
wolf-slaying in 1306. Truly it must have been a "howling wilderness" 
in the days of the Saxon huntsmen, and when Edgar, King of Mercia 
and Northumbria, lorded this wild domain (A.D. 975) he exacted a 
yearly tribute of 300 heads of wolves for three years from the Brit- 
Welsh King Idwal. Bolton then formed part of the large possessions 
of the Earls of Mercia, and before 1066 was inherited by Edwin, son 
of Leofwine, Earl of Mercia, and younger brother to Leofric, husband 
of the famous Lady Godiva. This nobleman is stated by Whitaker 
to have had a residence at Bolton, which after the completion of the 
Domesday survey, had fallen into ruins. The name Bodeltone 
together with the testimony of Domesday seems to justify this 
assertion, but the site of the burgh, or botl cannot now be more than 
conjectured. The manor of Bolton was however but a fraction of 
this great lord's possessions at the time of the Norman invasion.* 
Whether he was ever here no one knows. Whitaker thinks it probable 
there was a parish church here too, in the days of the same Earl 
Edwin. Assuredly the existence of a parish premises the presence of 
a priest and a church, wherever that church may have been. But 
there is neither stone nor mortar at Bolton Abbey than can be proved 
to be of older date than the original foundation of the Priory in 
1154-5. It is often stated that the Priory was grafted on a pre-existing 
parish church. Probably there would be a chapel attached to the 
Saxon manse, but in a district so heavily timbered, doubtless it was 
of wood. On this subject I will speak in the next chapter. 

* See the author's Richmondshire, pp. 40-45. 



289 

I. rt inr now turn to tin; Donu^day record of \.n. 10X0. 

M. \\IIK. In Uodeltone (Holton) Karl Kclimin had six caru< al.-- of land tor j,'-ld. 

/;, i, .v/< k.\. In AliiMH- ( I l.ilimi Ka-t) six farm-ait-.. In Embesie (Embsay) three carucates 

inland and ttin-r fariifatcs yoke. In 1 )rai- lone ( I )rani;ht< in ) thre earueate- ; Sfiprdi-n 
(Skibeden) three carurati^ ; Sfiploni- (Skiplon) tour fanieates; Snaehehale (Snayj, r ill) 
six eariifates ; Tin edderebv (Thorlby) tt-n earueates. 

.\,ik,\ Hedmesleia (Heamsley) two fanieates; I lolnic ( I lolnir) thrrc canicatesj < Jcrr^raiii- 
((lari^rave), three fanifates ; Staintonr (Stainton) three earueates ; ( )ding-i-hrm 
(Addinj^ham) two earuraU-s; Otreburne (( Mterburn) three carucates; Scotorp (ScOSthrop) 
three rarueate-; Malgim (Malliam) three farm-ate^; Conej|hestone (Cold Collision) 
three carucales ; Helj;cteld ( I lellilield) three farneates ; Anleie) (Anley) two earueatev ; 
llan^elil (ilanlilli) three carucates. 

Together there were 41 carucates, or with the enfranchised vills 
or outlying places which owed suit of court to Bolton, there were 77 
carucates. As the number of ploughs is not given it may be assumed 
they were worked on both the two-field and three-field shift, so that 
we may safely strike an average of 170 acres to the carucate and 
thus come at the grand total of 13,090 acres under cultivation within 
the lordship of Bolton in 1066. Of this arable area from one-third to 
one-half annually lay in fallow. The extent of woodland is not 
stated , it was not taxed. Within twenty years distress had become 
so acute it was useless levying taxes. Perhaps there was hardly an 
inhabitant left to tell the tale of famine and slaughter, so trenchant 
were the Norman ravages, for the melancholy record of 1086 is that 
these extensive and prosperous domains are " all waste." 

From this picture of local aspects in 1066-86, some useful 
inferences may be drawn of the large share of prosperity enjoyed by 
the then important centres of population, but which have now 
degenerated to mere hamlets or even single farms. Such, for example, 
are Snaygill, Thorlby and Anley, while Skipton, which became the 
head of the barony shortly after the Conquest, was a mere collection 
of shepherds' huts, and possessed not half the rateable value or 
importance of Thorlby. Embsay and Halton were also conspicuously 
populous places, and both had notable religious associations. All the 
Haltons within the old kingdom of Strathclyde appear to have been 
places of early religious consequence, and are mentioned in Domesday. 
In all probability they were the chosen centres of the Celtic missionary 
work of St. Hilda and St. Heiv in the 7th century ; sometimes we 
find them written Heldetune, that is Hilda's town, or as in the case of 
our Bolton Halton, Altone, perhaps from the A.S. alter-ton, that is 
altar-town. At Halton, near Lancaster, are some notable early 
crosses. 

The whole of the possessions above named constituted the 
Saxon fee* of Earl Edwin in these parts, and when the Conqueror 

* In British times the cow was the standard of value, and three cows were equivalent 
to one female slave. The Anglo-Saxons also used the word feoh, cattle, in a similar 
manner, to indicate property or wealth, hence our word fee. 



290 

granted the same to his Norman follower, Robert de Romille, the 
latter chose Skipton as the centre and head of his barony, and there 
commenced the stone castle, which afterwards enlarged, still looks 
over the old Norman capital. Bolton henceforward became part of 
the great honour and fee of Skipton, and so continued until the 
dissolution of the Priory in 1539. In 1542 the estate was sold to 
Henry, Earl of Cumberland, and Bolton became a chapelry attached 
to Skipton Parish Church. The parish included the townships of 
Bolton Abbey, Barden, Hazlewood-with-Storiths, Beamsley-in-Skipton, 
Halton, and a part of Draughton. In length it is about nine miles, 
and its greatest width is about seven miles, extending from Black 
Hill (the old Celtic boundary I have mentioned) on the east, and 
Crag House on the west. As I have said the existing evidences of 
the British occupation of Bolton are extremely meagre, nor are we 
warranted in pressing the matter of place-names. In a name like 
Cat Gill, some may fancy they see the Celtic cat/i, a fort, but I 
have elsewhere pointed out that payments were formerly made in 
Wharfedale for the capture and slaughter of wild cats, a dangerous 
and crafty creature quite as much to be dreaded as the wolf, with 
which animal this district was also much infested. I have met with 
no particularly early mention of Cat Gill, but in an indenture at 
Bolton Hall, dated 1610, I find the place written as now "Catgill", 
the mansion and land being then in the tenure of one John Robinson. 
The true wild cat still exists in a few of the most retired glens of 
Scotland, but the last authentic records of the capture of any in 
England are near Loweswater in 1843 ar >d i Northumberland 
in 1853. 

I have only to add in conclusion that by an Order in Council 
made in 1864 the old chapelry of Bolton was erected into a separate 
parish and Bolton Abbey was constituted the rectory that now exists. 




ON THE WHARFE 



CIIAITKK XXII. 




KM USA v "\VAKE"' AND THE FOUNDATION OK BOLTON PRIORY. 

Keautilul -, -cilery Motives tor site of the Priory Ancient religious associations at 
Kmbsay St. Cuthbert's " \\'akc " The Celtic Church in N'orthumbria The 
painting' of St. Cuthbert at Bolton Priory -The great Fair at Kmbsay Remains < it' 
the Priory at Kmbsay -Citation of grant of the manor of Button Legend of the 
Strid -The grange of Stead Specie Heck and the name Speight -Citations from 
unpublished charters. 
| 

N the lovely Spring-time when the earth mirrors the 
heavens and the wild woodlands are aglow with 
countless hyacinths, sprinkled maybe with golden- 
rayed celandines, shining like stars in the firmament of 
blue, when sweet primroses and violets, orchids and 
speedwell gem forest and meadow, and birds of many hues are 
joyous with song, no spot in our islands, famed as they are for their 
great scenic beauty, can eclipse the few miles of country which lie 
around the storied old Priory beside Father Wharfe. Indeed, no 
parish in England possesses a more,, enchanting variety of woodland 
landscape, everywhere environed by delightful "peeps'" of rock and 
crag, or long waving lines of green and purple fell. Nowhere have 
the charms of Nature been better or more jealously looked after 
thanks to the noble owners and appreciated as they are now, (and 
even too long ago in the old monastic days), they remain a perpetual 
feast to the eye and mind, ever invoking that holy psalm of praise, 
so often proclaimed from human heart-depths in yonder noble choir, 
"O, all ye works of the Lord, bless ye the Lord, praise Him and 
magnify Him for ever/' 

The old monks were men of learning and taste, and when living 
at Embsay, a few miles away, they must often have looked upon this 
beautiful site by the crystal Wharfe, as one well suited for a 
permanent home. There was here not only the sacred seclusion of 
God's offering, but there were warm riparian lands which had long 
lain fallow, admirably suited for the growth of corn, as well as almost 
interminable woods, yielding an abundance of game, while the river 
close by provided a convenient supply of fresh-water (ish. The 
situation, indeed, was all that could be desired, being sheltered from 
the east and north, and yet sufficiently open to admit of plenty of 
air and sunlight, while the mixed sand and gravel soil was warm and 
dry, and elevated above the reach of floods. 

But like all such institutions founded in a credulous era, in order 
to exact tribute from the wealth}-, while spreading undoubted benefits 
among the people, there must be some extraordinary motive for the 



292 

existence of Bolton Priory. The old tradition as first recorded by 
Dodsworth, ca 1620, is that the "Boy of Egremond" was drowned at 
the Strid before the translation of the Priory from Embsay, and that 
the grief caused by the loss of her only son induced the Lady Adeliza 
to erect and dedicate this holy fane to God's service as a contrite 
memorial of her only son's untimely end. But the under-cited 
original charter of the pious grantor bears the signature of "William 
my son of Egremond," so that whatever may have been the subsequent 
fate of this honored youth, we are at any rate sure that he was a living 
witness to the charter of translation. 

One may express surprise that this site was not originally fixed 
upon, instead of the bleaker one beneath Embsay Crag. But there 
was, I think, a motive for the first selection, inasmuch as there were 
traditions of longstanding about the Embsay site, which even the 
Norman subversion would not willingly let die. If there had been an 
already existing church at Bolton, why not have grafted the monastery 
on that foundation, as appears to have been the case at Embsay? 
But no such church at Bolton then existed, which if once attached to 
the manse of Earl Edwin, must have been suffered to fall into disuse 
on Romille building the castle and founding the church at Skipton ca. 
1 100, which henceforward became the church of the parish. The 
small tithes of Embsay* as well as all altar-dues arising from the 
churches at Embsay and Bolton were subsequently reserved to it, 
facts in themselves sufficiently attesting the importance of Embsay 
as an anterior foundation. As the Priory at Embsay was not 
established until 1121, or after the church of Skipton was built, which 
formed part of the original endowment of the Priory, the canons 
naturally sought some place having notable sacred associations. I 
have already made it apparent that neither Bolton nor Skipton 
possessed such, so that some motive, other than that of the mere 
land-gift, must have actuated them in their choice of Embsay, which 
henceforward continued a privileged place with right of sanctuary to 
all fugitives. 

Here, too, there seems little reason to doubt, the vigil of St. 
Cuthbert had long been, and continued for centuries to be a great 
religious festival, inasmuch as we are told his influence had been so 
marvellous in Northumbria that miracles which he had wrought in his 
life-time did not cease even after his death and burial in 686. I have 
already said sufficient about the Celtic church in this part of Yorkshire, 
and I need only add my conviction that a Celtic monastery of monks 
and nuns, subject to an abbess, as was customary, existed at Embsay, 

* The tithe of calves from Embsay, fixed at an annual payment of i, is now paid 
to the Rector of Bolton Abbey. Calves were not paid in kind, but by immemorial 
custom eight groats was the modus for a calf, due on six or more calves calved in one 
year; the parson allowing out of the said eight groats, three-half-pence a-piece on as 
many calves as fall short of ten. 



293 

anl which in all probability was destroyed in the Viking irruption 
under Hubba in 867. Simeon of Durham tells us that their sites were 
held sacred, though no monasteries were re-founded for fully two 
centuries afterwards, when the Normans introduced the foreign orders 
of monks. But the word monk as Simeon tells us, was never heard in 
the north country before William's invasion, whereas nuns were known 
in the time of the Britons, and their ministrations were in the 7th 
century greatly extended in Xorthumbria by the Abbess Heiv. The 
tenacity with which this saint's labours in our district is witnessed, I 
have shewn in the still existing name of St. Ives, Bingley, and 
probably all our Haltons (in Domesday Heldetune] are simply an 
evolution of the name of the Abbess Hilda. At Embsay no tradition 
exists of a nunnery, though the name of Nun's Well still clings to a 
site near the vicarage. 

I have spoken of the efficient opposition of the native inhabitants 
to "Rome rule" in the 7th and 8th centuries. How long their 
opposition continued here we have no means of ascertaining, but the 
evidence shews that St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, the successor of 
the Celtic Aidan, the emissary of St. Columba, was in all likelihood 
honored here as above remarked, before the Normans came. He 
was made Bishop in 685, though we do not know how long after 
this time a church or cross was erected to his memory at Embsay, 
but Whitaker (1805) says that a Saxon doorway belonging to a 
former church was to be seen at Embsay in his time. Pope Gregory 
in 601 had ordered vigils or "wakes" to be kept in this country on 
the anniversaries of the holy martyrs, and St. Cuthbert's wake at 
Embsay would appear to have been one of the great festivals in 
Craven before the Castle was built at Skipton or the Priory erected 
on the Wharfe at Bolton. Story and tradition of the visits and 
preaching of St. Cuthbert may still be found in parts of Yorkshire 
and Cumbria that are now but little known, but which, at the time 
of the 7th century revival and conversion of the English, were great 
centres of missionary light. In Carlisle cathedral the traditions of 
St. Cuthbert's labors in that diocese are well preserved in the 
magnificent fresco in wood, giving illustrations of his life, &c. 
Indeed so venerated was the old Northumbrian saint in our district, 
that a portraiture of him in oils was constantly kept in the monastery 
at Bolton. The Norman monks, sensible of the value of holy 
traditions may well have chosen St. Cuthbert's shrine at Embsay, 
with its probable older traditions, as the site of their Augustine 
Priory, a bare and lonely spot forsooth, but not more so than that 
of the old and similar body of Augustine Canons on the wild Swiss 
pass of St. Bernard, whom we know as the " Monks of St. Bernard." 

Pope Gregory had also said the people were to erect booths 
and stalls in the vicinity of those churches which were formerly 
temples, and celebrate the occasion with becoming festivity. In 



294 

other words the "wake" was to be a fair, attended with religious 
rejoicing. When the "wake" or fair at Embsay originated no 
writing can tell us, but the monks of Bolton continued the custom, 
as they upheld the church at Embsay long after their removal to 
Bolton in 1155. From an unpublished record I learn that in the 
reign of Edward I. (1272-1307) the Prior of Bolton was summoned 
to answer by what warrant he claimed to have a fair and toll in 
Emmeseye, without the license and sanction of the king and his 
progenitors. And the Prior replies " I place myself upon my 
country," by this immemorial usage, and as to the fair, always 
held on the vigil and morrow of St. Cuthbert in September, he 
contended that the/a/r had arisen by reason of "a certain gathering 
of men called a wach" and by occasion of the said gathering the 
aforesaid Prior and his predecessors held the said fair at Embsay 
without warrant and took toll unjustly. The result of this enquiry 
appears to have led to the necessary authority being obtained, for in 
the monk's compotus for the year 1305, I find an entry of the heavy 
payment of -4. 5*. " for the charter of the Fair at Embsay being 
renewed and confirmed in the Chancery." 

Although the short-lived Priory at Embsay, founded in 1121, was 
abandoned in 1155,* a dependent cell was maintained there by the 
Canons of Bolton until the Dissolution in 1540. The Abbey accounts 
show that the church was restored in 1315 and in 1320 a new wall 
was built round the churchyard. Portions of the original buildings 
were taken down and doubtless some of the masonry conveyed by 
ox-wains to the new monastery beside the Wharfe. At Embsay 
there is little left now but the turf-grown foundations, but a number 
of ancient carved and mason-marked stones remain in the buildings 
of the present mansion of Embsay Kirk, which are probably relics 
of the old Priory. The mansion on the site was built about 1780 
and is not without some interesting associations. The late revered 
Primate, Dr. Benson, always retained the happiest recollections of 
the many visits of his boyhood which he made when this house was 
the home of Mr. John Sidgwick, whose niece, Mary, daughter of 
the Rev. Wm. Sidgwick, he afterwards married. Mrs. Benson's 
mother, Mary Crofts, who married the Rev. Wm. Sidgwick, was 
brought up at Bolton Abbey by her uncle, the Rev. Wm. Carr, of 
whom I shall speak hereafter, and in the old Priory churchyard 
beside the murmuring Wharfe, sleep many of the worthy Archbishop's 
nearest and dearest kindred. 

Cecily, daughter and heiress of Robert de Romille, the first 

* I find in the Pipe Roll for 8th Henry II. (1161) reference to the Mon. de Ebesi, 
[Embsay?], Mon de Berdes, Mon. de Chirchestal and Mon. de Sallea, all in 
Everwichescr [Yorkshire], The town of Embesi, the chapel at Carleton, and the vill 
of Kildvvic, with the mill there, formed the original endowment of the Priory at 
Embsay, 



295 

grantee after the Conquest, married William tie Meschines. ^rand- 
nephew of the dispossessed Saxon Earl Edwin, and this noble couple 
were the founders of Embsay Priory. Their daughter, Adelixa, who 
was coheiress with her sister, Avicia, who married William de 
Paganel, lord of Leeds, &c., granted in her maternal name of Romille. 
the site at Bolton for the Canons' Priory then at Embsay. Sin- 
married William Fitz Duncan, nephew of David, King of Scotland, 
by whom' she had an only son, William, "The Boy of Egremond" 
whose signature appears in the following charter. The precious 
original, which was not known to Whitaker (vide Craven ^rd ed. 
p. 511) I have seen at Bolton Abbey preserved in a small mahogany 
box, fitted with glass top, and the deed itself measures nine by five 
and-a-half inches. The date is assigned to iyth Stephen (1151)*, and 
the grant was confirmed by his successor, Henry II. 

GRANT BY ADELI7A OE RCMELLl TO THE CANONS OK KMHSAV OI I HI MANOK 
OK BOLTON ON WHARKK. 

Be it known to all sons of Holy Church as well present as those of future time that 
I Adeliza de Rumelli by the consent and assent ot William my son and heir and of my 
daughters have given granted and by this my present charter continued to God and 
the Canons Regular of St. Mary and St. Cuthbert of Embesay the whole Manor of 
Bolton with all its appurtenances in wood and plain in waters meadows pastures 
throughout their devises; to wit from Lumgile under the hedge which is called Lobwith 
as it descends from the Moor which is called Lobwithbec by the said Lumgile as far a- 
the River of Wharf and so ascending the said river to Berdcnbec and so by Berdenbcc 
to Crossekelde and to the road which goes by Merebec which is the devise between 
Boelton and Halton and so to Hameldune towards the west by the devises of Berewick 
until it returns to Lumgillheved on the moor by Lobwith with all liberties and all tree 
customs which I or any of my ancestors shall have had or may have in the said Manor 
without any withholding in free pure and perpetual alms in exchange for two manors 
which were of the Canons to wit Stretone and Skibdune wherefore I will and command 
that the aforesaid Canons shall have and hold the aforesaid Manor of Boulton with all its 
appurtenances through the aforesaid devises with all liberties and immunities which 
man can give well and in peace freely and quietly free from all secular service custom 
and exaction belonging to any mortal, as free pure and perpetual alms for the health of 
my soul and of my predecessors and successors And this exchange I and my heirs to 
aforenamed Canons will warrant. These being witnesses William my son of Egremont, 
Adam son of Swanif, Henry son of Swani, Osbert Archdeacon, William of fflanders, 
Arthur of Halton, Maleverer Jordon son of Esselsi, Roger Tempest, Roger Faisington, 
Simon MahauntJ:, Peter de Morton, He - of York, William de RillestonjS, 
Ketellus son of Torsini, Robert Macun, Edward Chamber, Roger Muncin, Albred son 
of , Adam of ffernehill, Hano ffauvell, Geoffrey More and many others. 

It is noteworthy that while this grant was made "by the consent 
and assent of William, my son and heir," in a subsequent charter by 

* The church at Long Preston formed part of the original endowments of the 
newly-translated Priory, and the grant was confirmed by Archbishop Murdac, who 
held the See of York from 1 148 to 1 1 =53. 

| Adam fil Swani appears in the Black Book of the Exchequer as holding one 
knight's fee of the heirs of Romille. 

J Simon Mahaut or Montalte was living in 1165. 

In the Pipe Rolls for 12 Henry II. (1165-6) I find Will, de Rilleston owing 60 
marks for recognizances in the wapentake of Staincliffe, 



296 

the same lady, extending her benefactions, there is no allusion to her 
said son and heir, " the boy of Egremond," which is significant, and 
from which circumstance it may be inferred that he had in the 
meantime disappeared, thus accounting for the old " Legend of the 
Strid." In her second donation the Lady Adeliza gave to the 
canons the very important privilege of hunting and slaying all wild 
beasts throughout her fee in Craven, and they were to have for their 
pains every tenth beast so taken. Many a gallant hunt after boar 
and wolf, red-deer and wild cattle, must the old monks have enjoyed 
among the woods and crags of upper Wharfedale ! She also gave 
them the place called Stede, with all the land betwixt Poseford and 
Spectebek and the water of Wharfe and Walkesburn. The monks 
had a grange at Stede or Stead, which they rebuilt in 1318, after the 
destruction wrought by the Scots. In the compotus of the Priory 
for 1298-9 the grange of Stead is stated to have yielded this year 
one quarter and two bushels of corn at 4s. per quarter, and in the 
same year one Robert de Somerscales took the vaccary of Stede, 
with 17 cows, at an annual rent for each cow of four stones of cheese 
and two stones of butter. The place is not now existing, but is 
mentioned in the original grant of Bolton to the Earl of Cumberland 
in 1542, as situated at Storiths-in-Hazlewood.* Specte Beck is an 
interesting survival of the A.-S. specht, a woodpecker, whence Speight, 
which has this meaning in old English prose and poetry. The word 
in this sense is now obsolete, though it survives as a personal name 
chiefly in the West Riding of Yorkshire.f The old Ilkley family 
name of Heber (see page 245) is probably of similar origin, being 
derived from the A.-S. heber, a goat. 

There are also a number of early grants to the Canons of Bolton 
not cited by Burton, Dugdale, or Whitaker, among the Duke of 
Devonshire's archives at Bolton Abbey Many of these relate to 
Halton and Cononley. Amongst them is a grant by Richard de 
Pinkeney, of Halton: to the Canons of Bolton of two acres of land, 
with appurtenances, in Halton, to wit one selion upon Weyelands, 
one selion upon Oakelands, one selion upon Scelerumbergh, two selions 
upon Quikeman, as they lie for another half acre: and one acre which 
abuts upon the toft which Ralph formerly held of John de Eston, and 
afterwards of the aforesaid canons. This charter is witnessed by 

* Where, by the way, is the site described by Whitaker (1805) as being' in "a 
pasture at the south-east extremity of Barden, where is a considerable space of ground 
covered by old housesteads? A long tract resembling a street, stretching- from N.W. 
to S. K. has been levelled with much toil, and on ither side are vestiges of numerous 
enclosures, large and small. The lands adjoining, now covered with ling, bear evident 
marks of the plough." 

f " Speyhtt How" is also mentioned in the compotus of the Priory for 1298-9. 
Spect or Speig-ht Beck at Bolton must have been a favorite haunt of this bird a 
thousand years ag^o. 



297 

John (It- I'Ntoii, ( 'h.irlo Mauleverer, Robert ntor, ami otht t 

The same Richard de Pinkeney also gives to the canons, with his 
body, half an acre of land in Halton which extends beyond the west 
side of Hallehill. Witnessed by Richard del Hill, Thomas de Halton, 
Richard Dilloc, his brother, Walter, son of Helte de Estby, William 
Mauleverer, &c. He, the said Richard, also gave to the "Canons of 
Bowthelton," a rood of land at Cockelde, half a rood at Baxetorne, 
and half a rood at Harestones. Sybilla, daughter of William le 
Granger, of Halton, ceded to the canons all right and claim she had 
in four bovates of land in Halton, which formerly were of Peter de 
Carleton, her grandfather. Witnessed by Sir John le Vavasour, Sir 
Robert de Plumpton, Wm. Mauleverer of Beamsley, and Wm. de 
Aula of Skipton. Matilda, some time wife of Adam Faber (Smith) 
de Halton, ceded to the canons her right to a rood of arable land at 
Halton, which formerly belonged to Wm. de Hill of the same place. 
Witnessed by Sir Thos. de Haltaripa, Wm. de Malgh', (Malham), 
Richard Fauvel, and others. This Richard Fauvel married the heiress 
of Sir Helias de Rilleston, and was conjointly with Henry de 
Hertlington, lord of Rilston in 1315-16. A further Halton deed recites 
that one Richard Beche, (whose name occurs in the Bolton Abbey 
accounts for 1298), granted to Robert de Berden (a descendant, 
perhaps, of the Richard de Bardani, who witnesses a charter of 
about the time of the Conquest) and his heirs, a messuage with 
curtilage in the vill of Halton, which lies between the toft of Robert 
le Sauer on the south side and Halton Moor on the north. Witnessed 
by Thomas de Altaripa, Henry de Hertlington (ob. 1335), Wm. de 
Hebden, Knights, Henry de Kyghley de Appletrewyk, Robt. le Sauer 
de Halton, &c. Given at Halton on St. Mark's Day, 1316. The 
above Sir Wm. de Hebden who held the manor of Hebden, also 
witnesses several other deeds. In 1315 the Prior of Bolton was 
returned as lord of the manor of Halton-cum- Embsay. 

There are several interesting old houses at Halton, including 
Dyneley Manor and the White House, the latter inscribed R. B. 
1620, no doubt having been built by a Benson. There is also a neat 
Mission Room, the foundation stone of which was laid by Gilson 
Martin, Esq., of Edensor, July 3rd, 1891. Services are held in it 
weekly by the rector of Bolton. 

Hen- i-~ an interesting reference to the Old English open-field system, when the 
land was all in strips or "selions." The word is the same as the Norm-French sillon, 
a furrow, and very likely has its root in the Ang-Saxon selian, to give, grant, or bestow. 
These littlccultivated strips at Halton each about a rood in extent, scattered promiscuously 
about the unfenced field, are known as "lands" (when arable) and "dales" (when 
meadow), and the ridges that divide them as "balks." They appear to have been under 
different ownerships and according to Mr. Seebohm, the selion was the measure of a 
villein's day's ploughing between Easter and Pentecost ; the lands of the village 
commune being parcelled out in proportion to the oxen or other goods each holder 
furnished to the village plough-team. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 




BOLTON ABBEY : RECORDS OF EIGHT CENTURIES. 

Descent of the manor to the Cliffords Purchase of the lordships of Bolton &c. by 
Henry, Earl of Cumberland The Priory raided by the Scots Abstracts from and 
remarks upon the ancient Compotus of the Priory Death of the Lady Marg-aret 
Neville and the pomp of her funeral -The Nortons and the Catholic rebellion 
Notes from letters at Bolton Abbey Effects of the Dissolution Local notices of 
the Civil War Succession of the manor The Cavendish family Bolton Hall 
Armorial errors Cavendish Memorial Fountain The late Duke of Devonshire. 

N the last chapter I have told the story of the foundation 
of Bolton Priory from original records, and the reader 
who chooses to pass through the charming woods to 
the_Strid may now picture the "Boy of Egremond" as 
his fancy listeth. By the death of young Romille, 
(however it may have happened,) his sister Cecily inherited the great 
honour of Skipton, and she married (i) Alexander Fitz Gerin, by 
whom there was no issue, and (2) William le Gross, Earl of Albemarle, 
and lord of Holderness, who died in 1179. With the Albernarles the 
estates continued till the death without issue ca. 1280, of Aveline, 
Countess of Albemarle, widow of Edmund Crouchback, second son 
of Henry III., when the barony became vested in the Crown. Old 
Grose tells us that King Edward II. granted the honour and castle of 
Skipton to Robert, Lord Clifford, on condition that he should perform 
the same services to the Crown as the great Earls of Albemarle had 
done. Lord Clifford had already distinguished himself in the wars in 
Scotland, and it was he who signed the famous letter from Edward I. 
to Pope Boniface, claiming the seigniory of Scotland, by the title 
of Chatellain of Appleby. The grant of the fee of Skipton in 1309 
would appear to have been made to him for life, but in 1311 it was 
confirmed to him and his heirs in perpetuity, in exchange for military 
service and for certain lands of his inheritance in Monmouthshire. 
This Lord Clifford fell at Bannockburn in 1314, and was succeeded 
in the ownership of his dominions by a long line of illustrious men 
and women, whose descendants, through the marriage in 1608 of the 
last of the Cliffords, the famous Lady Anne, i4th lord of the honour 
of Skipton, wilh Sackville, Earl of Dorset, still own the Skipton 
estates in the person of Lord Hothfield. 

The noble owners of Bolton Abbey are, however, descended 
from Francis, Lord Clifford, fourth Earl of Cumberland, who succeeded 
in 1605 to tht Earldom on the death of his brother George, Lord 
Clifford, father (A the above Lady Anne. Henry, Lord Clifford, their 
grandfather, who was the first Earl of Cumberland, purchased the 



299 

\i>l)e\ estates .md other properties elsewhere lately l 
to the dissolved monasteries. In addition to the site of Bolton 
Priory, the purchase included the lordships of Bolton, Storiths, and 
Hazlewood, with the manors of Wigton, Brandon, Embsay, Eastby, 
part of Halton, Cononley, Rawdon, and Yeadon, and certain lands 
and tenements in Barwick and Draughton, Skipton, Long Preston, 
Gargrave, Steeton, Marton, Cracoe, Threshfield, and Harden; also 
the advowsons of the rectories of Keighley and Marton. The whole 
of this property was sold for the sum of ^2,490, equivalent to about 
,25,000 of present money. The license necessary for this important 
purchase is dated April 3rd, 1542, and within three weeks the Earl 
died, at the age of forty-nine, and was interred in the vault at Skipton, 
being the first of the Cliffords to find a sepulchre outside the 
dissolved Priory. His son Henry, the second Earl, made the most 
eminent matrimonial alliance that has ever taken place in Craven. 
He married, the noble and accomplished Lady Eleanor Brandon, 
daughter of Charles Duke of Suffolk by Mary, Queen Dowager of 
France, daughter of King Henry VII. The ceremony took place at 
Skipton Castle, the King himself being present with a distinguished 
company. 

The endowments of the Priory, or Abbey as it is now officially 
described,* consisted of lands, tenements, and hereditaments which, 
with exception of certain lands and houses in York, lay wholly 
within the province of the West Riding. The places where they 
were situate are the following : 

Alwoodley, Appletrewick, Arncliffe, Ayrton, Arnford, Bolton, Bradley, Brandon, 
Broughton (the church), Brydlath, Burley in Wharfedale (Scaleber), Coldcotes, Calton, 
Carleton (Skipton), Castley, Cowling', Cononley, Cracoe, Deepdalestall, Draughton, 
Embsay, Eastburn, Eastby, Farnhill, Gargrave, Gilduflat, Glusburn, Halthauit, Halton, 
Harewood, Ilaytefeld East, Holmeton, Hellifield, Holme, Keighley, Keswick 
(\Yetherby), Kettlewell, Kildwick, Killingbeck, Lofthouse, Malham, Marton, Middleton, 
N'ewhiggin, Newton, Penigsthorpe, Long Preston, Rawdon, Scosthrop, Seacroft, 
Silsdon, Siglesferne, Skibeden, Skipton, Staveley, Stede, Steeton, Stirk and Storth, 
Stirton, Threshfield, Wenteworth, Wceton, \\'hinfield, Wincrthley, \Vigglesworth, 
Wigdon, Yeadon and York. 

In addition the monks had the right of free chase within 
Romille's fee of Craven, and in 1257 they had granted free warren in 
Bolton, Kildwick, Stede, Riding, f Hou, Halcum, Malgrum, Seteches, 
Wykedon, Brandon, Wentworth, Strete and Ryther. Burton has 
calculated the annual income from the monks' estates, with the value 
of effects soldjn one year (1324) to be ^"444 175. 4d., but according 

* The difference between an Abbey and a Priory consisted in the higher rank of the 
former, the advowson and presentation of which belonged to the King, whilst in 
Priories proper they belonged to the founder and his successors. Also the English 
Abbots had seats in Parliament, and only heads of Priories were so privileged, who sat 
with the Bishops in the Upper House. 

f How Stede Riddyng and Storthes occurs in the Abbey accounts for 1298. 



300 

to the rental taken in i535,_five years before the Dissolution, the 
revenues only amounted to ^302 qs, 3d. The unsparing raids of 
the Highlanders after the English defeat at Bannockburn in 1314, 
told sorely upon their Craven lands ; houses, granges and churches 
were sacked, cattle carried off, and some places were utterly ruined. 
The Priory itself was pillaged and the inmates had to fly for their 
lives. There is a succession of mournful entries in the Priory 
accounts from 1317 to 1321. In 1319 is the entry: "No compotus 
this year because of the invasion of the Scots." Twenty years 
before this time peace and prosperity reigned over fell and field and 
hamlet and all Craven was contented and happy. The Abbey too 
was considerably enlarged and partly rebuilt. Never before had 
such an era of prosperity been known in the Yorkshire Dales, and 
not for more than two centuries afterwards was it recovered. In 
1299 at Bolton and the granges belonging to the house, the monks 
had a stock of 713 horned cattle, besides 2193 sheep, 95 pigs and 91 
goats, and they slaughtered in that year besides venison, fish and 
poultry, more than 300 head of cattle, sheep and pigs. In this same 
year (1299) the annual income from their possessions reached the 
handsome total of ^865, which fell to nearly one-third of this amount 
at the Dissolution of the monastery in 1539-40. The number of 
servants was also proportionately reduced, and the old monastery 
shewed all the signs of decline. 

The accounts of the monastery during eventful years of its 
history are contained in a manuscript compotus extending from the 
year 1290 to 1325, and as no translation of these has appeared, a 
few of the more interesting items may be given. The expenses of 
the kitchen shewed that the monks lived well and dispensed their 
hospitality in no mean manner. In 1298 they spent ,11 6s. id. in 
salt meat, bought at Clithorp. Can this be Cleethorpe, which, 
though a modern watering-place, is a very old village in the Saxon 
parish of Clee. Co. Lincoln ? For fish bought at Appleton they paid 
4. 135. 4d., and for fish bought at St. Botolph's ^4 8s. 4d. This 
can be none other than Boston in Lincolnshire, so I conclude it was 
at Cleethorpe they purchased salt-fish. They consumed eggs by the 
thousand, and in 1298 paid 2is. 2d. for supplies of this comestible; 
also 425. for 18 quarters of salt. They liked their meats well salted, 
and seasoned, and paid 55. for pepper, saffron and oil and other 
spices in the same year. High seasoning provokes thirst, and we 
have accordingly some entries of amounts paid for liquor to appease 
it, including ^7 155. i id. paid for three pipes of wine, and the carriage 
of it. The pipe may be reckoned at 126 gallons. Of ale they brewed 
immense stores. For hawks, hens, and goats, they paid in 1298, 
195. 2d. In this year they distributed in alms 32^ quarters of fine 
wheat, barley, and meal. The rich old monastery was a hospice of 
charity ; no one wanted, not even a dog. Fifty-five quarters of meal 



3 oi 

used in food for the buck-hounds and wolf-hounds and all the 
other dogs in the service of the monastery this same year , while 
the horses within the Cure and without consumed 333 quarters, 5 
bushels. The monks had some grand animals. They paid some 
times as much as 10 for a horse in the I3th-i4th century, quite 
,150 of our money. Next we find i8s. 6d. paid for mowing the 
meadows at Bolton, and 418. 4d. for thrashing corn at Bolton, and 
355. id. for thrashing and mowing at Otley. Harvesting the monks' 
meadows in Wharfedale was an extraordinary event ; men and 
women coming into the district to assist on "harvest-day" from all 
the villages for many miles round. Every farm sent its man, who 
carried a bow or sword which he laid beside him in the field where 
he worked. The monks preferred to have all their corn cut and 
stacked in a single day, and the accounts shew that sometimes as 
many as 1000 men were engaged to reap at Bolton for one day, 
each receiving 2d., while some 300 boon-reapers (tenants who owed 
service to the monks) got each by custom a half-penny for food. 
Contrast this with four centuries later when in 1716 I find men 
haymakers at Bolton received 8d. a day and women 6d. 

The strips and reins of old corn-lands can still be discerned in 
the grass pastures about the Abbey. They kept blacksmiths to 
make and mend the ploughs and shoe the horses and perhaps the 
oxen. Oxen were always preferred on the roads. Where, pray, was 
the old smithy in 1294? In that year ics. was paid for sea-coal for 
the forge, which is probably the earliest reference to the use of coal 
in Yorkshire, though in Shropshire, Walter de Clifford I find obtained 
a licence to dig coals within the Forest of La Clie in 1263. In 1306 
the use of coal was publicly prohibited. In 1298 the monks again 
spent lys. in sea-coal for burning lime. Lime obtained from river 
pebbles was burnt here for mortar used in the building of Skipton 
Castle (which stands on limestone rock) soon after the Conquest. 
Doubtless before the Normans came all the buildings in this forest-land 
were of wood. The next items in 1298 I will quote, relate to the 
expenses of the sheep &c., the monks being large sheep-farmers, and 

not only the flesh but the milk as well : 

For oil, soap and fat, bought for anointing- the sheep ^"4 10 7 

For quicksilver and green paint bought at York ... 1211 

For 34 Ibs. of green paint and 12 Ibs. of quicksilver, bought at St. 

Botolph's [Boston Fair, Lincolnshire] ... ... ... ... i 12 o 

For hay bought at Unkethorpe [Marton] 096 

Milk for the lambs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... o 19 i 

For washing, shearing, " barmeclathes," and for women milking 

the sheep... ... . . ... ... ... ... ... ... o is -' 

For fat and cotton for making candles ... ... ... ... ... o 17 i 

Adam de Elshow takes the vaccary of Howe with 19 cows, and is 

bound to answer for each cow 4 stones of cheese and 2 stones 

nt I Hitter ; for a stone of cheese ^d. and for a stone of butter 8d. 



302 

In this year 1298 is an entry of i6s. equal to at least ^15 of 
our money, spent on gold and colour for painting and illuminating a 
missal. What a sumptuous tome this must have been, upon which 
all the skill and love of the artist in his work were expended. It wa^ 
within the storied walls of these old monasteries that most of .the 
eminent artists and men of letters of that time were educated and 
trained. Learning there received its greatest encouragement, and 
where one was always sure of finding the largest and best collections 
of books 

" Golden volumes ! richest treasures ! 
Objects of delicious pleasures." 

were these old monastic books. In many of our abbeys are certain 
rooms and small closets, which we sometimes find marked on 
ground-plans and described as "use unknown," which may often 
safely be put down as the receptacles of rare books and manuscripts, 
including original charters and grants to the religious holding them. 
In 1310 for example the canons paid 6s. for a book called "The 
Truths of Theology," and we may be sure such an expensive book 
would be carefully closeted when not in use. 

Other interesting items may be mentioned, such for example as 
the sum of ys. 6d. expense incurred by the King's esquire coming to 
the Abbey in 1300 in order to collect wains for the expedition 
against the Scots. This was the beginning of the trouble I have 
mentioned on page 205. Then we have an entry in 1300 of an 
exceptional kind, namely for expenses of the Prior journeying through 
England to the Court of Rome in order to obtain a bull for 
Appletrewick, that manor having just been purchased by the monks. 
The journey out and home cost about ^34 13$., or about ^500 
according to the present standard, shewing with what state and 
circumstance the head of the monastery travelled. In the same 
year presents to the value of 6 13$. qd. were made to the Lord 
Archbishop of York at his enthronization. In 1303-4 Hayne, the 
King's porter receives 6s. 8d. for delivering the wains in Scotland. 
The same year the Archbishop's clerks receive sos. for writing the 
charter of appropriation of the Church of Long Preston ; also the 
clerks of the Chapter of York get 405. for writing the same charter 
and confirmation of the church of Carlton. In 1306 a gift of 6s. 8d. 
is received from Everard Fauvel for the glass window in the chancel 
of Skipton Church. At the same time 648. 8d. was disbursed for 
the building and reparation of the choir of Skipton Church, and the 
window lattices were put up in 1307. 

In the same year 2s. 6d. is paid for a feather-bed, a luxury 
indeed, considering that even so late as the Reformation most people 
slept on hay or straw or rushes. No doubt it was for the Lord Prior, 
as in this year 345. 6d. is spent on his private chamber, besides 
something for benches and cushions, and a bell to summon his 



33 

attendants. Next year he had a severe illness and a physician was 
to summon, probably from York, who sent in a bill for 40$. 

In 1307 the tolls of Embsay Fair amounted to 8 ios., equal 
to about ^120 of our standard. This upholds what I have contended 
in the last chapter on the paramount importance of Embsay. St. 
Cuthbert's "Wake" was still kept up, and must have been one of 
the greatest and merriest gatherings Craven has ever known. Even 
the tolls of a weekly market at Skipton with two fairs in the year 
only yielded ;i6 138. 4d., and after the dissolution of monasteries 
did not bring so much as this. Robert; Lord Clifford, mentioned in 
the early part of this chapter, had at this time begun the extension 
and rebuilding of Skipton Castle, a great and costly undertaking. 
He was Earl Marshall of England, and one of the most powerful 
nobles then living. The monks sought to gain the favor of him and 
his lady by presents of jewels which necessitated a dip into the 
monastic coffers to the extent of ^5 8s. 8d. Again in 1312 they 
spent i5s. 3d. on a magnificent candle presented to Lady Clifford on 
the day of her purification, probably after the birth of her only 
"laughter, Idonea, who married Henry, Lord Percy. In 1313 two 
swans sent to the Earl of Lancaster cost the establishment i6s. 2d. 

In 1317 the Prior of Bolton was summoned to Parliament and 
his attendance incurred an expenditure of 26s. 8d. Next year he rode 
in state to York in order to be present at the enthronization of 
Archbishop Melton, a visit that cost the Priory 2 3*. 8d. The 
wealthy and pious Lady Margaret Neville was a benefactress to the 
Priory, and in 1318 there is a present to her from the monks of what 
must have been a very handsome silver-mounted saddle and trappings 
which cost the house iocs., about ^70 present currency. She was 
the daughter and sole heiress of Sir John de Longvillers, and married 
Geoffrey, brother to Robert, Lord Neville of Raby Castle. Her 
husband dying in 1284, it would appear from the Abbey annals, she 
had retired to this neighbourhood, residing either at Neville Hall, 
Gargrave, or at Cononley Hall, to which latter mansion there was a 
private chapel attached. In Kirkby's Inquest she appears as a large 
landowner at Cleckheaton in the Spen Valley, and by inquisition 
taken in 1319 she was declared possessed (as co-owner) of the manor 
of Gargrave and had estates in other places. Her family were lords 
of Hornby co. Lancaster, and her son, Sir John Neville, succeeded to 
Hornby manor and castle. When she died in 1318 there was a great 
state funeral, attended probably by not fewer than 1200 persons. 
The monks made ample provision for the funeral repast, and a very 
impressive service must have been witnessed at the interment within 
the old Abbey choir.* 

* The Bolton Abbey registers for 1698 contain the burial entry on March i7th of 
Ann Snowden, as interred within the choir ruin--. She was no doubt a relative of the 
ruratt'-in-ohargv, the Rev. Ja*. Snowden. 



When after the suppression of the monastery* a revolt took 
place, Sir John Neville, was one of its staunchest abettors, and was 
amongst those indicted in 1569- for high treason by the Protestant 
Queen Elizabeth. The Tempests, Malhams and Nortons were also 
in this rebellion. The story of the Nortons of Rilston has been told 
in stirring verse by Wordsworth in the White Doe of Rilston, but how 
many or which of the "eight good sons" of old Richard Norton 
perished by the headsman's axe, or where or in what manner they 
died, does not appear to be accurately known. The account given 
by Dr. John Story in 1571 must however be relied on, that he 
conversed with Richard and Francis Norton in Flanders, some time 
after the rebellion. His statement I find confirmed in the Calendar 
of State Papers for 1570 wherein is a letter written by Francis Norton 
from Antwerp to Lord Burleigh craving his intervention with the 
Queen for a general pardon. The records at Bolton Abbey shew 
that one of Norton's servants, Richard Kitchen, butler in his 
household, was taken and publicly executed at Ripon for joining his 
master in the rebellion. This Robert Kitchen I take to be a son of 
the Robert Kitchen, the old park-keeper of the Cliffords who gave 
evidence in the famous dispute between the Cliffords and Nortons as 
to the bounds &c. of their respective deer-parks in 1560. Their 
descendants are in Skipton yet. 

There are many interesting letters among the manuscripts at 
Bolton Abbey referring to this eventful time. One dated 1559 is 
written to the Earl of Cumberland stating that precautions are being 
taken against the threatened insurrection, and that the Master of the 
Armory has been solicited to supply certain corselets and pikes, the 
corselets at 3o/- a-piece and the pikes at 2/-, hagbuts can be supplied 
at 8/-, curryers at i6s. 8d., and bills at i6s., but gauntlets cannot be 
had " for friendship or money." The dissolution brought about 
widespread famine and misery, which saw no abatement until the 
new Poor Law was inaugurated by the Parliament of Queen Elizabeth. 
Large numbers took to false coining &c., and the prisons almost 
everywhere were full. Many, these letters tell us. died in the roads 
from sheer want. There is a draft of a letter apparently written by 
Lord Clifford and dated 1604 which presents a horrible picture of an 
infectious disease that was then raging in the north. Scores, if not 
hundreds, of false coiners, wanderers, and strolling players were in 
prison at that time, and in a reference to Newcastle we are told the 
goal there is " so weak and noisome most of the notorious prisoners 
had escaped and some had died." Such as were able were dragged 
from these foul cells and brought to the bar ; two we are informed 
died on the way, while some poor fallen creatures at Newcastle and 

* A list of the Priors of Embsay and Bolton from A.D. 1120 to the Dissolution, has 
been furnished by Mr. Baildon in the Record Series of the Yorkshire Archl. Sooy. 



Carlisle " fell down speechless before us while tl on trial/' 

The state of tiling was so bad that mere punishment by confinement 
in the sickening dungeons of the time accelerated rather than 
mended the gathering distress, and Lord Clifford boldly asked ^100 
from the King out of the forfeited recognizances for the sole purposes 
of charity. In 1625 there was another virulent outbreak of the 
plague in Newcastle and other places, and in this year appears a 
letter signed by a number of gentry excusing themselves from lending 
money to the King. A letter of the same year relates to the 
disarming of Papists, except nobility and peers whom his Majesty- 
deals with. 

I have before alluded to the effect which the Civil War had 
upon Wharfedale ; of the local preparations made and of the men 
who took part in it. There is a letter among the Bolton muniments 
dated July 3ist 1638, written by the Earl of Arundel to Henry, Lord 
Clifford, the last Earl of Cumberland, which has a local bearing on 
this great strife. The writer makes a humble suggestion, which read 
in these modern days of big gun factories may excite a smile : 

I think it not amiss if your Lordship by your example would invite the nobility and 
gentry of the North to set on with country smiths to make plain pit-res and pistols, 
with rests for musket--, and such like, and though they be but homely work, they may 
stand in good steade ; lead can not want so near Derbyshire, and his Majesty is careful 
to send some good proporcion of powder to Hull shortly. 

There is a tradition in the neighbourhood that before the fatal 
battle of Marston in 1044. I'rim e Rupert came through Skipton with 
his army and camped in a. field of growing corn at Bolton. The 
tradition is fully warranted by the fact that in the Clifford family 
accounts is an entry of an allowance made to the farmer for the royal 
trespass. It is this: 

Bolton, \2 July, 1044. Agreed with Richard Barnvis, tor all that piece of ground 
at Bolton called Hambilton, as it now putteth out to be eaten and foiled by the Prince's 
horse as they passed through this countrv &<-. 20 

The above Lord Clifford did not live to see the end of the war. 
but died at York in December. 1^43, and was interred at Skipton 
"amidst the roar of arms" whilst his castle was being held for the 
king. The Skipton registers contain an entry of the burial of his 
daughter, Lady Frances Clifford in the May previous, at the age of 
seventeen. His only other child and heiress, Lady Elizabeth Clifford, 
married in 1635 Richard Boyle, second Earl of Cork and first Earl of 
Burlington, who died in 1697. It was the Hon. Robert Boyle, 
cousin to Charles the succeeding Earl of Burlington, owner of the 
Bolton Abbey estates, who founded the Boyle School near the Abbey 
in 1700. A new school was erected at Beamsley in 1874, and the 
picturesque old building, with its armorial shield of Boyle, and 
inscription over the porch, is now the rectory. 

The family terminated in an heiress. Charlotte Elizabeth, onlv 
surviving daughter uf Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork, who died in 1754. 



306 

She married in 1748 William Cavendish, fourth Duke of Devonshire, 
with whose descendants the Bolton Abbey estates still remain. 
There are, however, some important errors in this part of the pedigree 
shewing the descent of the Barony of Clifford in Whitaker's Craven, 
which the subjoined draught will correct. It is also brought down 
to the present time. 

Bolton Hall,, the annual resort during the shooting-season of the 
Duke of Devonshire and party, faces the west front of the Abbey. 
The square central tower of the Hall is the ancient gateway of the 
Abbey, in the upper room of which the greater part of the monastic 
records were kept. This interesting remnant of the old Priory is 
pictured by Landseer in his famous painting of "Bolton Abbey in 
the Olden Time," the original of which is at Chatsvvorth House. 
The two large arches have been walled up and suitable additions 
made for residential purposes. What was the covered gateway is 
now a large dining-hall, and on the left is a drawing-room which 
contains some interesting Clifford family portraits. The restoration 
into a residence was probably carried out by the third Earl of 
Burlington (1695-1753) the builder of Farrield Hall, before mentioned, 
whose monogram surmounted by an Earl's coronet, appears over the 
door of this apartment. On the fireplace and cornice there is an 
incorrect emblazonment of the arms of the Priory, which should be 
gules, a cross patonce, ratre (not or) argent and azure. There is also 
another heraldic error in the arms shewn on the Cavendish Memorial 
Fountain. The shield bearing three bucks' heads cabossed 
(Cavendish), empaling chequy, or and azure, a fess gules (Clifford) is 
an impossible conjunction, for no such marriage took place. The 
Clifford heiress married a Boyle, as stated above, and it was the 
heiress of the third Earl of Burlington (Lady Charlotte Boyle) who 
married the fourth Duke of Devonshire, as shewn in the annexed 
pedigree. Their arms, Cavendish empaling Boyle (per bend 
embattled), are correctly represented on one of the two shields facing 
the road, but the one intended no doubt to shew the descent of 
Cavendish from the Cliffords ought properly to have been Boyle, 
empaling Clifford. The Fountain is a very handsome memorial to 
the late Lord Frederick Cavendish, and was erected in 1886 by public 
subscription of the electors in the West Riding of Yorkshire; of 
which he was a Parliamentary representative at the time of his death. 
There is also a very beautiful stone cross in the vicinity of the 
Abbey raised to his memory, which bears an inscritipon reciting the 
painful circumstances of his death on May 6th, 1882. 

Of Lord Frederick it may be affirmed that he perished while 
serving the interests of the best governed country on earth. To the 
enduring honour of his family, be it also said, there are few of our 
noble houses that have rendered such signal and self-sacrificing 
services to this great English State. Proceeding from the high 



Pedigree of Cauendish 



^^M% 

. \KMS .Sti/ilr, three buiks' heads < 
<i/thrd, or. 
CKKST Ori'i-ii cnnvn ct serpent >nw 
SrrroKi KKS -7n'<> lutcks, />/:, rnch 
thf neck n'if/i a rhaf>U't <>f 
atyr. and <r. . 




William Cavendish, Charlotte Klix 
4th Duke ol Devonshire, K.(J. d. and heii" ol 
H. 1720. M. 1748 the estates at 
Prime Minister, 17^6-7. Chis\vick, co. 
D. 1764. liunl. at All Si-., ( 
Derby 


William, ( i) (Jcorj^iana, d. ol John, Karl l\i< 
<'d, M>: 5th Duke of Spencer. M. 1774. D. f8o6. I), in 
-^'ira/lii'd niiiiid Devonshire, K.(i. (2) Lady Kli/abeth Foster, in 
ntxt'S itltcniatflr B. >~J4^- ' * 1811. widow of John Thos. l-'oster, 
Hurd. at All Sts., Ksq., ami d. of the 4th Karl of 
Derby Bristol. M. 1809. D. 1824 


Creorgiana Henrietta 
Dorothy, ck!. d. Kli/abeth, 
15. 1783.' I). 1858 !',. 17*5. D. 1862 
md. George, 6th nul. (iranville, 
Karl of Carlisle. is( Fa rl ( Iranyillr 
H. 1773. I). 1848 H. 1773. D. 1846 






Will. Spencer, 
6th Duke of NVilliam 
Devonshire H. 1783 
H. 1790 Killed 1812 
I), unnid. 1858 by being 
lid. at Kdensor thrown out 
of a dog" cart 
at Holker 


Louisa, d. <>f George HenryCompton Sarah, 
Cornelius, 13.1784. D.immd in 1809 co-hcii 
ist Lord Drowned on the passage Auj^. 

Lismore home from Corunna ; I''-(|. 
D. 1863 the transport being 1). iSi 
Hurd. at wrecked on the Manacle i son _> 
Kdensor Rocks jn Cornwall 

(leor^e Henry Richard 
md. Louisa, d. B. 1812 
ol Henrv, D.unnul 
2iul Karl of '^Ti 
I larewoi >d 
D. 1880 
1 1 is widow 
d. 1 880. Had 
issue, 4 sons 
and2 daughters 
of whom only i 
son and 2 
daughters now 
survive, (1900) 


William Blanche 
2nd Earl of (ieor^iana 
Burlington, d. ol' 
7th Duke of Ceortfe, 
Devon- 6th Karl ol 
shire, K.(i. Carlisle 
B. 1808 md. 1829 
D. 1891 D. 1840 
Hurd at Hurd. at 
Ktlensor Streatham 
moved to 
Edensor 
Jan. 1892 



William, Spencer Compton, Countess Louise Fredcrica Kredk. C'harles Lucv Caroline, 



Lord Marquis of Harting- Auguste, d. of C'liarie- 
Cavendish ton, 8th Duke of Count von Allen, of Hanover 
Ide-t son Devonshire, K.G. 

B. 1831 B. 1833. M. 1892 

I ). 1834 I V.v. 1900 



and widow of William, 

yth Duke of Manchester 

l'i.\: 1900 



B. 1836. 

Assassd. in 

Pluvnix Park, 

Dublin, 1882 
Bd. at l-'.densor 



d. of 
Wm., 4th Loi 
Lyttelton, 
md. 1864 



Kdward 
B. 1838 
D. 1891 
liurd. at 
Kden-or 




Victor Christian Wm. Lady Evelyn Fitzmaurice, Richd. Fredk. Lady Moyra de \'ere John Spencer 

B. i8(>8 " d. ,,'f the 5th B. 1871 Beauclerk, d. of the " li- '75 

M. 1892 Marquis of Lansdowne M. 1895 roth I )uke of St. Albans Lieut, ist Life Chiarils 



Kdward William Spencer Maude Louisa ICmma Blanche 
B. 1895 B. 1896 B. 1898 



l-lli/abeth 
B. 1897 



William Francis Kgerton -Lady Alice Susan Frederick Greville Egerton, Lieut. R.N. 

B. 1868 

Late of 1 7th Lancers 
M. 1894 



Francis 
B. 1896 



B. 1869. Served with the Naval Brigade 

Osborne, d. of the of H.M.S. Powerful at Lady-mith, Natal, 
gth Dukeof Leeds where he died on 3 Nov., 1899, of wounds 
received the previous day, and was that 
same day promoted to the rank of 
Commander 



Blanche 
I larriet 



Dorothy 

Charlotte 



Chri 
Mi 



Mike of Devonshire. 

le ( Barone ( 'I i fiord in her oxvn right ), 
-hard, vd Karl of Burlington. She brought 
lion Abbey and I .onde-borough, co. York, 
die-ex, and Li-more, co. \Vaierlord into the 
idi-h familv. B. i7.;i. D. 1754 

leorge Augu-lu- Henry Klixabeth, d. and h. of Charles. Dorot 
>. 1754. Created F.arl of Karl of Northampton, xvho D. 171 

Burlington and Baron brought Compion Place, near 
fax cndi-h ol Keighley, Ka-tbonrne, and e-tates in 

18^1. I). ,S;i Sussex and Somersetshire in the 

Cavendish family. I). |8^ 

Henry Frederick Compion Frances Susan, widow of the Hon. CliarU-- C. 



| I!. Speight'- //>/>,/ \\'li,ii->,;/,it, 
In tare page 307.] 



Doroihy \V 



Vni. I li-nr\ < 'a\ endi-h 
3rd Duke of Portland 

H. 17-^8. M. \- l <> 
('I'wicc I'rinic .Minister) 



i. and 

\Vm. 

kener, 

. 1 8 1 1 . 

caving 
ghter- 



( M-neral in the Armv. B. 178 

M.P. lor Derby 
(Scrvi d in the Peninsula War, 

xvounded at Corunna) 
D. 187-;. Burd. at Fastbournc 
Had i--ue by both marriages 



Fredk. John Howard, who xxa- 
ki lied a I Waterloo, -on of I-' rede rick 
5th Karl of Carli-le, and brother to 

(icorge, dlh Karl (.v<r opposite) 
D. 1840, leaving i -urx i\ ing son bx- 
her 1-1 husband, ^ survix-ing -oti- 

and t dan. by her jnd husband 



Cliarle- C. 


Anne 


( 'aniline 


voungc-i 


m. Lord 


IX num. 


-on.B. I7<,-; 


Charles 


1867 


created in 


Fitz- 




1858 Baron 


Rox 




Che-ham. 






Married .V 






lell is-ue 







Fanny 

"I- i-V,7 
I). |S,S 5 
,--((1 7(1, at 
'ompton 
Place, 
Slls- e\. 

iurd. at 

den-nr. 
is--ue 
ons anil .; 



1'icdei'ick John (.'ol. \\'illiani Henry l-'redei'ii k, of \\'est Stoke, Sussex. Lady Kmily A. l.anibton 
-...i Major the H. 1X17. I). i.s.Si. Groom-in-Waiting to H.M. The d. of the ist Earlof Dur- 

llon. !'. Ouecn. Served in the 5and Oxfordshire Light Infantry, ham, by Lady Louisa 

Howard, by and afterwards commanded ihe 2nd Derbyshire Militia Elixaheth, his j n d \\i| r , 

Frances Susan (Chatsworth Rilles). He inherited estates under the will 

l.anibton, who of his grandfather, the Earl of Burlington, at Appletre- 

nid. jiidly ( Ii-n. wick, Hawnby, Hilton, and lni;-l)irchwortli, co. York, 

Ily. I-', ('omp- and at Oiler-en, Heard, and elsewhere in co. IVrln. 
ton Cavendish which lie sold -onie years before his death. 

(s oppo-ke) Burd. at I'ideii.-or 



eldest d. of Charles, 

_'lld I'iai'l ( Jrey. K.(i. 

Prime Minister i.S^o-v) 

D. iSSd 



Henry Fredk. Compton, Cecil Charles. I',. 1X55. S|)encer I-'. 



late Lieut 


i 
. R..N. 


Major 74th 1 lighlan'd 


(Jeorge 


B. 1854. Md 


1888 Lady 


Light Infantry. Md. 


1 > . w O 


1 larriet < >-bor 


le, d. of the 


1890, Maud Henrietta, 


late ( 'apt. 


1 hike of Leeds 


I la- issue 


d. ofCol. (i.T. Halliday 


Shropshire 






1 la- i lie 


I.. Infantry 



Kditli Sarah l-Ilixabelh, d. 187 

Alice Beatrice, d. 1857 
Mabel Beatrix Caroline, 

d. i.Sdi 

F.velyn Fmily (ieort^iana, 
d. i.si 




ouisa Blanche 

1 loxx-ard 

elde-l dan. 

md. i.Xd<) 

I). 1871 



Arthur \V. de B. Sa\-ile l-'oljambe 

B. 1870. ('apt. 4th Bait. Rifle 

Brigade. A. IXC. to Lord Lieut. 

of Ireland, and was appointed by 

H.M. The Oueen M.V.O., 

April, iqoo 



( Veil d. Sax il<-, Lord 

I laxx ke-bury, Lieut. 

R.N. retired. M.P.for 

North Noit-, 1880-5 ; 

M.P. for Mansfield 

Divi-ii in of Not!-, 

in-Waiting to H.M. 
The Oueen, 1804-5 

Annette Frederick 

Louise, C. S. 

only dan. Foljambc 

of the 5th B. and I). 
Vi-count 1871 

Monck. 

M. ,897 



Susan Louisa Cavendi-h 

eldest daughter, 

md. 1X77 



(ieraldNV. I . 

S. |-"ol;ambe. 

B. 1871. 

Lieut, i-t 

Battn. (4,vd) 

( )xlord-hire 

I.. Infantry 

is now 

serving n 

South Africa 

1900 



[osceline 

C. \V. S. 

Foljambe, 

b. i88j. 

Robert A. I-!. 

St. A. S. 

Foljambe, 

b." 1887. 

Bertram 

M. ( ). S. 

Foljambe. 

b. 1891. 

X'ictor Alex. 

Ce<-il Savile, 

b. 1805, to 

whom H.M. 

The Oueen 

stood sponsor 



F.dith Mai^uel 

Fmilv Marx- 
Alice Klheldreda 
Ceor^'iana Marx 

Mabel Fxclxn 
Selina Mary 

Mai't;-aret Susan 

Louisa Mary, 

died 1884" 

Constance 

Blanche Alethca 

Mary 

Rosamond Sylvia 

Diana Marx 

Foljambe 



37 

standard of the doughty Cliffords, with all their noble alliances, the 
very fountains of English history, the lustre of the family tradition* 
has not grown dimmer with advancing time. Indeed, the house of 
Cavendish has made and continues to make our history, whether in 
the ripe and peaceful scholarship of the late Duke, or in the busy 
political life of his famous sons, or as events in the recent Transvaal 
war have shewn, her children go forth at the Nation's call and dare 







THE LATE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE. 

to die at the post of duty,* their actions are ever in the fore-page 
of honour, bound up with "our rough island story." Nay, honour, 
integrity, and eminent public service are writ down the long family 
record, even from the days of the renowned Sir William Cavendish, 

" I allude, ot course, to the unflinching- heroism of young Lieut. Kgerton, who fell 
a victim to the enemy's shell?, while g-allantly commanding hi- Naval Hatti-ry at 
T.adysmith early in November, 180x5. 



3 o8 

Privy Councillor to King Henry VIII. to these of the present noble 
head of the house whose lot it is to guide our Nation's destinies. 

The late Duke was himself a man of exceptional parts, though 
his simple habits and retiring disposition rather ill suited him for 
public life. He was a student all his life. At Cambridge he carried 
all before him and was the leading scholar of his College. In 1829, 
at the age of twenty-one, he graduated M.A. as Second Wrangler 




and Smith's Prizeman, and in 1834, the year of his elevation to the 
peerage, he took his LL.D. From 1836 to 1856 he held the 
Chancellorship of the University of London, and in 1861 he succeeded 
the late Prince Consort as Chancellor of Cambridge University, and 
this position he continued to hold until his death. In 1829 he was 
chosen to represent the University in the House of Commons. Two 
years later he was rejected by the University, but was elected for 



3<>9 

Malton, and from 1832 until his succession to the prrra^r as Karl of 
Burlington in 1834, he sat for North Derbyshire. 

At Bolton Abbey he was a regular and familiar visitor, though 
he regarded Hollu-r Hall, by the quiet shores of Morecambe Bay, as 
his regular home. He was known as "the good Duke," and as a 
landlord he may be said to have been an almost ideal one. His 
extensive estates, in eleven English counties and in two in Ireland, 
though always managed by capable and experienced stewards, were 
under his own personal supervision, and he was always desirous of 
keeping himself in touch with all the more important matters 
concerning them. Rents, which have been generally low, have 
rarely been interfered with, and he spent his money very freely in 
improvements, doing practically everything that a tenant required. 

There is, however, another side to this part of our subject. 
Tenants we know are always complaining; there is always something 
needed, some addition, alteration, or something to repair, which 
even the most generous of landlords cannot always accede to. I 
remember hearing a rather amusing story apropos of this, shewing 
how at least one Bolton tenant worked round a difficulty. It appears 
that the Duchess of Devonshire was once staying at the Hall, when 
one day she met a tenant, who ventured to complain to her of the 
bad condition of his house. " Dear me," said her Grace, " you 

should complain to Mr. (the steward)." The man replied that 

he had already done so, but to no purpose. " Then I will mention 
your case to the Duke," continued her Grace, blandly. " Ah, my 
lady," observed the tenant, " the Duke is in the steward's hands, and 
won't do anything." " Then," said the Duchess firmly, " I will 
punish them both by ordering a new house to be built for you." 
And the good lady kept her word for the house in due time was 
built ! 

Of the present noble owner of Bolton, it need only be said he 
more than upholds the traditions of his family in all that appertains 
to the welfare of our hearths and homes. His life has been largely 
spent amid the strife of politics, having been a Member of Parliament 
since the age of twenty-three, when in 1857 he was returned for 
North Lancashire. His unbounded generosity in throwing open the 
private estate of Bolton Woods is only one of many instances of a 
manifest regard for the health and pleasure of the English people. 
Though more than once has the threat of closing this charming 
domain been necessary, it is however, devoutly to be hoped that 
the annoyances caused by the few will diminish, and that the 
thousands of young and old, of hale and sick, who annually benefit 
bv a visit to the beautiful historic Abbey and Woods may continue 
to enjoy the freedom of the place as before. 

Now that the railway has been brought within a mile of the 
Abbey, without in any way interfering with the charm of its isolation, 



310 

and facilities are offered by means of cheap tickets for visiting the 
place, even the lowliest denizens of such smoke-palled cities as Leeds 
and Bradford, may for a comparatively trifling outlay enjoy something 
of the grandeur of Nature, and feel all the better for communion 
however short, with some of the noblest achievements of man. 

Of course it is not everyone among the crowds of admiring 
visitors who looks upon the scene with an artist's eye or a poet's 
thoughts. For example, I heard quite recently of a couple of working 
women from a West Riding town, who were observed gazing intently 
upon the beautiful and expansive surroundings of the old Abbey. 
Said one of them after a few minutes pause : " Hah dus ta like it, 
Peggy?" "Aye," responded Peggy with apparent unconcern, "it's 
all reight, ye knaw, bud what a grand spot for hingin' aht clooathes ! " 




WEST DOORWAY' BOLTON ABBEY. 




CHAPTER XXIV. 



DESCRIPTION OF THK ABBEY. 

A neglected approach to the Abbey A Pilgrim'-; Cross Beauty of th' I hi- 

I'net Laureate's observations The ruined choir Norman sculptured stones 
"Sermons in Mom:--" Additions in the i^ih century -The parish church 
Architectural description The Beamsley Hall chapel Vault tor upright buriaN 
Sealed altar Other relics The tower &c. -The Priorv oven Local discoveries 
A pilgrim's statue. 

A river journeyeth past its ancient wall-, 
Whereon hoar ivy thrives and night-owls build ; 
It's only chant is now a waterfall'-, 
Which swells and falls, and -well- a- it i- tilled 
With music from the hills. The cuckoo calls 
Throughout moist May. When August woods are stilled 
In sleepy sultriness the stock-dove brood- 
Low to itself. The rest is solitude's. Alfred Austin. 

UCH is the poet-laureate's faithful description of the 
surroundings of Bolton Priory, and to realise the 
charm of its situation to the utmost I recommend the 
approach from Embsay (the site of the original Priory), 
by the ancient moorland road traversed by monk and 
pilgrim. in the heydays of the monastery. The road goes by the head 
of the romantic Cat Gill, and then rises to the well-known Pilgrim's 
Cross, the socket of which I am glad to say is still there, and the 
sight of which stirs up memories of other days. Even as a lad as I 
passed this way I would fancy the Priory in its golden prime, the 
convent herds browsing in field and fell, the sound of its bells in the 
summer air, the far-travelled pilgrim with staff in hand, pausing to 
repeat an Ave Marie by this time-hallowed way-mark; then as I rose 
to the summit of the open road the dear old valley, stored with 
memories of childhood's happiest hours, gleamed even as a vision of 
Paradise on the rapt senses ! Chequered with sunlight and cloud- 
shadow, even as our own earthly career, rose the wide spaces of 
moorland, with peaceful embowering woodland and many an ancestral 
homestead in the sheltered meadows below. Well might memory 
revive at so fair a scene. In the words of Craven's greatest living 
poet, William Joseph Gomersall, I might say: 

How oft when autumn tints thy wood, 

In dreams I climb thy greenest hill, 
\nd gaze upon thy golden flood, 

And wish myself thy nursling still. 

Every lane and wayside in those days was a veritable nosegay of 
unmolested beautv. Primroses covered every hedgerow, and the 



3 I2 

woods and lanes were massed with almost every kind of bright or 
fragrant posy. The rest indeed was solitude's, as the laureate hath 
truly phrased it. And in the midst of all this quiet loveliness, a 
loveliness in truth unmatched within the four shores of our island, 
stand the crumbling remains of the stately old Priory I have now 
to describe. 

Let us cross the greensward and first step into the ruined choir 
for it is here where the oldest work is seen. And rare suggestive 
work it is too ! Gaze on that noble east window, which must have 
been one of the glories of England ; likewise on that interlaced 
arcading above the monks' stalls, which marks the transitional move 
from the round-arched Norman to the Early Pointed style. Even if 
we could shew no charter, the design fixes the date (1140-1160) as 
permanently and as surely as if it had been figured in stone. The 
west portion of the choir marks the beginning of the monks labors 
(1151-4) and as they speedily grew in wealth, within a few years the 
choir was extended eastwards. The two periods of workmanship 
are at once seen, alike in the rough rubble masonry of the older end 
and the fine ashlar walling at the east end, as well as in the method 
of treating the arcade. In the older work all three mouldings are 
continued through the sweep, of the arch from west to east only, 
while in the later arcading the uppermost mouldings are continued 
in both directions and with more delicate skill across the intersection 
of the arches. A reference to the accompanying plate will shew 
what I mean. Over the Clifford tomb is a curious example of 
combined shafts and capitals, very cleverly wrought out of a single 
block of stone. 

The diverse and beautiful carvings of some of the old Norman 
capitals here also evince a wondrous skill and taste, considering they 
were fashioned seven-and-a-half centuries ago, in the infancy of 
English art. Some of these capitals, which have been excellently 
photographed for me by Mr. Longbottom, and here engraved, look 
almost as fresh and perfect as when they left the sculptor's hands, 
cut as they are in the durable gritstone of the neighbourhood. They 
are the obvious production of loving hearts and minds, undisturbed 
by external conflicts, or by any considerations of worldly gain. As 
we look up in admiration at them, how the thoughts return to those 
vanished days when the sculptor's soul had no greed save in the 
spirit of excellence, bequeathing to us these "sermons in stone" to 
elevate and instruct us by their diverse forms and beauty and to 
calm our hearts in this Age of Stress. And how all this contrasts 
with the visible decadence of later times, notably of the i6th and 
1 7th centuries, or with the still more wretched churchwardens' 
building of the succeeding era, when love of money rose above the 
purer love of art. 

I have spoken of the terrible shock which the monastery received 



in the reign of Kdward II, a shock indeed from which it never 
recovered. Before that time happiness and prosperity had flowed 
over the land, and the monks made considerable improvements and 
additions to the conventual buildings. The tottering central tower 
was probably then taken down, as these Norman central towe^ as a 
rule were not very safe. The narrow Norman lights were replaced 
by the more elaborate and expansive windows, which still remain, 
though in ruins, in the monks' choir. The-,e enlargements were 
carried out from about 1290 to 1300, as appears by the monastic 




NORMAN CAPITALS AND ARCADING, BOLTON PRIORY. 

annals, and I also find that considerable improvements were made 
about the Prior's Chapel in 1312. The upper part of the choir was 
wholly rebuilt so far as was necessary to admit of the insertion of the 
larger windows. But the jamb masonry of the great east window 
looks original. There are four sedilia on the south side which 
exhibit Decorated work. In the Parish Church at Skipton there are 
also four sedilia in the south wall, but the easternmost of these is 
recessed not for a seat, but for a side-cupboard holding perhaps a 
credence table, where the bread and wine were placed before they 
were consecrated. 



The Norman nave of the church has disappeared, but happily it 
retains its beautiful Early English character, as when first rebuilt 
about A.D. 1200. The lower part of the south wall with the whole 
of its western termination is the only vestige of the Norman nave 
remaining, and this is sometimes stated to be part of the original 
Saxon Church. But the thickness of the wall and character of the 
mortar are exactly like those of the Norman arcading in the choir. 




INTERIOR OF NAVE, BOLTON PRIORY. 

The mortar is fine and powdery and must have been poured in hot, 
quite different from that of the later erections which adjoin these 
earliest buildings. The arcading of the cloister, formed along the 
outer south wall of the nave is of the same Transition-Norman 
character, as is also the doorway at its east end into the present 
chancel. This doorway has a pointed arch resting upon single 
cylindrical shafts, having square abaci, the one on the west inside ; 



3^5 

having a capital of the usual truncated bowl pattern, with plain 
mouldings carried down to the necking, as in Guiseley church, 1151-4. 

Originally, however, the church had no aisle, and the interior 
must have looked very narrow and long. Doubtless an aisle would 
have been added on the south side also, but as the cloister and 
other buildings were erected close up to it, the wall was only taken 
down as far as the roof of the cloister outside and the six existing 
lancet windows were put in its place. But these windows are only 
continued to the length of the cloister, on account of the range of 
buildings which came up to the west end. This portion of the wall 
was therefore not taken down, and on the inside the difference 
between the original masonry and the addition is well seen. Each 
of the windows consists of two narrow and lofty lights, transomed, 
and alternately divided by slender circular shafts, and dog-tooth 
ornament, continued from the springing of the arches down to about 
eighteen inches below the base of the windows, and terminating in 
neatly finished corbels of uniform design. The windows are filled 
with excellent stained glass the gift of the late Duke of Devonshire. 

A foot-passage runs along the base of the windows, communicating 
with a staircase at the base of the west window, and giving read) 
access in case of repairs. The alterations in the church seem to 
have been hardly completed when the two Decorated windows, each 
of three lights, were inserted in the Early English wall of the north 
aisle. They retain some interesting fragments of original painted 
glass, and it is noteworthy that outside the mullions are flush with 
the wall, which shews them to be early in the style. The nave is 
divided from its aisle by four large pointed arches supported by 
three massive columns, the centre one circular and the others 
octagonal, having their capitals enriched with the characteristic dog- 
tooth ornament. Above is a clerestory of four lancet lights, with 
alternating delicately-cut circular shafts bearing a profusion of the 
same ornament. This square four-leaved flower, the centre of which 
projects in a point, is a very noticeable feature of the decorative 
element in the church at Bolton Abbey, and is thoroughly 
characteristic of the latter part of the i2th century, though it is 
occasionally met with in late Norman work. It is really a 
development of the Norman nail-head or pyramid ornament cut into 
four leaves. The roof is pannelled and of low pitch but from its 
great elevation gives the interior of the church a very noble and 
imposing appearance. It was no doubt put up when the new tower 
was built in the early part of the i6th century, and since then it has 
been restored. 

Services are still held in this portion of the conventual buildings 
as they have been no doubt continuously ever since the foundation 
of the Priory, although in the time of Charles II. the church was 
reported to be in a very dilapidated state and the windows were 



316 

boarded up. In the ritual of the Austin canons, the nave of the 
church was reserved for public use, while the choir was retained 
for the exclusive service of the canons. In order that the two parts 
should be kept entirely separate, two solid stone screens were put 
up, one in the eastern and the other in the western arch of the great 
central tower. Before the western wall stood the parish altar, in a 
position very near where the present altar-rail is now placed, so that 
there was a sufficient passage for processionals behind the altar 




SOUTH-EAST ANGLE OF CLOISTER-COURT, BOLTON PRIORY. 



towards the south door, leading- into the cloister and choir. There 
is a beautifully-finished holy-water stoup in the angle of the two 
door-ways, shewn in the accompanying plate. The fact that this 
portion of the conventual church was kept for the use of the parish 
accounts for its continuous maintenance and preservation while the 
rest ot the buildings were abandoned and went to ruin. The 
monastic churches of Howden and Bridlington are of like character. 



3*7 

At Holton the piscina and stone seats of the seel ilia retain their 
original positions in the south wall. 

The east end of the aisle at Holton has been retained for a. 
chapel by the owners of Beamsley Hall, though I cannot find that a 
chantry was ever endowed therein. A piscina now in the north 
wall, however, betokens the presence of an altar, which formerly 
stood here on a raised platform. The organ has been placed here, 
a memorial to Mr. Cottingham, the Duke of Devonshire's steward. 
Beneath is an arched vault tilled with bones disinterred during the 
restoration in 1864 and then permanently covered in. Here 
according to the tradition, so energetically preserved by Wordsworth 
in the White Dec <>f A'y/sfon, the Mauleverers and Claphams, "face to 
face'' are buried upright, like some of those old Viking warriors who 
preferred to be placed in death as they had been in life, ready to 
face the enemy on the grand awakening. For nursed and reared 
as most of them were, in fields of continuous warfare it was the 
conviction of these poor pagan soldiers that there must be enemies 
to encounter after death just as there had been through life. In 
some Irish tumuli opened many years ago on the Curragh of 
Kildare a number of erect skeletons were found, the bodies evidently 
having been interred with iron spears in their hands. At Bolton 
the " oldest inhabitant " has always believed in the tradition, and the 
old sexton, // is said, declared he had seen the upright coffins in the 
vault, but this needs verifying, though in fairness to this belief and 
as offering some support to it, I ought to say it is mentioned as a 
matter of fact by Dr. Johnston in 1670. It is quite probable the 
coffins with their contents may long ago have collapsed by reason 
of their unnatural positions. There are some i8th century brasses 
on the floor of this chapel commemorating members of the Morley 
family, of Scale House, Rilston, into whose possession the Beamsley 
estate passed from the Claphams. 

Here is placed what was doubtless the original parish altar, a 
massive rectangular stone, measuring 6 feet 5 inches long, 2 feet 10 
inches wide, and 7 inches thick. In the middle of its upper surface 
is a slight depression almost square in form, 16 by 17 inches, and 
divided across its centre by a shallow strip 3^ inches wide, the 
purpose of which has been the subject of a good deal of controversy. 
Some contend it is the matrix of a brass laid down as a memorial 
after the dissolution of the monastery, while others hold the centre 
cavity to be a reliquary, shallow though it be. I can see no objection 
to the latter conclusion, fora "relic" may be a mere atom, a finger- 
nail or a bit of dust, and that this has been originally a sealed 
altar-stone I think is proved by the position of the five crosses, four 
of them being as usual at the corners of the stone, while the fifth 
commonly seen in the position of this shallow receptacle, is opposite 
it on the front edge of the slab. No motive can be adduced for the 



3*8 

position of the central cross saving that the stone was consecrated by 
an Archbishop, and not as was generally the case by a Bishop. In 
the annals of the Abbey recorded in the last chapter I have shewn 
what business relations existed between the monks and the Archbishop 
of York, who I have also explained had a manor-house and court at 
Otley. It is, I think, exceedingly probable that this stone was 
consecrated during one of the occasions when the Archbishop was in 
residence at Otley, a few miles down the valley. 




TOWER ENTRANCE BOLTON PRIORY. 

Another slab here is interesting as being the grave-stone of 
John, Lord Clifford, who was made a Knight of the Garter in 1421, 
and who in the following year, being engaged in the wars with France, 
was killed at the siege of Meaux. His remains were brought to 
Bolton and interred in the choir of the Abbey, where this stone 
formerly lay. The outlines of the brasses and shields within the 
garter may still be observed on the stone. 



The exquisite J^arl^ English west front of the church, one of 
the purest examples of the kind extant, has in a great measure 
retained its enrichments uninjured from the protection it has received 
by the adjoining later tower. Had the tower been completed this 
line original work would have been taken down, in order to obtain a 
corresponding opening from the tower into the nave. The three 
vesica panels over the entrance are stated to have contained 
frescoes, the subject of the centre one being our Lord seated, with 
angels on either side, a very rare instance of external painting. (See 
the illustration prefacing this chapter.) The west tower just mentioned 
is an exquisite example of late Perpendicular masonry,, begun before 
the dissolution of the Abbey and never completed. Many of the 
stones are mason-marked, and some examples I annex , the first of 
the illustrated examples, the [hour-glass form, is of high antiquity, 
being found on the Pyramids of Egypt. It is to be seen in Guiseley 
Church. Shields of arms appear above the doorway and the following 
black-letter inscription is cut beneath the window : 
In the per of our Cord IttUCXX R ^ 

began 11 thps fondachon on qu>bo soiol God bauc marcc.- JUHtR. 
Here is a curious indication of the name of the last Prior, Richard 





MASON MARKS AT BOLTON PRIORY. 

Moone , it was however usual for high dignitaries of the church to 
assume a rebus in lieu of their paternal name, or even to drop their 
name altogether and take perhaps that of the place of their birth 
or adoption.* One of the Priors of Bolton was a Thomas de Otley, 
but it by no means follows that his real name was Otley, or as old 
Fuller remarks some of them, meaning the distinguished clergy, 
would be "mimic Melchisidecs," without father, without mother, 
without descent" (Heb. vii. 3), so as to render themselves independent 
of the world, without any coherence to carnal relations." The date 
also is curious as it appears cut in the stone, and should be MY 1 XX., 
to signify 1520. Such a method of dating to our eyes looks 

Prior Moon left a will dated 151!! June, 1541, ordering his body to be buried in 
the parish church of Catton and his chalice to Preston [Long Preston] church "where 1 
was born." 



320 

misleading, but it was a common practice in the i5th and i6th 
centuries. Another example of the kind will be found on the screen 
in Hubberholme Church. The mention of this year on the tower 
of Bolton Abbey is I believe the oldest date yet legible on a building 
in Yorkshire. The earliest authentic date, in Arabic numerals yet 
discovered in England, occurs in the tower of Heathfield Church, 




SOUTH TRANSEPT, BOLTON PRIORY. 

Sussex. It is 1445, and the two 4's are like S's with the bottoms 
broken off. The date is accompanied by the initials G.S., which are 
no doubt those of the builder. 

A reference to the accompanying ground plan will suffice to 
indicate the position of the various other buildings and parts of the 
Abbey, which are all arranged on the south side and are mostly 
razed to the foundations. A large ash-tree grows in the middle of 
the chapter-house, which is in form an octagon, built according to 
the decorative traces of its ruined stalls during the great restoration 




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about 1300. Tlu- two transepts had each an eastern aisle with 
altars, the aisles being divided by t\vo pointed arches, and the 
windows all of tin- same (Decorated) date. One of thrill, shewn ill 
the accompanying plate, retains some of its beautiful Flamboxant 
tracery. A good example of the masonry and mortar of this period 
in juxtaposition with that of the twelfth century workers, may be 
seen in what has been a vestry terminating the aisle of the south 
transept, where is part of an archway and indications of the roof in 
the east wall separating it from the Clifford chapel and vault. This 
vestry was no doubt added when the Decorated windows were put in. 
The mortar is very coarse aiicl pebbly and the stones massive. 
A passage led from the cloister to the chapter-house, with the 
dormitory above it, while arranged along the south side of the cloister- 
court was the frater, which as appears was raised upon a basement. 
At the south-east corner is a pointed doorway, which has a cylindrical 
shaft with the circular base mouldings and characteristic scotia still 
beautifully perfect. The ruins here are thickly enveloped with ivy, 
and there is little doubt it conceals a staircase leading to the 
dormitory. As we stand here and look upon its stout stem and 
dense masses of leaves, the .old ivy seems to mock the bygone 
greatness of the holy place, and pushing its tendrils along once 
cloistered walls and rootless aisles makes us ponder upon the 
vicissitudes and evanescence of all things worldly. We picture to 
ourselves the hopes and aspirations, the heavenly longings, the joys, 
the sorrows, the pleasures, and expectations, that moved the hearts 
and thoughts of those whose span of life was passed within these 
sacred walls. We seem to see the procession of monks moving 
slowly round the Abbey, amid the lurid light of lamp and torch ; 
the great Crucifix and St. Cuthbert's banner leading the way, while 
one of those Angel-boy's voices which we still sometimes hear in 
Cathedrals, chants in faultless metre the grand old Litany, whose 
subdued and solemn cadence is lost ever and anon amidst the 
response of the united choir ; " Ora, ora, pro nobis." 

The infirmary buildings are believed to have stood between the 
choir and chapter-house and the river, but until a thorough excavation 
of the site is made nothing definite can be stated about them. The 
kitchens and offices lay to the north of the present rectory, which 
occupies the site of the Prior's lodgings. The Priory oven near the 
kitchens was a huge concern ; its great arch, where oxen or deer 
might have been roasted whole, was nearly twenty feet across. A 
farmer on the estate once lost sixty sheep, and after considerable 
search they were all found safely sheltered within this great oven. 
In front of the rectory was the public guest-hall, where strangers 
were received and entertained. A provision of mats for the guest- 
house is mentioned in the compotus for 1305. This building is well 
remembered to have been nearly entire, but little remains now save 



322 

the old chimney stack, forming a picturesque bit of rockery covered 
with ivy and creepers. It seems to have been a quaint old building 
constructed chiefly of timber and plaster, and at one end was an oak 
staircase leading to an upper room, where it is said Prior Moone 
died. In aftertimes Mr. Carr, incumbent of Bolton, used this 
chamber for storing apples, and when the building was pulled down 
about 1845, tne R CV - J onn Umpleby, who succeeded Mr. Carr, had a 
writing-desk made out of a stout oak-beam taken from the chamber 
in which the last Prior died. He also had a table made out of some 
old apple trees which grew within the enclosure close by. The 
ancient archway across the road behind the Hall, which is a favorite 
subject with artists, is the remains of the priory aqueduct, destroyed 
by the Scots after Bannockburn, and which was used to convey water 
to the wheel which turned the mill. Near here were the priory 
fish-ponds. Beside the great gateway, now the Hall, there grew a 
magnificent oak-tree, known as the "Prior's Oak," which was cut 
down in 1720 (probably when the gateway was converted into a 
residence) and the sale of the timber realised ^70.* The monastic 
poultry-houses and probably the dove-cote, mentioned in ancient 
annals, appear to have stood on the site of the estate-office and 
residence, and these old buildings within living memory were called 
Overhouses. 

Hitherto few relics of antiquity have been found about the 
Abbey ruins. Dr. Johnston in 1670 noticed a statue of Lady 
Romille, the foundress, in the church, but this has long been lost. 
A very good example of an Agnus Dei is preserved on the outside of 
the vestry screen in the church. The rector has some fragments of 
ancient tiles, also a small playing-marble incised with the sacred 
cross, and a small glazed earthen vessel that may have been a table-salt, 
which was found during excavations in the choir. A brass coin-shaped 
object was also found, which seems to have been used as a pass from 
one monastery to another. It is interesting to note the statue of a 
pilgrim cut in stone and erected above a contemporary sun-dial on a 
buttress on the south side of the tower. He is represented with head 
uncovered, carrying a broad flat hat under the left arm and holding 
a staff in the right hand. On the breast is a cross, fleury (being the 
arms of the monastery), that is each arm terminates in three points, 
symbolical (like the steps of the Calvary) of the three Virtues, "Faith, 
Hope, and Charity." The pilgrim here appropriately enough stands 
above the hour-dial, and near the entrance to the holy fane of the 
Graces, seeming to : say, "Come unto me all ye that are weary and 
heavy laden, and I will give you rest." 

* The warden of the Priory gates is mentioned in a writ dated 1274-5, whereby it 
appears that from the time of the foundation of the Priory the lords of Albemarle when 
the office of Prior was vacant had only one custodian of the g-ates of the Priory who had 
to defend the house from all enemies. Inq. p.m. 3rd Edw. I. 



CMA1TKR XXV. 




MARTON : A LONG-LOST RELIGIOUS Hoi 

Local references to Marlon Priory The Bolton monks' land at Marton in Craven 
The Priory of Marton in Cleveland Records at Bolton Abbey -Discoveries on tin- 
site of Ingthorpe Grange -Was tin-re a dependent cell to Bolton at Marton? 
Situation of the religious house --Old monastic orchard --Family of Baldwin 
Description of Ingthorpc Grange. 

-' M()NG the archives at Bolton Abbey are many 
references to " Marton Priory," and to a long-lost 
dependent house or cell at Marton, in Craven, of 
which Whitaker, in the History of Craven (page 90, 3rd 
ed.) observes nothing is known, nor do Dugdale and 
Burton give any record of it, saving that the monks of Bolton had 
an estate and the mill at Marton. There can be no doubt that this 
refers to Marton in Craven, and that the estate was situated at 
Ingthorpe, now a separate township in that picturesque and historic 
old parish. Some part of this estate was originally held by the Prior 
of Bolton on condition of his burning two candles before the high 
altar at Bolton. When the cell or subservient house for there seems 
to have been something more than a grange was established at 
Marton we have no knowledge, but as there was a Priory of the 
same name in Galtres in the archdeaconry of Cleveland, it is possible 
that confusion may exist in regard to the two places in early grants. 
The house at Marton in Cleveland was of the foundation of 
Bertram de Bulmer, whose arms, gules billettee a lion rampant, or, 
were also those of the Priory. No remains of the house now exist. 
It is said to have been endowed with lands in Bulmer, Flaxton, 
Sutton in Galtres, Lilling, Marton, Molesby, Burnsall, Woodhouse 
(Appletrewick) Cracoe and Thorpe in Craven, &c. Among the 
muniments at Bolton Abbey I find the following original grant. 

To all to whom this charter &c. I. Kustachius de Rilleston, greeting' &c. confirm 
to God and the Blessed Mary of Marton, and the Canons serving God there, in free and 
perpetual alms &c. two borates of land in the territory of Crackehou. Witnesses, John 
de Kston, Will. Grandorge, Ran' de Otterburn, Godfrey de Altaripa, Will, dc Cuglay, 
Will, de Hertlington, Gilbert de Ilybern [Heber?] Henry de Flvetham, and others. 

Nearly all these witnesses were Craven men of position ; only 
the last named seems to be connected with Embleton, anciently 
Elmeton, in the parish of Sedgefield, Durham. William de 
Hertlington died in 1292. The Altaripas intermarried with the 
ancient family of Marton, and in 1318 Godfrey de Altaripa had 
license to castellate his manor-house at Elslack in Craven. Whether 



324 

the signatory, Gilbert de Hybern is a form of Hibernia or of Heber, 
sometimes written Hyber and Hayber, descendants of the Domesday 
lords of Marton in Craven, there is no evidence to shew. The arms 
of Heber were, however, not unlike those of Cleveland Priory : viz : 
a fess with lion rampant, or, in the dexter chief point a cinquefoil arg. 
Saving appearances of foundations on the south side of the iyth 
century house, now known as Ingthorpe Grange, nothing remains of 
the old priory-cell, or chapel, or whatever it may have been, in this 
beautiful and retired spot in the heart of rural Craven. But Whitaker 
mentions that in his day (a century ago) there was found here a 
mutilated basso-relievo in white marble, the subject of which seems to 
have been the Apprehension of Christ and Peter drawing his sword, 
a species of ornament that was formerly used as a kind of frieze at 
the back of altars. From the appended engraving it appears to 
be of early i4th century date. This relic of local monasticism 
unfortunately is now lost. Many items of expenditure occur in the 
Priory accounts of Bolton concerning their possession at Marton, and 
in the coinpoius, before mentioned, for 1610 I find also this entry : 

Allowance made to the accountants for lands in Woodhouse and Appletrewyk, late 
parcel of the Priory of Marton. 

It has doubtless reference to the grant stated to have been made by 
Henry de Neville of his manor of Woodhouse, near Appletrewick, to 
the Priory of Marton, in Cleveland. The canons of Bolton had the 
manor of Appletrewick, and, singularly, the Nevilles were patrons of 
both houses. 

I should not have broached these additions to the already 
lengthy records of Bolton, had not these peculiarities presented 
themselves, as Marton is not within the province of the Wharfe, but 
lies five miles west of Skipton and twelve from Bolton Abbey. But 
the place being little known to the outside world, I may continue 
this account of it. 

Lovely, indeed, is the situation of this long-vanished religious 
house among the green hills of Craven. From East Marton an old- 
fashioned posy-banked lane, full of the scent of hawthorn in the 
spring and the bloom of wild-roses in summer, winds for about a mile 
down to the sweet sequestered vale where the old monks dwelt. No 
one seems ever to have noticed the chosen spot, or to have penned a 
line about it. The house which for the last two and a quarter centuries 
has stood upon the site has very likely been erected out of the old 
monastic ruins.* An ancient orchard lies on the south side of it, 
where many an aged apple-tree still bears fruit of such peculiar form 
and flavor that no one can name it. Descendants they are, no doubt, 
of the old imported stock planted here perhaps as long ago as the era 

* I am informed that the old house was sketched by the celebrated artist, Peter de 
Wint, during one of his tours in Yorkshire. 



325 

of the Crusades . at any rate the monks had fish-ponds at Marlon in 
the time of Henry II. The venerable yews hen- too, have probably 
yielded many a bow shaft for the Marlon men who marched behind 
the "Shepherd Lord" to Hodden Field, while in later times archery 
was still largely practised in Craven, and some say that yew-bows 
were used even during the great Cavil War. And good execution 
they did withal, for there were men like Shallow's friend, old Double 
who " would have clapped the clout a twelve score, and carried you 
a forehand shaft a fourteen and fourteen and a half that it would 
have done a man's heart good to see." 

This manor of Ingthorpe, Ungthorpe, or Crake End as it is 
variously described, formed part of the monastic estates purchased 
by Henry Clifford, Earl of Cumberland in 1542. Three years later 
it was granted by lease for a term of 300 years, with a covenant to 
renew for 300 years more, to Anthony Baldwin and his mother. For 
more than 300 years the Baldwins resided here, and their descendants 
though no longer at Ingthorpe, are still in being. There i> a pedigree 
of the family in Burke's Landed Gentry which is correct as to the 
Ingthorpe branch, with the exception that "(3) William, to whom his 
father assigned (1592) a fourth part of Newsholme," should be a 
fourth part of Ingthorpe. From 1483 to Anthony Baldwin will be 
found in Burke, and the remainder of the Ingthorpe branch is 
presented in the following new pedigree. Hugh Baldwin, Anthoin's 
second son, had Ingthorpe settled upon him by his uncle John, the 
eldest nephew, John being otherwise provided for. 

The house is a roomy old building of three stories with ample 
mullion-windows. Over the massive oak pegged east door is a 
triangular stone inscribed "John Baldwen Birth was 1671," while on 
a panel below are the initials B. H. B. and date 1672, standing for 
Hugh and Barbara Baldwin, the builders of the house. It seems that 
formerly the name was spelled Baldwin, and an / has taken the place 
of e sometime last century. There are good reasons for believing 
that the Bawdwens of Stone Gap, Cononley, were of the same stock. 
The name Baldwynhill, now Bawdlands in the parish of Mitton, occurs 
in a charter of Roger de Lacy of the time of King John. The name 
was spelled and pronounced both ways. 

Mr. John Barton Baldwin, who died in 1856, was I believe, the 
last to reside at Ingthorpe, and he cut off the entail and sold the 
property to his cousin Mr. Richard Roundell, of Gledstone in the 
parish of Marton in Craven, with whose family it remains. His 
eldest son, the Rev. John Richard Baldwin, Indian Chaplain, has 
some interesting family relics, portraits, etc., including a receipt 
signed by Wentworth, the unfortunate Earl of Strafford, for a fine 
imposed on William Baldwen of Ingthorpe, in 1630, for not attending 
and receiving the order of Knighthood at his Majesty's coronation. 



Pedigree of Baldwin, of Instborpe. 



Anthony Baldwin 

of Cononley and 

Woodside 



John, 
of Cononley, 
(eldest son) 


Hugh, of Ingthorpe. = 
Rebuilt Ingthorpe 1672. 
Buried 18 July, 1692. 
Interred at Woodside 
with his younger brother 


1 
-Barbara, d. 
of Nicholas 
Stead, of Idle 


1 
William Anthony 
of of Marlon, 
Smithies etc. 
Bridge 



John, Ellen, dau. of Hugh Anthony Thomas Nicholas Mary William, Elizabeth 



born Anthony 


living in living in living in of 


Blakey, ol 


1671 Hartley, 


London Bradford London Ingthorpe 


Bradford 


5 Feb. , 1 705-6 1 709 


1708 1709 and 






(.See Whitaker's Craven. 


Bradford 






Hartley 


|v digrec.) 




















John, Ellen, dau. of Wm. William, Barbara 


Henry Elizabeth 


Henr}' 


of J= 


awley 


ofMartoo.by died 


Hindley, 


Howard, 


Ingthorpe / 


dice, d. of Anthony without 


of Man- 




ot Man- 




Hartley. (.See 


issue 


chester 




chester 


Whitaker's Craven. 


Hartley pedigree.) 


John, of Ingthorpe- 
and Preston, M.D. 


-Dorothy, d. Bar 
of Francis K 


bara Thomas Alice 
Chippendall Bapt. 


Edmund 
Benson, 


Born 29 Jan. 


'734 


lies, of 


26 Oct. 1732 s 


p. 26 Aug. , 




of 


D. June 15, 


1704 


Knaresbro 


D 


170 


'735 


Halton 


1 
Dorothy 


1 
Ellen Jo 


in, =Mary, dau. of Henry Barbara 


Frai 


ices 


B. April, 


B. April, of Ingthorpe 




Barton, of Swinton Born B. Sep. 17, 


'73 


1764 solic 


itor. 


and Ward Hall, Lanes i Sep., 


1767 




Md. 


B. 3 July, 


(See Barton, of Staple- 1766 


ob. 


s. p. 


Mitchell 1765. 


M. 




ton Park. 


Burke's 


'793 






8 Sep 


. '791 


landed Gentry.) 


John Barton 


Emma, dau. 


Brands 




Henry Wi 


Ham Richard George 


Frances 


Baldwin 


of Major B. July 


B. May B. 


Feb. B. June B. Aug. 


B. Oct. 


B. Nov. 21, 179 


6 Charles 18, 1798 


3, 1800 14, 


1803 13, 1810 10, 1812 


4, 1814. 


M. 1825 


Bacon, of D. May 


D. Feb. ob 


s p. ob. s. p. ob. s. p. 


ob. s. p. 


D. Nov. 4, 18; 


6 Skipton 


7, 1802 


i 


7, 1821 


Dec. 28, 






(He sold 


(gth Lancers) 


s. p. 


1841 






Ingthorpe) 


















Rev. John 


1 
Frances Francis 


Emilv 


Charles 


Mary, dau. of 


Richard, of 


B. 


Feb. 28, B. 


April 15, 


B. Oct. 26, 


B. April 24, 


C. Lutyens, 


East Barton 




'833 


835 




1839 


1830 


Deputy 


B. 27 Sep., 












D. Oct. 17, 


Commissary 














1897 


General 












I 


Hon. Canon 






Katharine Emily 
md. W. B. 1856 
Harding Md. Rev. 


R.-v. John Marv Dorothy Hugh of Newcastle 
B. 18^8 B. 1862 B. i 1 64 B. 186^ J- 1 '- North- 
A. md. d. of umbel-land, 






W 


ickhan 


i 






Leec 


h. of V icar 
















Rathkeale Berwick-on- 
















Abbev. Tweed 
















Linv 


.,-iVk 1880-1896 







Rev. Hugh C. 


Rev. Alan 


Rev. Charles 


Rev. Arthur 


Gerard 


Mary 


B. 27 July, 1856 


B. 29 Dec., 


B. 23 April, 


B. i Dec., 1860 


B. 24 Jan. 


B. 25 Aug. 


Rector of 


1857. Md. 


1859 


Rector of 


1868 


1872 


Moreleigh, 


Margaret 




Middle Chinnock. 






Devon. Md. 


Grossman 




Md. Millicent 






Julia Foxe 


(has issue) 




1 lowey (has issue) 







CHAPTER XXVI. 




AROUND BKAMSI.KV. 

Picturesque aspects Local families Manor of Beamsley The ('laphanis Beamsley 
Hall Risphill and Gibbetcr Troubles of the Reformation Beanislev Hospital 
Ancient terry-house Bolton Bridge Old Roads. 

! how delightful are the quiet shades of Beamsley on 
a still summer's day ! Nothing seems to disturb the 
wonted tranquillity of the place save the murmur of 
bees, the music of birds, and the mellowed laughter of 
the fresh rivulet leaping child-like athwart the village 
from its cradle on the moors. The rustic houses with their posied 
gardens stand anywise beside the road, while the unmolested 
songsters from field and grove hop in at the open doors, conscious 
of the frugal fare that awaits their temerity on table-top or chair.* 
What happy memories of freedom and of innocence such pleasant 
scenes awake ! Boyhood's days are once more recalled when about 
the old ancestral, domains the rhyme used to be sung : 

HIT diddle, diddle, the cat and the fiddle, 
The cow jumped over the Mnnii. 

as a parody on some old family names, yet the Heys never got the 
best of the Moons, although the several old local families of Hey, 
Moon, Petyt, and Moorhouse have intermarried time after time. 
The Heys are an old race of wheelwrights, who lived in a thatched 
house that stood here up to 1875, an( ^ ' ts ' U1 e oak-crocks that 
supported the well-seasoned cross-rafters of the heavily-turfed roof, 
were I should say planted as long ago as the days of strife between 
the White Rose and the Red. I present a picture of the vanished 
homestead (see next page), shewing old Joseph busy at his work, a 
work that is still carried on by his son, George Hey. The smaller 
house near it was also a very old building, which had evidently been 
restored, and was dated 1675. 

The life of an estate is not wholly made up of the doings of its 
nobles or lords, else our records would be largely foreign to the soil 
and kindred they concern. They would have to chronicle the 
achievements, the victories and defeats of the great owners who 
spent much of their time abroad, and whose bleeding bodies some 

Happy is Beamsley, too, in its liquid refreshment, for no purer spring' is to be 
found through all Kngland, and so copious is the supply that in the driest season it has 
never known to fail. The good folk respect their precious spring and call the place 
from which it issues "Moses' Rock." 



tinu's brought, a> \ve have seen in the records of Bolton Abbey, to 
find a last resting-place in the home-land of their love and pride. 

Such were some of the early lords of Beamsley, who dwelt at 
Beamsley Hall, which, long ago rebuilt, still stands amidst ancestral 
trees, a memorial of those warlike days. A fortified house existed 
here probably in the century following the Conquest, when the 
manor was granted by Romille to Helte Mauleverer, in 1175, twenty 
years after the Priory arose at Bolton. There is a tradition that a 
part of the old house was often resorted to by pilgrims and such 
guests who were unable to obtain accommodation at the monastery. 
But the present mansion is all of post-Reformation date, and we have 
no records to support the tradition. 

With the Mauleverers the house and estate remained till the reign 
of Edward III., when by marriage it passed into the hands of Sir 
Thomas Clapham, of the ancient family of Clapham elsewhere 
mentioned, who are supposed to derive their patronym from Osgod 
C'lapha, a wealthy thane and fast friend of King Harthacanute. 
He held the high office of staller, or Master of the Horse, and was 
one of the most constant witnesses to the King's charters. His 
sudden fall in 1046 created a great sensation and every chronicler 
notices his banishment.* 

The eldest son of the first proprietor of Beamsley of this name 
was John de Clapham, whom Wordsworth describes as 

That fierce esquire, 
A valiant man, and a name of dread, 
In the ruthless wars of the White and Red, 
Who dragged Earl Pembroke from Banbury Church, 
And smote off his head on the stones of the porch. 

There can however be little doubt that the Earl and his brother were 
executed two days after the battle of Danesmoor in 1468, in which 
John de Clapham took a victorious part. The family continued 
at Beamsley till the time of Sir Chris. Clapham, temp. Charles II, 
lord of the manor of Wakefield, the- arms of which town are the six 
fleurs-de-lis of Clapham. His daughter Margaret, married Sir Wm. 
Craven, of Appletrewick, father of the second Baron Craven, and 
nephew of Sir Wm. Craven who married Mary, daughter of 
Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax, leader of the Parliamentary forces in the 
Civil War.f About the year 1700 the estate passed by purchase to 
the Morley family of Scale House, Rilston, and Wennington, with 
whose descendants it remained until 1831 when it was sold to the 

* See Ramsay's Foundations of England, pp. 442-3. 

f For Pedigree of Clapham, of Beamsley, see Dugdale's Visit, of Yorks p. 12. 
Whitaker mentions that a pedigree of the Claph.-mis was in one of the windows of 
Hollin Hall, near Beamsley, but I presume it should be Hollin Hall in the township of 
Rathmell, near Settle, an old property of the ftjorleys. The window was probably 
removed thither from Beamsley. 



33 

Duke of Devonshire and now forms part of the Bolton Abbey 
estates. 

The Hall contains a fine oak-panelled room, with two shields 
of arms, quarterly (i) Clapham (2) Thornton (3) Mauleverer (4) 
Otterburne. On a third appear the same arms with those of Moore 
and Sutton. The greater part of the house is modern, but the 
cellars are very old and have arched roofs. The house stands on a 
large glacial mound and is surrounded with pleasant gardens and an 
orchard, and there still remain traces of an extensive moat on the 
south side. In the grounds are several notable trees, including a 
fine medlar. 

Beamsley gave name to an ancient family, and there is a charter 
among the Hemingway MSS confirming the gift of a toft and 
building at Rispil, which is witnessed by Sir Wm. Mauleverer, 
Nicholas de Bemeslay and Peter his brother. This shews there was 
a house at Risphill in the i3th century. Above Risphill is another 
old house called Gibbeter, a name suggestive enough, though in the 
Bolton Abbey registers it is sometimes spelled Jubiter. Mons. Perlin, 
an eye-witness of the Reformation miseries says that the great lords 
had the poor privilege of dying by the axe, while the wooden gibbet 
did its work upon the common people. The only record of a local 
martyr I can find is the case of Richard Horner, of Bolton Bridge, 
who, however, appears to have been taken to York and there suffered 
"with great courage and constancy," Sep. 4th 1598.* 

One of the effects of the Reformation was the founding of the 
Beamsley Hospital, a curious little building still existing on the 
Blubberhousesf and Harrogate road. An old inscription over the 
gateway informs us : 

This almeshouse was founded by that excellent Lady Margaret Russell, Countesse 
of Cumberland, wife of George Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland, 1593, and was more 
perfectly finished by her only child, the Lady Anne Clifford, Countess Dowager of 
Pembroke, Dorsett, and Montgomery. God's name be praised. 

* When the Reformation rebellions were quashed the King commanded "such 
dreadful execution to be done upon a good number of inhabitants in every town, 
village, and hamlet," whereupon more than 70,000 persons were publicly executed, 
gibbets being hurriedly set up all over the country, a terrible massacre indeed out of a 
total population of under 4,000,000. Where the remains of the old fortalice of the 
Cliffords stand on the edge of the moor opposite Norton Tower, is called Gallows Hill, 
and has apparently nothing to do with the rocky crevasse known as " Deer Gallows." 

f Blubberhouses is an old estate of the family of Lord Walsingham, the expert 
grouse-shot, who has a Shooting Lodge here. The curious name may be derived from 
the A.-S. verb to blow, bidivan, p. bleoK), s. bloma, a mass of metal, hence the beorh or 
hill of the ore-blowers. There are remains of ancient bloomeries on the moor. In 
3oth Edw. I., I find the name written Bloberhuses ; and in a charter granted to the 
Priory of Bridlington, John, son of John de Walkingham, gave leave to the canons to 
dig iron-ore and make forges within the territroy of Blubberhous, and Robert son of 
Huntobrith of Killinghall, Robert de Staneley and Henry Turpin, also of Killinghall, 
did the same. 



33 ! 

It is a circular building about, thirty feet in diameter, the walls being 
i)f rough rubble masonry, and the windows, now modernized, were 
formerly leaded. The centre is taken up with a small chapel, lighted 
from the roof, while seven cosy rooms radiate from it, each occupied 
by a worthy dame, one of whom acts as superintendent or 'mother' 
of the house. There are also six other cottages near. The property 
is attached to Skipton Castle, and its revenues now amount to about 
^360 per annum. In the Skipton burial registers for Feb. 26th 
1707-8 I find this entry : 

Margaret ( iood^ion, widow of Henry ( iood^ion, laic of Skipton, she was <)j year- 
old, and for years la-t past was (iovenie-se or Mother of ye Widows at Beam-ley 

llii-pital, in which place she behaved herself with much prudence and discretion. 

Had we the recollections of this good woman, doubtless many a 
forgotten episode of the troublous days of the Reformation would 
be retrieved. 

An interesting relic of this age is preserved in an old cottage close 
to the Abbey side of Bolton Bridge. Formerly it was the ferryman's 
house and there must have been a chapel attached from which the 
following inscription was removed when the house was rebuilt 

Choti pat passps by ys wap, 
One flue marc here thou'l sap 

being cut in black-letter upon an oak-beam, which originally faced 
the front entrance. The ground-floors of the cottage then consisted 
of a single room, but forty years ago some alterations were made and 
the beam was removed to its present position, the oak-panelled 
partition however, against which it was placed was then also taken 
clown and a lath and plaster wall erected instead. The house is 
built largely of river-cobbles and has a flat-headed doorway of simple 
mouldings. 

Though a bridge is recorded in the Abbey annals to have been 
built here shortly before the invasion of the Scots in 1318, and is 
also shewn as existing on Saxon's map (1577), the place was long 
without any means of passage save by boat or on horseback. The 
pack-horses from Addingham came by the present old road as far as 
the toll-bar, and then crossing the river they followed the track to the 
foot of Storiths Crag, and so over Hazlevvood Moor to West Knd 
and Pateley Bridge. The drovers from Skipton travelled the narrow 
and picturesque green lane from Draughton (what a quagmire this 
must have been in winter!) which emerges opposite the Devonshire 
Anns, and taking an old road a. short distance in front of the rectory, 
they crossed the Wharfe and ascending the bank, joined the main 
route at Storiths Crag, as above. 

The old coach road from Skipton by Close House also came by 
way of Draughton and the narrow lane opposite the hotel, just 
mentioned, then veering to the right to the toll-bar house and over 
the bridge to Knaresbro'. The original coach road, however, did 



332 

not as now go past Beamsley Hospital, but took more to the right 
through the fields on this side of Beamsley Hall, and climbed the 
bank in close proximity to Kex Beck.* There are two stout 
gate-posts in the field opposite the bar-house, which formerly stood 
in the present highway, one doing duty for the toll-gate and the 
other held the gate of the foot-path by the road-side. One of the 
gate-posts still occupies its original position, and is interesting 
because of a singular contrivance it exhibits in connection with the 
old coaching days. There is a hole right through it, which was 
made to receive a bolt connected with a lever and pulley in the 
bed-chamber above, so that anyone passing through the bar in the 
night-time, called out, and if he were a resident in the neighbourhood, 
or some known frequenter of the road, the bar-keeper need not leave 
his chamber, but by simply pulling the lever allowed the traveller to 
pass through the gate. Of course if they were strangers he had to 
dress and come downstairs to receive the toll. The contrivance 
saved a good deal of night work, as there was much traffic on this 
road in the old days. 



Kexmoor near Kirkby Malzeard is in Domesday spelled Chetesmor. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 




ROUND ABOUT DRAUGHTON. 

Local geological phenomena The threat anticlinal, cause ot the Harrogate mineral 
waters Aspects at Bnltoii Abbey -Draughton in Domesday Old local families 
Dr. \Vainman Draughton Hall Local relics An old cotton-mill -The church and 
-chool Past traditions A Story of witchcraft Close House and tin: Moorhouses 
Loc.-il belief in "Red Cap" Pedigree ot i he Moorhiuisi- Loral relics in pn--.es. -ion 
of the author -Families descended from the Moorhoiises Dr. Moorhouse The 
Currers of Skibeden Last Skibeden and Judge Nightingale A crack shot 
Local anecdote. 

O the lover of natural scenery and especially to those of 
a >cientific bent, this neighbourhood teems with interest 
of no common kind. The disruption caused by the 
i^reat anticlinal, forming a range of rocky hills stretching 
^ from Skipton towards Bolton Abbey, is attended with 
many complexities in the marvellous disposition of the strata, in the 
courses of the streams and springs,* and in the life incident to the 
varied character of the surface rocks. The Yoredales have been 
thrust up, causing the superincumbent Kinderscout Grit to dip from 
them on either side, and in its passage eastwards by Bolton Abbey a 
good section of the Yoredale shales is exposed at the waterfall there 
above the river. Here the shales have a north-westerly dip, while 
lower down the river they dip in an opposite direction, the hard beds 
of contorted rock thus coming between these two great shaly 
upheavals. These striking still eastwards to Harrogate are the prime 
factors in the production of the wonderful medicinal waters for which 
that spa obtains its fame. 

Throughout its course this limestone upheaval presents most 
singular contortions, in the form of a succession of arches, curves or 
serpentine bendings along the face of the strata. In a quarry behind 
the .}fafc/iless inn at Draughton (a name that might well be applied 
to these rocks), and in the Hambleton quarries near Bolton Abbey 
station, these remarkable convolutions are seen to great advantage. 
The folds shew no breakage and have no doubt resulted from a slow 
and long-continued lateral pressure formed along a line of crust- 
weakness, and during the crumbling of a vast thickness of overlying 
shales and grits, since removed by denudation. The dark-grey 

* The water for the village is pumped up by means ot a ram from a sprint,'- situated 
at the bottom of a hill on the north side of the village, and thence driven into a capacious 
tank, where it is conveyed in pipes to the houses. But this process involves a loss of 
about 75"' of the water so pumped, only about a fourth part of the water being secured. 



334 

limestone is also traversed by numerous veins of calcite, and in 
many places the rock appears semi-crystalline. 

Though in the watershed of the Wharfe, Draughton is in the 
parish of Skipton, and originally formed part of the fee of Romille. 
By this house it was subfeudated to Wm. le Vavasour, temp. Henry 
II., and in 1315 Adam de Midelton and Henry le Vavasour are 
returned as joint lords. In Domesday we read that there were three 
carucates of cultivated land in Dractone in 1086, and in Hal tone, six 
carucates, and in Schibeden three carucates, shewing that these places 
were then old settlements of Anglo-Saxons. The first syllable in 
Draughton may contain an A-S. personal name, although in Lye's 
Diet. Sax. et Goth. Latinum (1772) dracan is interpreted gypsum, so that 
one might conclude this to have been the town of gypsum, in allusion 
to its situation besides the striking beds of limestone above mentioned. 
In the light of modem science they cannot, however be described 
as gypsum, although we do occasionally meet with gypsum or a highly 
dolomitized rock in the Yorkshire calcareous beds.* In 1275 the 
manor of "Drachton'' yielded to the lord, Mauger le Vavasour, an 
annual income of 2 55. 5d. 

The place appears to have given name to an ancient family, 
and in the Calendar of State Papers I find recorded among the 
contributors to the Crusade of 1267-76, four Craven names, viz. : 
Robert de la Sale, de Skipton, half-mark ; f William de Drahton 2s. ; 
Johannes de Kirkeby Malghedale, i mark, and Rogerus de Gikelswik, 
5s. The family of Draughton was still living at Draughton in 1378, 
as appears by the Government tax levied on all householders and 
adults for carrying on the costly wars with France. There were 
three married couples of this name in the village, namely John, 
Robert, and William de Draghton, with their wives, in addition to 
which there were ten other married couples and seven adults. All 
the inhabitants were employed on the land except Robert Bradlay, a 
tailor, and John Mason whose trade is not given. It is interesting 
to note also at this time there were two families living here who 
continued to reside at Draughton and neighbourhood for centuries. 
These were the Masons and Wainmans. The registers of York 
Minster contain the marriage entry, under date, July 30 1695, of 
Robert Wayneman of Draughton and Elizabeth Mason, of York. He 
was the son of Thomas Wainman of Draughton who died in 1690 
and related to the Wainmans of Embsay. This family afterwards 
lived at the manor-house, which they rebuilt, and which still stands 
in the village, but is now converted into three cottages. Over the 

* See Memoirs of Geol. Sutvey, "Ingleborough" (1890) p. 80. 

f The wardship and marriag-e of John, son of Richard, son of Robert de la Sale, of 
Timble, was granted 1302 by the Archbishop of York to William le Serjaunt ot 
Bloberhouses until the said John should come of age. See Archbishop Corbridge's 
Register. 



335 

principal entrance i> a Miiall shield bearing the initials k M w and 
date 1669 in all probability standing for Robert Wainman, who died 
at Draughton in 1701, and his wife. Richard, son of Thomas 
Wainmain, of Draughton was born in 1664, and married Ann, daughter 
of Thomas Leach, and had issue Thomas, Martha, and Joseph. 

Of this family was the distinguished Dr. John Wainman, of 
whom there is an obituary notice in the Gentleman* Magazine for 
1794. He was the son of Oglethorp Wainman, and had a son, 
Oglethorp, born in the year 1750, who followed his father's medical 
profession in Skipton up to the time of his death in 1800. A family 
memorial in Skipton church records that the above John Wainman 
practised as a surgeon in that town for upwards of fifty years with 
conspicuous credit and success. He was also well skilled in the 
literature of his profession, able and courteous, and greatly respected 
by all who knew him. Skipton was quite a little University of 
medical men at this time, for in addition to the Wainmans, father 
and son, there were other distinguished practitioners, including Dr. 
Moorhouse, a native of the town, and Dr. Clapham, who afterwards 
settled at Whitby. 

The old manor-house has long been the property of the Whitham 
family, and the so-called Draughton Hall, belonging to Mr. 
Coulthurst, of Gargrave, was pulled down about ten years ago and 
the substantial dwelling now occupied by Mr. Christopher Wood, 
was erected on its site. Bolton Priory had an estate here, which 
now belongs to the Duke of Devonshire by inheritance from the 
Cliffords. In 1692 I find the tithes of Bolton, Hazelwood, Storriths, 
and Draughton-cum-Barwick were farmed by John Winterburn at an 
annual rental of ^43 to be paid to the Earl of Burlington in two 
instalments, viz. : at Martinmas and on the twenty-fourth day of March. 

Of old Draughton families living here from the latter days of 
Elizabeth to the time of Charles I., besides the two mentioned, were 
those of Oldfield, MoorhoiiM 1 . \Yeatherhead, Brigg, Xewby, 
Thompson, Holmes, Ward, Spurrett. Heelis, Stott, Taylor, Wall, 
Simpson, Read, Currer, Rycroft, Milner, Todd, Gott, &c.. while at 
Barwick were the Listers and Croukshays or Crawshaws. Some of 
these are here yet, including Simpson, Read, Mason and Holmes. 

I have seen in the possession of Mr. Henry Simpson some 
Edwardian and Elizabethan coins and other relics and curiosities, 
including the original copper plate, size twent\-six by twenty and a 
half inches, of the celebrated Craven Heifer, engravings from which 
are to be found in many old houses and inns (to which it has given 
name) throughout Craven. John Watkinson, of Halton East, 
purchased that wonderful animal from the Rev. W. Carr, of Bolton 
Abbey for ^200, and after exhibiting her in many an English shire 
had the distinction of slaughtering her with his own hands in 



33 6 

Her dead weight was 150 stones (sixteen pounds to the stone).* Mr. 
Watkinson was grandfather to the present owner of the Draughton 
manor-house, Mrs. Wheelhouse, daughter of the late Mr. Edward 
Whitham. 

Agriculture of course has always been paramount in this district, 
but towards the end of last century and the beginning of this, almost 
every village in Craven had its cotton mill, where now hardly a stone 
is left to tell the story of a vanished industry. Addingham, I have 
shewn, had a very early factory of this kind, and Draughton, too, 
had its little mill shortly afterwards. In the Bolton Abbey registers 
for 1802 a fatal accident is recorded as having befallen a little lad 
at the Draughton mill, the son of Wm. Phillip, of Halton. 

Draughton boasts the possession of some relics of the old parish 
constable days, namely, a pinfold and stocks, though the pinfold was 
removed when the present handsome little church of St. Augustine 
was built on the site two years ago, the foundation-stone of which 
was laid in August, 1897, by the Duchess of Devonshire. The 
school was erected in 1851 on a site, given by Mr. John Coulthurst, 
of Gargrave, and for some years has been in charge of Mrs. E. 
Moorhouse Sim. 

Many are the traditions, anecdotes, and vestiges of folk-lore 1 
might relate of people and places in this my ancestral district, where 
within sound of the convent bells of Bolton Priory, generations of 
my forbears lived and toiled. No gill in a former day was without 
its elf or fairy ; no deeply-banked lane or by-way was without its 
barguest, while more than one lonely farmstead was, wonderful to 
relate, positively haunted ! Old Grace Preston used to relate 
that she had once seen a strange man in the glimmer of candle-light 
in the old manor house at Draughton, and when she spoke to him 
\& vanished like mist! It is always believed that two brothers once 
lived here, and one of them, afflicted with the vile spirit of Cain, 
took the life of his partner, who continued to haunt the murderer 
and his home as long as he lived, nor was the ghost believed to be 
firmly laid even till our own time. Stories of other haunted houses 
are current too. Then again the district was terribly troubled with 
the mischievous wiles of witches and wisemen, and woe betide 
anyone who neglected to nail up the precautionary horse-shoe on 
his house and stable door. A man named Edward Peel, who had 
married a daughter of Currer Gill, of Draughton, in the early part of 
this century, and who then lived at Field House, now occupied by 
Mr. Edwin Thornber, had a family of sons and daughters. The 
youngest -was named Currer Peel and a fine healthy baby he was 

* Our famous Craven heifer has recently been exceeded in sixe and weight by an 
enormous Irish-bred shorthorn bullock, which was exhibited at Harrison's Mart, 
Carlisle, at Christmas 1895. ^ was over seventeen hands high and turned the scales at 
^ stones; being- the heaviest animal of the rlass ever known. 



337 

born, (a> report went) without mark or flaw upon him. But alas! 
the horse-shoe had been by some mischance removed from the door, 
and one day when the boy-babe was asleep in his cradle, Mrs. Peel 
went out to assist her husband in the hay-tields. On her return the 
child was awake and lifting him up, lo ! to her horror and dismay 
found he had a club-foot. She vowed and declared to everyone as 
long as she lived that the witches or bad fairies had done it, as her 
child she said, wa.s born perfect. Be that as it may Currer Peel 
carried a club-foot to his grave in old a- 

Close House, beside the Roman road through Addingham, is 
an old home of the Moorhouses, from whom and which house the 
author of this work is lineally descended. The old homestead (now 
rebuilt) stood there long before the days of bluff King Hal, and 
formerly when old beliefs were rife, was avowed to be under the 
special guardianship of an active, yet testy little hob or fairy, who 
went by the singular name of Red Cap. A curious composite of 
superhuman strength and frailty was this ancient wight. We are 
often told that extremes meet, and surely the proverb could not 
be better exampled than in the singular character of this mytho- 
humanity, who was the very type and ideal of mischief and ill-doing 
as well as of industrious toil. He could play his pranks and bring 
disaster, as the humour swayed him, or work with might and main 
to his own or masters honour, the spirit of evil it might be lurking 
in a righteous breast, the spirit of something burning on the horizon 
of Life, which kindled the old fire of pagan tradition and continued 
to live in various guises in the long after-time. There can be no 
doubt of his pagan forbears, being akin to the race of Kobolcls who 
frequented favoured houses to aid the servants in their work. Here 
at Close House this venerable sprite had been a good little fellow 
in his young days, watching over flock and farm, and we were 
always told he had assisted in hay-time and performed sundry 
and other work, without any fee or reward, perchance saving an 
occasional cup of milk or a cosy nook by the lire-side in stormy 
weather. A wonderful creature truly ! But as rumour saith he one 
day gave the honest farm-folk the cold shoulder, and ever since has 
been wandering through dale and field, an idle worthless wight, no 
good to anyone, and tempting others, too, to idle, evil ways. Many 
a time have I in childhood's days, tossed the sweet mown grass in 
the hay-field, when tired with the rustic work have fallen down 
in the warm sunshine and slept. When so caught I have been 
teased with having seen Red Cap, though I always declared I 
should like to see the imp, but insooth I never did. 

These Moorhouses were living at Close House in the fifteenth 
century, descendants of one of the three families who settled at 
Cracoe and Rilston after the sacking of Bolton Abbey by the Scots 
in the preceding century. While at Close House they must have 



338 



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346 

been in frequent communion with.Bolton Abbey, and when the crash 
came they were one of the few families in this district who resolutely 
held to the faith that had built up the old monastery. They were long 
the principal tenants of the Castle, the lords of which were staunch 
Protestants, who in troubled times must have looked with some 
disfavor on their Catholic tenants, and there is little doubt this was 
the cause of the Moorhouses' removal from Skibeden during the 
unsettled era of the Stuart rebellion in 1745-6. At least one Skipton 
man tried to join Prince Charlie's army, but so strong was the 
opposition in Skipton that the authorities raised a "hue and cry" 
and the man was caught and thrown into York Castle. 

Before the days of railways it was no uncommon circumstance 
to find families who had been living on a single estate for several 
centuries, and this was particularly the case in rural Craven. But 
no one, I believe, has ever yet attempted to elucidate this by descent 
of each successive generation in tabular form. The subjoined 
pedigree, appropriately commencing with an Adam, may therefore 
prove of some interest as furnishing the descent of one of the oldest 
yeoman families in Craven, and is offered as a continuation of that of 
Currer given on page 248. It may be noted that in the course of four 
centuries my own branch of the family occupied but three homesteads, 
and it is moreover remarkable that the heads of the house have 
successively borne the names of Thomas and John for probably not 
less than five centuries. 

Thomas, son of Thomas Moorhouse, died at Close House in 
1538, and by his will he orders that "a derige and a masse be done 
on the daye of my buriall for my Saule and all Crestien saules." 
His family remained at Close House until 1620, when Edward 
Moorhouse took the "model farm" at Skibeden, afterwards occupied 
by Mr. Will Nightingale, the celebrated coursing-judge. The present 
writer has a small carved oak box of apothecary's scales and weights, 
bearing the Government stamp of James I. It is very ingeniously 
constructed, and has the monogram of Moorhouse and date 1624, 
cut in front of the box, which there is no doubt has descended from 
Edward Moorhouse of Close House. He also possesses a carved 
oak cabinet, with an unusual panelled canopy, bearing the initials 
and date, "TM.AM. 1656," a plainly-wrought but interesting relic 
of the time when there was a great transformation in the domestic 
habits in rural Craven, when the old mud hovels were abandoned 
and the better-class of farm-folk began to build roomy and comfortable 
houses, and even decorate them with home-made cabinet work. 
This was made at Skibeden in the time of Thomas and Ann 
Moorhouse, whose grandson Thomas, removed from there to the 
White House, Elslack, in 1746, where they remained until the 
extinction of this branch of the family in the person of the author's 
great-uncle, John Moorhouse, who died in 1891. The senior (Roman 



Catholic) line, however, still survives in the person of Mr. James 
Ellison Moorhouse, of Bradford, whose aunt, Ann Moorhouse, 
married James Haggas, of Keighley, from whom all the Haggases, 
the well-known mill-owners and manufacturers of Keighley, descend. 
Also by the marriage of Nancy, sister of Thomas Moorhouse, of 
Elslack, with Richard Ayrton, of Scale House, Rilston, whose 
daughter, Ellen, married Wm. England (who died in 1860, aged 
seventy), all the Englands of Bingley descend. Many of these 
Moorhouses are buried in the choir of Skipton Church, and though 
but yeomen of the better class they played their part in the passing 
events of the time, intermarrying with the best local yeoman families, 
including the Currers, Bensons, Ayrtons, Chamberlains, &c. More 
than one member of the family took part in the Civil War, joining 
the ranks of Prince Rupert, and assisting in the defences of Skipton 
Castle. The present writer owns the sword of John Moorhouse, who 
after the battle of Marston Moor returned to Skipton and was laid 
to rest with his fathers just three weeks after the great fight in July, 
1644. 

Dr. Wm. Moorhouse, who is described in the biography of Dr. 
Wm. Clapham, as "an eminent surgeon and apothecary at Skipton 
in Craven,"* removed I believe late in life to Gargrave, where he 
had an extensive practise among the Craven gentry. He died in 
1813 and is buried with his wife in the Currer vault in the north 
aisle of Skipton Church. By his marriage with Margaret, daughter 
of Henry Currer, of Skipton, gent, (see page 248), their lineage in all 
its branches, 'in my possession, is traced back to the Earls of 
Northumbria before the Norman Conquest. 

These old Craven yeomen were after all the very backbone of 
the land, the very tap-root so to speak of agricultural developments 
in the dales ; thoroughly conservative though they were in their lives 
and manners, and slow to move or alter their condition, yet they 
gave to Church and State some of their noblest sons. Such were 
the Bensons, Currers, Stubbs, and Thackerays. The Currers were 
living at Skibeden at the same time as the Moorhouses, but this 
branch of the family has never been elucidated. There are good 
reasons for supposing they were of the Wharfedale stock, and had 
settled here in the time of Queen Elizabeth. Wm. Currer of Skibeden 
had a son Thomas, born about 1590, and a son William, born in 
1605, who was related to the Goodgeons, and who was accidentally 
drowned at Bentley Bridge in 1630. The above Thomas Currer, 
who died in 1651, had several sons and daughters, but only Edward 
lived to bring up a family, and he married Abigail, daughter of Wm. 
Goodgeon, with whose offspring the race of Currer of Skibeden died 
out. Their daughters, Mary who died in 1678, and Elizabeth who 

* See York Chronicle for May loth, 1875, one of the principal newspapers of the day. 



342 

died in 1688, were the last Currers of Skibeden. Whether or in 
what way they were related to the Skipton and Kildwick Currers I 
have not made out. Whitaker quotes a letter dated 1711 addressed 
to the Earl of Thanet (3rd ed. p. 384) wherein it is stated that one 
Currer was governor of Skipton Castle. 

The substantial old house at East Skibeden, occupied by the 
Moorhouses, was afterwards rebuilt, and thirty to forty years ago 
was the well-known home of "Judge Nightingale," the celebrated 
coursing-judge. His house was the rendezvous of agriculturalists 
and sportsmen hailing from all parts of the country, and a book 
might be written on the life-story of this famous countryman.* He 
was the recipient of innumerable and costly prizes and presents, and 
many are the stories told of his prowess in the field. He was a 
crack shot, indeed he was a wonderful shot, there was no better 
through the length and breadth of Craven. I will conclude this 
chapter with an unrecorded anecdote of his skill, only giving you a 
foretaste of it by remarking that he once killed seventeen snipe on 
the Nappa estate with just as many shots, never missing a bird, and 
to those who know anything of the shyness of snipe and the difficulty 
of getting at them, the fact may seem incredible. He had a 
marvellously-trained pointer dog, of his own bringing up, which he 
called "Old Duke." At that time it was the custom to shoot over 
dogs; much fairer game according to the old school of sportsmen, 
than the present method of grouse-driving, when hundreds of birds 
are killed in a day. Well, one August the late Duke of Devonshire 
had as one of his guests at Bolton Abbey the late Lord Morpeth, 
Earl of Carlisle, a famous politician and patron of literature, but a 
very bad shot. He invited honest Will to accompany his lordship 
and put him in the right way of securing a few birds to his gun. 
When they had got on to the moors where birds were plentiful, Lord 
Morpeth fired and repeatedly fired but all to no purpose, he could 
not bring down a single bird. "Steady, steady," admonished 
Nightingale, "take your time, my lord, let the birds rise and watch 
the wind," he went on to say. But to no purpose, powder and 
pellets were scattered amongst the heather, but not a grouse fell, 
"Come," said his lordship at last, wearied with his bad luck, I should 
like to see you try Mr. Nightingale, they tell me you are one of the 
best shots in the district." "Nay, my lord," came the suave answer, 
"I have nothing to boast of, though if you wish I will have a chance," 

* From a copy in my possession of premiums awarded at the first show of the 
Craven Agricultural Society held at Skipton on Thursday, 2oth September, 1855, I find 
that Mr. Nightingale took the first special prize of 2, of his own giving, for the best 
pair of horses, of either sex, for agricultural purposes, worked during the season, the 
property of a tenant farmer in the district of Craven, and Mr. J. N. Coulthurst, of 
Gargrave, took the prize of 2, also offered by Mr. Nightingale, for the best cob above 
fourteen and under fifteen hands high, in the district of Craven, 



343 

Tray, take the gun," urged his lordship, handing it to him. So the 
farmer sportsman took the weapon and loading it, got his famous 
pointer well in hand; then hang! hang! hang! seven birds fell with 
as many shots and in as many minutes! "Ton my word," remarked 
his lordship on witnessing this astonishing feat, " I would give fifty 
pounds to shoot like that!" 

At the Duke's table in the evening, Lord Morpeth was loud in 
his praises of the Skibeden yeoman's prowess with the grouse, and 
next day his Grace sent his head-keeper to Mr. Nightingale granting 
him a free day's shooting on the moors. Although the day appointed 
was not very favorable and the moor had been well scouted of its 
game, he with good "Old Duke" managed to bag about ^5 worth 
of birds. 

Mr. Nightingale's sister, I may add, Mrs. Atkin, was considered 
a very superior woman, and as landlady for many years of the old 
Black Horse in Skipton, had the great respect of all who claimed her 
acquaintance. 




ON THE WHARFE, BOLTON WOODS, 



rilAI'TKK XXVIII. 




TllkOlV.ll I UK W(>( )!>.-. PO liARIlKN '1'oWKK. 

I 'in ( -a-int; charm of Bolton \Voods Wild (lowers Tin- Bishop of Lincoln, .\rclihi--liop 
Hen-on and Mr. Ruskin's opinions . \ndsell and l.andseer at Hollon I'he l\e\. 
\Vin. ('air < )peninif out the woods with pleasant paths and drives -Tin- Re\. A. 
I'. Howes Names of soint- old "Scats " Tin- "White Horse" of tin: Strid I.ud 
Islands Harden Tower Inventory in the lime of Lady Anne Clifford -Lite at 
Huden Tower in the time of the "Shepherd Lord" Abstracts of his domestic 
O3CS Lorest lodges and river-watchers -Local relics Harden Church. 

i( ) the woods and hills! \Vh;it a sense of freedom and 
freshness there is in the utterance of these words, 
rendered all the more attractive- when we are conscious 
of the fact that beauty and interest are also enshrined 
therein. And Holton Woods are all this, full of never 
ending interest, and in their grand expanses, fresh and beautiful and 
md though they be as " household words," they are ever as 
wholesome food to the weary and of them the heart never tires. 
Many a time and in all seasons have we sought their pleasant ways, 
in the buoyant freshness of spring, or when thirsting for the refu^i- of 
summer shades, and while autumn "nodding o'er the yellow plain," or 
even after her tropic-colored robes have yielded to winter's frosty grip, 
and our dear protecting Mother lias clothed with her matchless jewels 
leafless twig and bough. 

But to-day the sun is up, and his golden beams are checkering 
the forest glades and throwing long shadows from the old Priory 
walls. Away then, like happy elfs of old, let us trip through this 
sylvan fairyland, tracing the greenwood paths into umbrageous 
depths, where in the sweet poesy of Lycidas 

The mild whispers use 

Of shades and wanton winds and flushing- brooks, 
On whose fresh lap the swart star sparely looks; 

and where the gods seem to have invoked the genius of the forest to 

Throw hither all your quaint enamcll'd eyes 
That on the green turf suck the honied shower--, 
And purple all the ground with vernal flowers. 

With no unsparing hand either, for when bounteous Flora reigns the 
far-spread underwood is massed with kaleidoscopic coloring, and tons 
of nosegays are annually carried off to brighten town homes. The 
gathering of roots, I am glad to say, is strictly forbidden, or the 
floral glory of these " right ancient woodlands " would soon be gone. 
Sweet scenes they are, helpmeets to our earthly joy, scenes that 



34 6 

quicken hope and thought in heart and mind, and to which the pencil 
of genius and the language of poet and dilettante, owe not a little of 
their cunning. Landseer, Turner, and Andsell, amongst artists, and 
Wordsworth, Rogers, Ruskin, and Austin, the latest of our honored 
laureates, have each and all learned something by the lessons which 
these classic scenes unfold. The late Bishop of Lincoln, nephew of 
the poet Wordsworth, used to say, if there was one place more than 
another engraved on the heart and memory of the poet it was the 
scenery of Bolton Abbey. And from the charming life-story of the 
late Archbishop Benson, lately given to the world, we gather that 
Bolton was to the Primate an ideal place, full of soothing restfulness. 
" All the while I am there," he writes in his Diary, " I have a perfect 
Sunday feel," a quiet, beautiful peace ! And Mr. Ruskin too reminds 
us that it was from Wharfedale that Turner, the artist-genius, drew 
much of his early inspiration. He tells us how glad the youth was 
to escape from the cramping din of streets, to reach the Yorkshire 
hills, where all was calm and, nothing "but curlew-cry in space of 
heaven, and welling of bell-toned streamlet by its shadowy rock. 
Freedom at last ! Dead wall, dark railing, fenced field, gated 
garden, all passed away like the dream of a prisoner." 

The late Mr. Henry Whitaker, of Greenholme, tells us how he 
once drove Richard Andsell, the celebrated animal and landscape 
painter, to see Bolton Abbey. It was a beautiful day in the autumn 
of 1842, and the painter, with an eye trained to discriminate Nature's 
moods, became quite enraptured with the scenery and the views. 
After putting up the horse and phaeton at the inn they started to 
walk to the Strid, "but," says Mr. Whitaker, "it was difficult to get 
my companion along, he was so constantly stopping to admire the 
different points of view." "Stop!" he suddenly exclaimed, "Behold 
those cows in the water, what a foreground for a picture and then 
what a background, the old Abbey in the middle distance, and the 
rich, tinted scar opposite, with those glorious old trees towering aloft ! 
Oh, if I had only my paints and sketching-book!" Then he 
would make another sudden stop, and exclaim, "Why, this peep 
surpasses the other," so that it was with the greatest reluctance he 
would leave the place. He lingered some time at the Strid. 

On a former occasion, Mr. Whitaker remarks he had been fishing 
with a friend in the Wharfe at Bolton, and while sitting at lunch 
on the rocks at the right side of the Strid, the Rev. Wm. Carr, then 
incumbent of Bolton, came up the rocks on the opposite side. 
He was accompanied by a gentleman in dark maroon-colored velvet 
shooting-coat. The latter sat down on a portable folding-seat and 
began to sketch in a drawing-book which he had brought with him. 
They soon afterwards learned that this was the young but already 
famous painter, Edwin Landseer, who was staying witH the parson at 
Bolton. Not very long after this appeared the world-famed picture of 



-I 
o 

I 
m 
o 

CO 

c 

2 

s 
m 

33 

I 
O 

c 




348 

"Bolton Abbey in the Olden Time," which was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1834, when the artist was in his 33rd year.* 

Mr. Carr was incumbent of Bolton for fifty-four years, and died 
in 1843 a g ef l eighty. He was the son of the Rev. Thos. Carr, the 
previous incumbent, and his sister, Dorothy, married the Rev. Wm. 
Crofts, whose daughter Mary married the Rev. Wm. Sidgwick, 
founder of Christ Church, Skipton, and father-in-law of the late Dr. 
Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury (see page 294). At the time of 
Landseer's visit Mr. Carr was of advanced age, and was no doubt 
full of interesting reminiscences of the many distinguished people 
who had visited him from time to time at his peaceful home by the 
Wharfe. He was an accomplished scholar and a man of fine taste, 
having an admirable regard for beautiful scenery, and to him we 
owe many of the delicious "peeps," paths, and prospects now existing 
in the woods. It is, however, not generally known that the Duke of 
Devonshire, who was very partial to walking exercise, and had a 
special fondness for his Bolton Abbey demesnes, took no small share 
in formulating the designs for opening out these beautiful woods, and 
some of the walks and vistas he himself suggested. But there is no 
doubt that to Mr. Carr belongs the credit of superintending these 
works and planning himself some of the twenty-eight miles of road 
and walks and opening out many of the exquisite views. 

Bolton, indeed, has been fortunate in possessing in its incumbents 
men of historic taste and ripe learning, who while deprecating any 
abuse of the great privileges so liberally yielded by the noble owners 
of the estate, have preserved a right appreciation of the public 
enjoyment of these unrivalled woodlands. The present rector, the 
Rev. A. Plumptre Howes, M.A., is now very well known not only as a 
good parson but as a good antiquary, who has a more than ordinary 
care for the old abbey and its surroundings, while the public are 
indebted to him for an admirable little guide, which is a model of 
accurate fact and an invaluable help to all who wish to make the 
most of a visit to this delightful neighbourhood. He tells us all 
about the famous Strid and gives us the names and routes to all the 
various "seats" and arbours and best points of view in the far- 
reaching woods. There are by the way a number of places 
mentioned by Montagu (1838) such as Ungain Terrace (where was a 
Lodge, near the Stepping-Stones), Cat Crag Seat, Prior's Seat, St. 
Bridget's Seat, Boyle Ford Seat, Hawkstone, (a little beyond the 
Strid), Buck Rake Seat, &c., some of which appear to be now lost or 
forgotten. Montagu tells us also that just above Friar's Stone Seat 
several grave-stones were found, probably where some friars were 

* It has been conjectured that the Rev. Wm. Carr stood for the Prior in Landseer's 
celebrated picture, but there is no doubt that this central figure of the group was a 
well-known artist friend of Landseer's, named Calcott. 



buried (?), and though diligent search was made for actual remains, 
nothing more was discovered. 

Wharfedale I should say has its " White Horse" as well as 
Hambleton, but the legend of the " White Horse of Wharfedale " 
does not seem to be so generally known and is rarely mentioned in 
descriptions of the Strid. It is nevertheless the outcome of a very 
old local superstition that when a person is drowning in the Strid, 
and how many alas ! have here taken the fatal step to eternity, 
a white horse is seen to rise to the surface of the troubled wave. A 
local poem based on the belief appeared in Alaric Watt's Poetical 
Album, about sixty years ago, and I give one verse from it : 

Then Janet spake, with her eyes of light, 

" O, if I had a fairy power, 
I would change this oak to a gallant knight, 

And this grey rock to a bower. 
Our dwelling should be behind a scr en 

Of blossoming alder and laurest 
The spindle's wool should lie unspui 



And our lambs lie safe in the sin 
While the merry bells ring for my k 



HTKT sun 



ight and me, 



Farewell to the halls of Hothmesley." 

This book is now exceedingly scarce and but rarely quoted. 

The views from the river-side as you approach the Strid are in 
places exquisitely beautiful. Beyond the wooden bridge, near the 
refreshment-lodge, the water expands considerably and there are 
several picturesque islands, which have been known from time 
immemorial as Lud Islands. The divided river which passes on either 
side is also called Lud streams, and there is an old lead-working 
close by called Lud Cave. I take this word to be a survival of the 
Celtic lud, little, or of the Anglo-Saxon hlud, loud or noisy which 
is not to be confounded with A.-S. lid, or lud, hence lud^eat, a 
postern-gate, or barrier anciently erected on the suburbs of our large 
towns and other places leading out to the moors and commons. I 
take the name of the Strid to be a similar survival of the Celtic 
stri, adopted in the A.-S. strith, Norse strith, modern German streit, 
meaning tumult, contention, in allusion to the strife of waters in the 
narrow gorge here, and not as is popularly supposed from its being 
but a stride across. 

We now come to Barden Tower, one of the most picturesque 
and historically interesting places in this part of Wharfedale,* yet 
singularly no attempt hitherto has been made to elucidate its history 
or even to describe it. A search among the muniments at Bolton 
Abbey has brought to light many interesting particulars and out-of- 
the way incidents concerning life at the Tower during the time of 
the " Shepherd Lord," and later the Tower appears to have been 

* In 1892 the superb drawing of Barden Tower by David Cox, 24 inches by 34 
inches, passed by auction to Mr. Agnew for noo guineas. 



built on ;in older foundation, which served as one of the many 
Lodges of the wild Forest of Harden in 1'lantagenet times. The 
it building now in ruins, was raised in the latter part of the 
1 5th century, and is a massive quadrangular structure with its 
principal frontage to the south. The walls seem to have been 
constructed to defy the assaults of time as of man. There are 
detached stones and masses of masonry which stand out threateningly, 
yet the tenacity of the mortar is such that with the exception of a 
little damage done in the stormy winter of 1892-3, no stone is known 
to have fallen within the memory of the oldest inhabitant. The 
roof appears to have been originally thatched, and in 1510 I find a 
payment made for "soddes for the towre toppe." It was certainly 
leaded when unroofed a century ago. Many of our large Yorkshire 
churches had roofs of thatch down to the i8th century, and there 
are many churches in the eastern counties which still retain these 
primitive roof-coverings. Some repairs to the outer walls are now' 
(1899) going on, otherwise nothing has been done to preserve the 
building for about forty years. The spacious banqueting hall, with 
its open fire-place, occupies the central portion, and there are 
chambers of corresponding dimensions above. Other rooms occupy 
the right and left wings. There were in addition to the great 
kitchen, a bakehouse, brewhouse, office or counting-house, pantry, 
buttery, laundry, ewry, (where all the linen was kept) and garners or 
store-house. A slaughter-house also formed part of the premises. 

After the death of Henry, Lord Clifford, at Brougham Castle in 
1570, his widow, Lady Anne, Countess of Cumberland, frequently 
resorted to the Tower. She was a woman of quiet domestic habits 
who cared nothing for the pomp and ceremonies of court-life and 
always shunned London, and was never indeed more happy than 
when in the retirement of her country seat at Barden. It would 
appear that in her widowhood she passed the summer months here 
staying well on into the autumn, and wintering at the Castle in 
Skipton, where she died in 1581. The following inventory of 
provisions at the Tower was taken "at night after soper, bying the 
xvnth day of October, in the xvnth year of our Sovereign Lady 
Elizabeth (1574-5)- 

BACKHOUSM Wheate tlmire, i Inisshell 

P UN i KIM Kreade cclxv inde mane [manchet, a fine bread] xxiis 

Hl'TTKRYK Beare xii ho^sheade- 

(lAKNKKS Hi)])])- 

l-AVYKM YVhyle l.iyj^hts [randies] vi stum- xi Ibs. iii qrts. 

KnciIYNM Biffe, i [)(- iii <jrirs. ; Mutton, i qrtr. ii strokes; t'appim^ xxxviii; 
I If iit-s ; dickens : Sallf'yshe iiii' iiii" xiii tyshe [.4 hundred, 

4 -.core and 13]; Otemeill ; Kid hen tee ; Salt 

Si.AfdHTMK HorsK. Tallow xix sto. ii Ibs. 

The next day we find another note about "Whyte liyghts," telling us 
where and how the Tower was lighted. There was expended in 



352 

"soper-lights"'to my Lady's great chaumbre, i, th' entre' i, th' all, ii, 
countyng house i, small buttre iiii, kitchen iiii, larder iii; starres 
[staircase] i; total i Ib. iii qrtrs." 

After the death of this lady in 1581 the Tower was occasionally 
visited by her son George, Lord Clifford and his wife, the Lady 
Margaret, but the Earl's extravagances compelled him to lease it for 
a few years (1598-1605), after which it does not seem to have been 
occupied again until after the Civil Wars, when it was restored by 
the famous Lady Anne Clifford, as an original inscription on the 
outer front of the building narrates. 

A lively picture may be drawn from the items in the subjoined 
schedule of domestic expenses in 1510, when the "Shepherd Lord" 
was in possession of the Barden estate. It has not before been 
published, and it gives us a glimpse of the inner life of the old 
homely fortress in the Wood, while the storm was still brewing which 
led to the mustering of the stout hearts of Craven, to the trimming 
of yew-bow and battle-axe, which gloried with the Forest chief on the 
bloody field of Flodden. .Henry, Lord Clifford, as is supposed, 
passed his young manhood in concealment as a shepherd among the 
fells of Blencathra, in Cumberland, during the bitter contest between 
the rival houses of York and Lancaster, his father, "the Black-faced 
Clifford" a staunch Lancastrian, having fallen in 1461, and all his 
estates were confiscated.* The royal union, however, of 1485, 
restored the ancestral titles and estates when the "Shepherd Lord" 
of Skipton, &c., was in his thirty-first year. But the life he had led 
among the lonely hills ill fitted him for the spendours of the station to 
which he was raised, and for the greater part of his life he chose the 
peaceful seclusion of the Lodge which he rebuilt in Barden Forest. 

ABSTRACT OF DOMESTIC EXPENSES OF THE "SHEPHERD LORD" IN 1510. 

The xxth day of Octobre Anno re Henr octavi secundo payd to 
Bartolemewe Ges yt he laye downe in reward to syster Jane of 

Esshold ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... iii*. 

It to Raype for corde to the Clokk ... ... ... ... ... vid. 

It to Ric. Jenkynson yt he gaff in reward to the priors servaunt vid. 

It to George Blenkansop yt he gaff to a man yt had his horse 

stollen iis. 

It in reward to mason wyffe alms ... ... ... ... ... vmd. 

It to George Blenkansop for shoying the sumpter horse ... ... viid. 

It to my Lady for corde ... ... ... ... ... ... ... imd. 

It payd the xxiiiith day of Octobre I 

for my lorde expence at Skypton ' .. ... ... ... inis. id, 

It to herres the horse m'shall iii*. iiiid. 

* No doubt more has been made of the "Shepherd Lord's" concealment than the 
circumstances warrant. He was estranged from his estates it is true, but the place of 
his refuge must have been generally known. Henry Hartlington, Esq., for instance, in 
his will dated 1467, bequeathed to him some valuable gifts, including the squire's own 
sword and a standing goblet of silver, gifts that would be publicly known and talked 
about. 



353 

Ii to George Blenkansop for a clothe & a Brydyll ... ,. ... xx<A 

U to the lokke smyth ... ... ... .. xii</. 

li tin nali"~ at Skipton ... ... ... ... ... ... ... iu/. 

Il In l.angskerlh lor his boorde ... ... ... ... ... ... xii</. 

Il to lederston for liy- roMev lor herres ... ... ... ... \-\\\d. 

It to Jenkynson yt my lorde borrowed ... ... ... ... iiii//. 

Itm for Butter to the horse ... ... ... ... ... ... iiiirf. 

Itni for my lord's sumpt.' horsemete fro' Appulby to Skypton ... xmis. 

It to Thomas Kooke for his coste furth of Westmeter ... ... x'lld. 

It to Robert langskerth for his boorde... ... ... ... ... x\\d. 

[t to federston when he cam afor furth of Westmeter ... ... vmd. 

It for carreyng 1 of the gromes of the steble bedde ... ... ... viiirf. 

It payd to Kdward Smyth son for ii Brytlyll Bytte and a plate 

locke ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ins. niid. 

It to the lockkesmyth of Skypton ... ... ... ... ... v\d. 

It to the warden of the freres of hertilpole ... ... ... ... viiirf. 

It payd to Antony Kyrkhowse for an axe ... .. ... ... via?. 

It for his dener at Skypton ... ... ... ... ... ... iio?. 

It to Kic Jenkynson for the dyse ... ... ... ... ... v\d. 

It to Lowes the xxixth day of ( )ctobre for carreyng a Swanne from 

Appulby ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xnd. 

It in reward to ii masons yt my lord sent for... ... ... ... iii.v. mid. 

It payd to Xpofer ffederston on All hallows day for his coste into 

Nythcrdalle ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... x\\d. 

It payd to Bryan Skayll for all his boorde yt is behynde afor this 

day ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... vs. 

payd to Sir Willm [my lord's chaplain] the vth day of Novembre 

for a q'ters wage ... ... ... ... ... .... ... vi.v. viiid. 

It to Kic Wylkoke the same day for a quarters boorde of the scid 

Sir Willm ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xs. 

It payd the vith day of Novebre to Henry Lambart for his boorde 

wag-e afor this day ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ix.v. ii;/. 

Nov. It for Carreage of a Brawne [a lioarj & oy'r stuffr u> 

Harden ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... vino?. 

I'ayd to Thomas Smyth for vi bands &. vi crokes & for work vng 

of the same ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ix.v. vii</. 

It foi- Spykynge ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... iiii</. 

It to Thomas Sotehill yt he lent my lord to offre to ye p'nyte ... ixd. 

It In J;mie* Carr yt hi- ^'aff my lord to offre to st-ynt \\'illm ... xxd. 

It to the prior of Bolton for ground enc-lo>ed within the p'ke .., vi.v. \-ili</. 

It tor the tith ol ' Harden Skole xl^/. 

Item to my lady yt she layd ilowne to my lord ol mysrewle and to 

-<-viit lay light... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... iii.v. inid. 

Item for v playes on Crystemasday ... ... ... ... ... xiii.s. iiii(/. 

,, payd to the playhers of Hallyfax on saynt Thomas day li\ 

the hande of Bart (ic^ ... ... ... ... ... ... iiiii-. \\d. 

,, On Newyere day to the pson of the castle for his coste to my 

lord Conyhers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... v.v. 

to our lady of Bolton light .. ... ... ... ... ... ii.v. 

to a frere ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. viiirf. 

payd to George Blenkinsopp yt he layd downe to my lord & my 

lady and my mastreshis for ofieryng on ChrySCtmafi ... ... \\v. \d. 

payd to Henry Ilolkar for a drome and shavvmes by the hand of 

Barth Ges ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxs. 

It the vith day of January to the hyrde of Crokerice hnlf h}'re ... ii.?. vid. 



354 

It to the hyrde of Holden for halfe hyre ... ... ... ... vs. 

It to Bartyll Gcs yt he layde downe for the plowe light in Ylkeley iiiirf. 

It a pot ayll at Skypton ... ... ... ... . .. ... ... via'. 

Item in reward to the priores of Esshold ... ... ... ... xiiiis. iiiirf. 

It to nir. forster the same tyme for ffreshe acat' in Harden ... xs. 

It for the prisoners at Appulby ... ... ... ... ... ... xl</. 

It to our lady lyght at Skypton ... ... ... ... ... ... iis. 

It for my Lords offerand on Candylmas day ... .., ... ... xxrf. 

It to my ladys offeryng ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxrf. 

It to my lady for grene gynger and treakyll ... ... ... ... xxrf. 

It for iii Sakryng belles ... ... ... ... ... ... ... us. 

It for my lords offeryng' and my ladys at polles ... ... ... iii,?. iiiirf. 

It tor my lords offeryng on good fryday ... ... ... ... vd. 

It my ladys offeryng the .same day ... ... ... ... ... \-d. 

It my iii mastreshis ... ... ... ... ... ... ... iiirf. 

to my lord at the sepulcre ... ... ... ... ... ... iiirt". 

My lord and my lady when thei tooke ther rights ... ... xd. 

iii of my mastreshis ... ... ... ... ... ... ... iiirf. 

It to a proctor of seynt Robt ... ... ... ... ... ... lit.?. 

It to seynt Antony ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... iii-. 

It to my lord to offre & to my [lady] at the resurreecon ... ... v\\\d. 

my iii mastreshis ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... \\\d. 

It for offeryng on seynt george day ... ... ... ... ... vmd. 

It to Thomas Sotehile for the mynstrelles ... ... ... ... iiiirf. 

It to Mr. Steward for a levery to the clokke maker ... ... ... vis. vd. 

It for a levery Jakkett to yong Long the pypur ... ... ... vi.v. vd. 

It payd to John Blenkinsopp the firste day of may for the ffeaz of 

the excheker de An 11 ... ... ... ... ... ... iiiili.ix.v. 

Itm payd the xiiiith day of May for carreage <>( a tone wyne from 

Yorke to Harden by the hands of Roger Wharton ... ... xiiii.?. 

In reward to xpofer smyth for brekyng of a bowe at the musters \-\\\d. 

It for di a yere wage afor this day to Sir Willm ... ... .. xiii.v. iiiirf. 

Itm in reward to a woman of Skypton for hyr merreage ... ... iii.?. iiiirf. 

Itm for a wombyll ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... iiiio'. 

Itm to twoo widowes for the lawnde springe ... ... ... ... iii.?. iiiia". 

Itm payd for palyng when my lord was at London of Harden pke 

to Robt Garth by Bardie Ges xxv.?. viia". 

Itm to Mr. p'son to bye waxe with to seynt Radagunde at Skypton x\d. 

Itm for iii stone yren [iron] Boght at Penreth ... ... ... iii. Ixd. 

My Lords offerand on relique sonday ... ... ... ... ... xd. 

It for mendyng the towre toppe with sodde ... ... ... ... iirt". 

It to Mr. Gerard for a Pagg pype ... ... ... ... ... xiiiia?. 

It for strynges to a fedyll ... ... ... ... ... ... ... i\\\d. 

It to John Blenkinsopp for Crowners ffee ... ... ... ... xiii.?. iiiirf. 

It does not appear, at any rate in his latter days, to which these 
items refer, that he was altogether the recluse one has supposed him 
to be. The entries shew that he resided at Skipton as well as at 
Barden Tower, and that feasting, sports and revelries, formed part of 
the year's programme. Ales, wines, and delicacies were provided 
with a lavish hand. I have not printed these items, which include 
almonds at 3d. per lb., "well-chosen" dates at 4d. per lb., the best 
prunes, raisins, licorice, mace, saffron, &c. Coal must certainly have 



355 

been a luxury, yet I find Sd. a quarter paid for " S quarters of coles." 
Salt-fish was brought in wains from Hartlepool, doubtless by the old 
road through Ripon and 1'uteley Mridge over (ireenhow Hill. 

The "Shepherd Lord" kept the saints' days with feasts and 
jollity and music, and right merrily went the pipes and fiddle-strings 
in the old banqueting-hall at Harden Tower. I find a company of 
players from Halifax engaged on St. Thomas' Day, when some of 
the hogsheads of "nut-brown" always kept in the kitchens, would 
grow all the less for their coming. The wooden benches were then 
covered with hay-cushions or even with loose hay, and the men 
quaffed their ale out of wooden mugs, partaking maybe too, of the 
good old-fashioned raisin-cake, which one rarely sees in the Dales now. 

Christmas Day was kept in royal style , scarlet-berried hollies 
and sprigs of evergreens growing plentifully in the wide woodlands 
around the old Tower, decked wall anil buffet and window-sill and 
mummers- with blackened faces went about ; though painted visages 
were forbidden by law in 1511, two years before Flodden. There 
were also other games and merriment as well as special dramatic 
performances. Strutt tells us that the interlude and sermonium, or 
secular play were of greater antiquity than the religious plays, and 
that the latter were taken up by the ecclesiastics in order to make 
some of the gains which the strolling companies of tumblers, minstrels, 
actors, and jugglers used to make. The lord of Harden also favored 
by gifts the old bride-ales or weddings, when there was generally a 
morris-dance, which also formed part of the Easter and May games. 
We find him presenting 3s. 4d. to a woman of Skipton on her 
marriage, which singularly is just the amount of the fine imposed by 
the Forester of Crookrise on every bride " cumynge thes waye who 
shulde eyther give her left shoo or ins. iiiid. by ryght of custome 
or gatecloys ? That was at None-go-by (Crookrise Lodge) on the 
road between Skipton and Rilston. The old lord also kept a piper 
of his own, and I find him paying as much as 6s. 5d., equal to at 
least ^4 of our money, for a new livery jacket for the braw musician 
to captivate the company on some high festival , or occasionally like 
Chaucer's miller, he might bring the good folk to their doors, when 
perchance the bagpipes got played out and required replacing. A 
new bagpipe it seems cost is. 2d. in 1510, and who shall doubt that 
this very instrument led the way before the little army of Craven 
warriors that marched behind the "Shepherd Lord" up dales north- 
ward away to the memorable Field of Flodden ? The name of at 
least one local man appears in the list, who doubtless bore his bow 
well at that famous engagement. It is Christopher Smith, who for 
his skill in " breaking a bow " at the muster receives from my lord a 
reward of 8d. One might go on for pages yet, noting and reflecting 
upon the various items of interest which these old Dale accounts 
present. But I must stop. 



35 6 

There is also a list of about 40 officers and servants maintained 
at Barden by the " Shepherd Lord " whose wages were paid at the 
Tower, and it is noteworthy that not a single Demaine, Petyt, or 
Lister (the oldest existing local families)* is among them. A 
quarter's stipend amounting to 138. 4d. each is paid to Sir Steven 
Lancaster and Sir George Kerton, one of whom was no doubt 
chaplain at the Tower. The parsons it appears had the choice of 
135. 4d. in money, or one quarter of wheat worth 6s. 8d., and 45. in 
money, and one robe or gown annually, but they seem to have 
preferred the cash. The steward's salary is 25$. a quarter. His 
lordship kept his own barber at Barden, who receives 35. 4d. a quarter. 
In 1511 the good lord journeyed from Appleby to London, and the 
cost of the journey out and home, including horses'-meat, was 
^12 2s. 4d. He had one of his chaplains with him and a numerous 
retinue, some of whom it appears went from Barden; wages being 
paid by the steward at Barden for a quarter ending Candlemas, 1511, 
" to trios yt were att home when my Lorde went to London." 
There were also alms-folk at Barden who received bi-annually from 
his lordship ^3 QS. 4d. To all these hitherto unrecorded facts much 
else might be added. 

There were six lodges or strong-houses in the Forest of Barden 
at this time, namely at Barden (the baronial residence) Drebley, 
Gamelswathf (Gamsworth), Holgill (Hougill), Laund and Ungayne 
(opposite the Abbey) where the keepers resided who were responsible 
for the safe custody of the deer and other game , and there were 
also two houses occupied by the river-watchers, whose duty it was to 
provide fish at such times as required and also to prevent poaching. 
The Tower was restored in 1658-9 by Lady Anne Clifford, who was 
born at Skipton, but was often at the Tower when journeying from 
one of her castles to another. It remained entire until little more 
than a century ago, when the lead and timbers of the roof were 
removed. 

The farmhouse and refreshment-rooms opposite, where the 
caretaker lives, adjoins the chapel, and may possibly have been the 
residence of the chaplains in former times. Here are preserved 

* There do not appear to have been any Demaines or Petyts in Wharfedale as 
early as 1378. In the Poll Tax lists for that year I find other French families such as 
Lawpage (Le Page) at Austwick, Paris at Coniston, and there are Littstres at Austwick 
and Hawkswick. The Demaines anciently wrote their name De Maine, after the 
province in Normandy. Of this family was the late gallant Sergeant Henry Eteson 
Demaine, grandson of Thomas Speight, of Beeston, Leeds, who was killed in Oct. 
1899 in the terrible charge at Elandslaagte during the present Transvaal War. Though 
only 25 years of age he was a noble-minded youth; his last years having been spent in 
works of charity, in attending the sick and preaching to the miserable and fallen in the 
slums of Glasgow. On hearing of his fall a special memorial service was held in St. 
Philip's Church, Leeds, to which he had been attached from a child. 

f Gamsworth for about three centuries has been the home of the Holmes family. 



357 

various antiquities, including stone querns or hand corn mills, a 
Roman spearhead, found here in August iXo.S, an old key of the 
Tower, and there were formerly a number of iSlh century halberts, 
all dispersed but one, which remains to be seen. It appears that 
during the Stuart rebellion of 1745, to which I referred on pane 340, 
the greatest precautions were taken in the parish of Skipton to 
prevent any untoward outbreak. The militia were called out and 
all Papists wen' under the strictest vigilance. At I.olton Abbey is a 
manuscript entitled "A Record of Drums. Colours, and other 
Particulars belonging to the Militia, 1745, at 1'iolton Hall," from 
which it appears that there were then at Harden Tower 45 officers 
pikes and stalls, 30 halberts, 30 drums, and .\X drumsticks. All 
ready for service in case of need. 

The chapel, as appears by the Cliffords accounts was originallv 
a private foundation, and erected into a free church after the 
Reformation. It has never possessed the right of baptism or burial, 
but marriages appear to have been occasionally celebrated therein. 
In the Skipton registers for February 4th 1666-7 I find this entry: 

Laurence I.owrorke and Julian Demand <>f this parish, married at ye Chapill at 
Harden Tower. 

It is now served by the rector of Bolton, being open everv Sunday 
afternoon for public worship. The style of the church is late 
Perpendicular, and of somewhat peculiar construction, with a porch- 
tower, at the west end. The windows have a very domestic 
appearance. The interior was judiciously restored by the late Duke 
of Devonshire about fort}- years ago. It contains nothing of interest, 
but there is a hatchment of the fifth Duke of Devonshire (who died 
in i<Sii) which unfortunately is inaccurately represented. As a K.d. 
his arms are shewn quartering Boyle on one shield, surrounded by 
the Garter, but on the other shield, which, to be correct, should have 
his arms empaling those of his two wives, only the arms of the wives 
are upon it, both being quarterly, viz: ist. wife, Spencer and 
Churchill, and 2nd wife, Hcrvey and four quartering, making it look 
like a shield of eight quartering. 

Harden Bridge, like Bolton Bridge, was of timber up to about 
the time of the great Civil War, when it was reconstructed of stone. 
An inscription upon it reads that it was "repayred at the charge of 
the whole \\Yst Riding, 1676." 



CHAPTER XXIX. 




THROUGH THE VALLEY OF DESOLATION TO SIMON SEAT. 

Posforth Gill waterfall A great flood Romantic gorge Bounds of the Forest of 
Harden British evidences An old trackway over the moor Remains of ancient 
bloomeries In the Valley of Desolation Deer still wild there On the top of the 
moor Strange rocks and wild plants Truckle Crags, old rock-shelters Cairn of 
the "Devil's Apronful" Simon Seat Curious rock phenomena Glorious view 
Remarkable depression on the moor Geological peculiarities Lord's Seat 
Boundary of the Forest of Knaresbro'. 

HE few mile's walk from Bolton Abbey through the 
Woods and up the Valley of Desolation by Aigill 
Head to the top of Simon Seat must be recommended 
to every lover of a moorland ramble. All that is 
asked of him is to keep to the paths and close the 
gates he passes through. The descent from the fell-top may be 
made to the high-road, returning by Harden Bridge and the Tower 
or Strid. Crossing the long wooden bridge in the Woods the main 
road may be followed to Posforth Gill Bridge and from thence an 
ascent may be made of the romantic gill to the waterfall, or a nearer 
route to the waterfall is to ascend the road to the Deer Park Lodge, 
whence a path leads direct to the fall. In either case it is a long 
but pleasing ramble, and on a bright open day the bracing air and 
fine moorland scenery will be greatly enjoyed. 

The old guide used to relate with a smile, that on one occasion 
he accompanied a very garrulous party of ladies and gentlemen to 
the head of the gorge, when one of the gentlemen remarked to him: 
"My good fellow, how much further is it yet to the fall?" The old 
fellow answered: "Just a minute or two, sir, as soon as the ladies stop 
talking you can hear the roar /" And a marvellous roar there is, too, 
especially if you can brave the path after a deluging rain. I 
remember being told of an exceptionally heavy flood which ravaged 
the gorge during a violent thunderstorm about twenty years ago, 
when the rolling of rocks and the cracking and falling of trees could 
be heard nearly a mile distant. At that time there was a moss-hut 
standing upon an elevation just below the waterfall, which the surging 
waters completely demolished and carried away in a hundred 
fragments. The iron thongs which bound it to the rock were 
snapped in twain, and the monster stone itself was dislodged and 
rolled into the stream, where it remains to this day, with portions of 
the iron fastenings still upon it. 



359 

To many visitors the mile or more of Posforth Gill may even 
be preferred to the main valley of the Wharfe, which it joins. While 
the gill is much narrower, the loftiness of the surrounding acclivities 
which are well wooded, with the rock-broken stream tumbling below, 
give it a grandeur and romantic interest not found along the more 
open cour>>e of the ever beautiful Wharfe. The stream in Posforth 




POSFORTH GILL WATERFALL. 



Gill forms one of the important boundaries of the old Forest of 
Harden, and among the Moorhouse (Skibeden) papers I find the 
following seventeenth century citation of its limits on this side of 
Wharfe, which may be fittingly introduced here. In it mention is 
made of many familiar and some unfamiliar landmarks: 



3 6 

THE BOUNDERS OF THE KKOREST OK BARDEN upon the East side of the water ot 
Wharfe as the same is divyded from the Manor and Lordship of Apletreewick and the 
fforest ot Knaresbrough and Storeths and Hazlewood. 

FIRST. Beginning' at the Eastsycle of the Water of Wharfe at the foote or nether end 
of one Litle Brooke or running Water called ftirrbeck, which water divydeth between 
the fforest of Barden and the manor of Apletreewick, and following up the said ffirrbeck, 
unto the head thereof, at head or upper end of the Enclosures, and from thence up ye 
sayde Water unto another (rill or dough, called Ormsgill, and so up the said Gill to a 
place called Lyards seat and from l.yards seate upp the sayd syke unto a standing 
Water on ye topp of the Mountaine called the Blay Tarne and from Blaytarne unto a 
standing stone called the Rocher, atid from the Rocher eastwards unto ye nether end 
of one litle sike caller! Seavy syke and so up the sayd sike unto the head thereof. And 
from thence unto a place called the hardgate end. And from the sayd hard gat end 
unto a place called Gavling maw head and from thence unto a place called Black Gutter 
and from the black gutter unto a place called the Earles seate and from the Earles Seate 
unto a gutter above Harden head and from thence unto Harden head, and from Harden 
head directly over ye Moss (as Heven water divydes) unto a place called Whitwhamhead 
and from thence downe Whitwham unto High gill loot and -;oe downe Highgill unto 
1'osforth gill head and soe downe Posfortli gill as the water divydes unto the water ot 
Wharte. 

Posforth Gill bt-ck is a vi-ry <>ld boundary and in its name there 
may lurk some indication of this, namely in the Celtic pbs, union (to 
unite) and ford, a way. Aygill beck, which joins it higher up, 
(corruptly written High Gill in the above perambulation) has very 
likely also its root in the Goidelic Celtic aw, old Norse c?, meaning 
running water, a stream. We have plenty of traces of the old Britons 
in this moorland territory, and I have little doubt that the substantial 
pathway across the moor from Aigill House, was originally a British 
trackway leading from Brown Bank over the heather to Simon Seat, 
whence it can be traced no further. The path singularly is strewn 
with fragments of iron scoriae, leading us to suppose the presence in 
former times of moorland bloomeries somewhere in the locality. I 
have made many enquiries but cannot learn where it has come from. 

Above Posforth Gill waterfall you follow the path, having the 
beck on the right, into the Valley of Desolation with its evidences of 
the Glacial epoch in the shape of massive striated boulders and 
deposits of clay and debris. The name, however, only originated 
about seventy years ago when a furious storm wrought terrible havoc 
among the oaks and other growing timber in this wild rocky little 
valley. Some of the effects of that great storm are visible even at 
this day in the uprooted and scattered trees standing out black and 
gaunt from the fell sides, while many have been cleared away within 
my own recollection. At the head of it as you look back the scene 
is wild and lonely and is particularly impressive when viewed in the 
sombre light of evening. Away to the south rises Broad Shaw and 
the Nab, where if you look along the crest of the hill you are almost 
sure to descry some of the native red-deer, which are avowed to 
roam these fells unmolested. They are descendants of trie ancient 
race of wild deer, that once abounded in the hills and forests of 



3 6i 

Craven. In 1654, b\ ,i-ivniu-m made between the Countes> Uowager 
of Pembroke and Kli/abeth Counters of Cork, ;i herd then wild was 
driven into the " Farke of Burden, which was lately walled in by the 
said Countess of Pembroke," there to remain "until such time as 
there shall be a parke walled in and made staunch at Bolton or 
Stedhouse by the Countess of Corke." The herd now numbers about 
forty head, and in the summer season the animals are very shy. and 
usually seek the most sequestered spots on the moors, but in winter 
when food is scarce they descend to the lower ground and allow 
themselves to be fed. 




SUMMER HOUSE NEAR SIMON SEAT. 

Passing now through a fragrant pine plantation the path 
presently crosses the beck, and leaving Aygill House a short distance 
to the right, veers northward, parallel with the beck, towards Simon 
Seat (1592 ft.). Away on the heather to the right is a large rocking 
stone, which in all likelihood once possessed properties of good or 
evil, like the rocking-stones of Brittany and Cornwall . also there aiv 
two other conspicuous stones a little to the north of it, which go by 
the names of "Cow and Calf." Further away, overhanging Redsha\\ 
Gill the denuded grits present similar fantastic forms to those at 
Brimham, and one of them has a large cavity in it, no doubt due to 
weathering. The country folk hereabouts call it the Punch Bowl. 



362 



The botanist and entomologist too will find this a rare hunting-ground. 
It is moreover one of the very few localities in Yorkshire where I 
have found the pure white heather. Here and there among the 
heather grows the hardy cranberry ( V. oxycoccos) and there are large 
beds, too, of the pretty cowberry or red whortleberry ( V. vitis-idaa) 
with its pale green underleaves and red-ripe fruit. Many of the stones 
hereabouts present curious freaks of weathering ; one being shaped 
like a human head and has eyes, nose and mouth complete. Another 
looks almost like a lion couchant, and a third has the appearance of a 
large open-mouthed frog, or even crocodile. These resemblances 




SUMMIT OF SIMON SEAT. 

must have impressed the old British denizens of these high moors, 
who were always ready to deify every rock, stone, or natural object 
that possessed any extraordinary aspect or peculiarity. 

The path runs close beside Truckle Crags, which have all the 
appearance of British rock-shelters ; the largest stones having been 
under-dug on the sides least exposed to the elements, forming capital, 
if primitive, house-shelters. In one of these cavities, I have been 
told, -some sheep-stealers many years ago killed and cut up one or 
more" sheep, which they^hid- and carried off piece-meal in bags so as 
to allay suspicion. About two hundred yards to the south of this 
group -of rocks is a cairn of stones locally known as the "Devil's 
Apronful." It is about forty yards in circumference, and may 



possibh ( over the dust of some old Celtic hero, governor of the rude 
tribes of these wild moorlands. An upright stone below the cairn 
Ins on the west side three round holes in it, one of them quite four 
inches deep. 

The lofty group of rocks now seen ahead of the famous Simon 
Seat (shewn in the annexed engraving from Mr. Pollard's photograph), 
are also most strangely marked, and it is difficult to decide whether 
these pecularities are wholly due to natural weathering, or whether 
some of them are not the result of human fashioning. Many of them 
are no doubt concretionary particles due to an excess of carbonate of 
iron deposited in the stone along lines of bedding and forming iron- 
hard knob-like excrescences. The surfaces of many of the rocks art- 
covered with these peculiar little knobs or nipples, with here and 
there a basin-like cavity, and small curiously-formed orifices and 
holes that look as if they had been purposely drilled. In my Craven 
Highlands (1.^92) I have devoted a few pages to a discussion of these 
singular appearances and I see no reason to alter my conclusions 
regarding their service in the superstitious rites of the old Britons 
whom we know occupied these high, commanding moors. That 
they belonged to the School of Simon Druid, the Simon Magus of 
Scripture, after whom the hill may be named, I think I have also 
sufficiently shewn,* likewise that the land whereon these rock-nipples 
occur is called after them Pock Stones Moor. 

Glorious is the view from this mountain temple on a bright 
summer's day. Readily may we conceive in the old Beltein times 
when fires of thanksgiving bla/ed on every mountain top, the hues 
of a liery sunset reflected on the faces of the assembled throng, while 
notes of praise and prayer were uttered to the unknown (liver of all 
earthly good. To us who have our stone-built temples of worship in 
the vales, these sacred hill-shrines of our pagan ancestors ma\ seem 
uncouth and strange, yet let us bear with them in reco^nixing that it 
was the same' inscrutable impulse which animated them as moves us 
to acknowledge the One great Presence from whom all life and being 
proceeds ! 

About "a hundred yards to the east of Simon Seat is a lar-r 
cone-shaped depression in the surface of the moor. It is about 100 
feet diameter at the top and some fifty feet deep, without water, and 
has doubtless been formed through the subsidence of the shales 
beneath the superimposed millstone-grit. There are several minor 
subsidences in the vicinity, and in no case do they contain water. 

* Set' also Airli. .l-'.lianu N.S. XV., 23- 32, on British burials on the Simonside 
Hills Northumberland. It is also to he noted that, as \vc learn from the biography ol 
the Celtic St. Columba (to who-e mission our modern Yorkshire owe- its Christianity), 
the Druids were then active, and that they were regarded as magicians and sorcerers, 
and as such ranked with Jamie* and Jambres and Simon Mag-u-. .V<v Rhys' Celtii 
firitain, p. 70. 



The surface material of these high moors is classed with the Third 
Grits of the millstone-grit series, and is equivalent to the Chatsvvorth 
grit of Derbyshire. It is a hard massive greyish-looking grit, which 
through the denudation of the underlying shales has broken up into 
large rectangular masses, forming a bold escarpment along the upper 
edge of the hill. Large quantities have been broken up for walling 
purposes. About half-a-mile to the east the great rocks of Lord's 
Seat (1550 ft.) stand out conspicuously, and from which a long stone 
fence runs southward, forming a division between the Forests of 
Knaresbro' and Barden. Here the strata is well "salted" with quartz 
pebbles and dips at a high angle to the north, while the immense 
disjointed masses appear tipped on end like huge stranded vessels 
wrecked in a rough sea. And what a rough sea-like moorland this 
is to be sure, with nothing but miles of broken peat-moss and wiry 
heather vanishing to the sky! It is delightful to be out on these 
wide moorlands, breathing the fresh unadulterated air, though 
wandering from the paths is forbidden, particularly in the nesting 
season. The moors are the haunt of the grouse and curlew, and are 
annually visited by the Duke of Devonshire's shooting-party. 

The boundary-wall dips across an extensive shallow and now 
waterless depression called Dry Tarn, but if it be the same spot as is 
mentioned in the above perambulation, as I presume it is, the proper 
name is Blea or Blay Tarn, possibly a corruption of the Celt, blaen, 
appned to the source of a stream. Just beyond crops up the old 
Celtic boundary in Black Crag, already explained. See page 199. 

If the descent be made into the Skyreholme valley the main 
road to Barden or Appletrewick is reached by following the woodland 
path under the fell into the picturesque old lane running by Howgill 
and Eastwood Head farm to Dale Head. The prospect from the 
lane over the valley towards Trollers Gill and Appletrewick is 
charming and from no point of view does the lofty summit of Burnsall 
Fell stand out more grandly. By the road side is a venerable mile- 
stone very crudely inscribed "To Patley Bridge m 6," a relic of the 
days when this was the main route into Nidderdale. 

Dale Head is one of the old homes of the Bensons, connections 
no doubt of Halton Bensons, from whom Lord Bingley descends, or 
of the Pateley Bridge family from which descended the late 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 



CHAPTER XXX. 




APPLETREWICK. 

[mportance ot App!etn-\vii-k belorr tin- Norman Conquest hs ancient Callow- 
Manorial history Salt- of the manor to Bolton Priory (Irani ot tree \varrcn, its 
meaning and Significance History after the Ketoi mation Old house- Krroneous 
conclusions Court rolls of the manor Old customs -Local families The stocks 
Ancient mansions Tin- noble family of Craven- Supposed birth-place of Sir \Vm. 
Craven Low Hall and the Proctors Local ancestry of Archbishop Benson 
Meaning- of Appletrewick. 

P to the time of the Viking irruption in the ninth 
century the sunny little village of Appletrewick was 
probably of more importance than its neighbour 
Burnsall, though for a very long period it has been but 
a dependent township of that ancient parish. In the 
Middle Ages Appletrewick had every year a great four days' fair, a 
prescription never extended to Burnsall. Its ancient lords possessed 
also the important right to sentence, even to death, criminals taken 
within their jurisdiction, claiming as escheats their goods and 
inheritances, and hanging them upon their own gallows within the 
manor. This fact seems never to have been noticed before, and one 
would like to know where these old gallows stood. The privilege 
was undoubtedly claimed by right of ancient usage long anterior to 
the Norman Conquest. 

In the reign of the Confessor Appletrewick, too, had a larger 
area of cultivated land than Burnsall. When the great inquest was 
made in 1085-6 it was in two ownerships, one moiety being held by 
a Dane, Orme, and the other by one Dolphin, son of Thorfin, who 
was of Anglo-Saxon descent. (Set HKHDEN.) Orme's manor was 
probably at Woodhouse, an ancient village, which has always had a 
capital messuage, and his name is preserved in Ormsgill, which 
separates that manor from the old Forest of Barden. A daughter of 
the above Dolphin married the famous noble Gospatrick, who was 
lord of thirty-two manors in 1086, and was descended from the great 
Earls of Northumbria. Soon after the Conquest both manors 
(Woodhouse and Appletrewick) became consolidated in the great fee 
of the Romilles, and about 1150, Adeliza de Romille, the foundn 
Bolton Priory, granted half the estate to Robert de Bulmer, also six 
bovates to Kdulf de Culnese (Kilnsey) by tenure of Knight service. 
The Robert de Bulmer here mentioned, was of the powerful house of 
Bulmer, lords of Bulmer, Co. York, an old parish-town six miles 
south-west of Malton, which gives name to the wapentake of Bulmer. 
At Darlington there is a large block of stone railed the "Bulmer 



3 66 

Stone," but nothing is known of its history, nor how it came by its 
name. It is supposed to have been a memorial of one of this ancient 
race of warriors.* The family subsequently obtained the remaining 
moiety of Appletrewick, and continued to hold the same by Knight 
service of the superior lords of the fee. Henry de Neville, grandson 
of the original grantee, next bestowed part of the estate, under the 
name of the manor of Woodhouse, to the Priory of Marlon in 
Cleveland, reserving only two oxgangs as a donation to the Nunnery 
of Monkton. The estate at Woodhouse continued in possession of 
Marlon Priory lill its Dissolution in 1540. The manor of 
Applelrewick, however, descended lo the Albemarles and in 1204 
ihe Earl of Albemarle obtained the King's leave to afforest Ihe 
grealer porlion of Ihe land here. Consequenlly this large area was 
converled into a vast hunting-field, no doubt well stocked with wild 
boars, wolves, deer, and other beasls of venery. Indeed ihe whole 
of Ihe valley from near Bolton Abbey up to Burnsall was at this 
time one continuous forest abounding with big game, though not 
necessarily woodland, as under the feudal law a "forest" might 
include Iracls of arable and paslure ground, commons or wasles; the 
forests moreover being exempt from ordinary jurisdiction. 

On the failure of the line of Albemarle Ihe manor of Applelrewick, 
wilh the rest of the fee, was seized by John de Eslon (Eshlon).'in 
virlue of his descent from William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle, who 
had married Cicely, daughter of William Filz Duncan, by his wife 
Adeliza de Romille, from whom Ihe senior line of Albemarle descended. 
Bui under ihe feudal system all land was held of the King, and 
however great or powerful were the lords of manors they were but 
his vassals and were bound to shew their tille by charier from ihe 
sovereign, as lord paramount At this lime Edward I. was in Ihe 
Holy Land and did nol return till 1274, and within the next few 
years when the king was at liberty to legislate after collecting a vast 
amounl of evidence, an agreemenl was come lo by which Ihe honor 
of Skiplon was retained by ihe King, reserving Ihe manor of 
Applelrewick, among olher possessions, lo Ihe said John de Eshlon. 
Happily Ihis was an era of peace and prosperily and Ihe King sel 
aboul lhal wise adminislralion of Ihe affairs of Ihe realm which has 
earned for him Ihe lille of Ihe English Justinian. In the first thirleen 
years of his reign (1272-84) more was done lo sellle and eslablish 
ihe dislribulive juslice of Ihe kingdom, declares Sir Matthew Hale, 
than in all the ages since that time put logelher. This monarch 
established and confirmed Ihe Greal Charier and Charier of Foresls, 
and secured Ihe properly of Ihe subjecl by abolishing all arbilrary 
taxes, and lallages, levied wilhoul consenl of the national Council. 
He instituled a commission of enquiry inlo ihe lilies of lordships 

* See Historical .Votes oj the Baronial Hvtmc / Rulnu-r, p. 9. 



3*7 

throughout the kingdom, with all their appurtenant prerogatives, 
which there- is no doubt had been greatly abused by the lords 
themselves for many years before that time. 

With respect to Appletrewick, James de Kston was summoned 
to answer the lord kin- by a writ de </uo 7carni/ii<>, which I do not 
lind anywhere quoted, though it is of no little importance in the 
constitutional descent of the manor. He was called upon to shew 
by what warrant he claimed to have " a free mine of lead and iron, 
of beer, toll, stallage, and gallows in Appletrewick, which 
belong to the Crown." The said James went into court and said 
that John de Kston gave him the manor with four bovates and a 
culture called Kalegarth, with the mines and all other liberties 
thereto belonging, as he had received the same from the lord king. 
But in the course of his examination it was shewn that the said gift 
had not been ratified by the king, a matter that must be attended to. 

This James de Eston sold the manor to the Prior and Convent 
of Bolton, and the compotus of the Abbey shews that in A.D. 1300 
the Prior journeyed to Rome in order to obtain the necessary powers 
to purchase. The same year they paid the said James tie Eshton 
^14 is. 4d. in part payment for the manor of Appletrewick, and for 
charters of the lord king for the transfer was paid 32*. 4d. In 
1310 the monks were fortunate in obtaining great privileges within 
their manor of Appletrewick, as appears by the following hitherto 
unpublished charter. 

(IRANI 01 I KM \\AKKKN AM) A IAIK IN A i'l'I.l- I Kl \\ H 'K lo I 1 1 H I'KIOK AND 

I'MNVKM 01 Hoi. ION IN CKAVI \. 

The Kin^ to hi-- Archbishop-. Xc. greeting 1 know ye that We at the instance of our 
beloved and trusty Peter de Gauaston Karl <>l Cornwall have granted and by this our 
charter have Confirmed to Our beloved in Christ the Prior and Convent of Koulton 111 
Craven that they and their successors tor ever may ha\ e tree warren in all their demesne 
lands of their manor of Appletrewick in the Co. of York. While however such lands be 
not within the metes of our forest So that no one shall enter such lands to hunt in these 
to hunt in them or to take anything which to the Warren belongs without the licence 
and will of the aforesaid Prior and Convent or their -ucc< --.MM -- upon lorleiture to u- of 
ten pound-. And that they may have a lair every year at their Manor aforesaid lasting 
for four days to wit for two days before the feast ot St. I. uke and on the day and 
morrow of the same feast unless such fair be to the hurt of neighbouring fairs wherefore 
We will and firmly command for us and our heir- that the aforesaid Prior and Convent 
and their successor-, tor ever may have tree warren in all their dcme-ne lands aforesaid 
while however &c. So that &c. And that they may have the aforesaid fair at their manor 
aforesaid with all liberties and free customs to such fair appertaining unless \c. a- i- 
aforesaid. These being- witnesses the venerable father W. bishop of Worcester our 
Chancellor Gilbert de Clare Karl of Gloucester and Hertford John de Warren Karl of 
Surrey Henry de Percv Robert de Clifford Ralph son of William Robert -on of 
Pagan Steward of our household and other-. Given at New Monastery the ninth day ot 
Sept. by wit of privy seal. 

The feudal monarchs had jealously protected the wild game of 
the country, and upon the introduction of the forest laws at the 
Norman Conquest no man was allowed to destroy any animal without 



3 68 

royal leave, under the severest penalties. He dare not even kill a 
wolf that was attacking his own child. In Saxon times, though no 
one was permitted to kill or chase the King's deer, yet he had the 
liberty to start any game, pursue and kill it, upon his own estate. 
For ten years the canons of Bolton however, dare not take as much 
as a rabbit from their own estate at Appletrewick, but when they got 
the King's license of free warren, no doubt they employed a keeper, 
and as the charter ordains, the fine for poaching was extremely 
severe. There was a statute in force at this time by which a poacher 
was compelled to stand when called upon, on pain of being shot. The 
beasts of warren included no large game , only such as woodcocks, 
herons, partridges, pheasants, hares and conies. A coney is said to 
be a rabbit of more than one year. Rabbits, though believed to 
have been introduced by the Romans, were by no means common in 
England for some time after the Norman Conquest. The accounts 
of Exeter College, Oxford, for A.D. 1361, shew that they then fetched 
in that part of the country 4d. or 5d. each, equal to 55. or 6s. of 
present money. But this was a time of national scarcity and large 
numbers had been captured and eaten to stave off famine. A century 
later they had greatly increased, and at the banquet given at the 
installation of Archbishop Neville, at York, in 1465, 4000 rabbits are 
recorded as having been consumed. 

Shortly after the suppression of Bolton Priory the manor of 
Appletrewick was granted in fee to Sir Christopher Hales, Kt. Master 
of the Rolls, and in 1545 was in possession of Thomas Proctor of 
Cowper Cotes, who sold it in that year to Sir Arthur Darcy, Kt., 
facts not noticed by Whitaker. The title brought with it the right 
to continue the fair, though on what days it continued to be held I 
have not ascertained. In Wm. Storr's " Booke of Remarks " (A.D. 
1700) the sheep fair is stated to be held on Oct. i4th and for beasts 
the day following. In 1830 it was held on Oct. 25th (eleven days 
having been omitted from the calendar in 1752) for horses and 
horned cattle. The importance of the fair dwindled with the spread 
of railways and ceased altogether about forty years ago. Old folks 
however remember the sight, and the scene of life and bustle the 
road presented on the annual fair-day. Immense quantities of onions 
were brought into the "town," and sold wholesale and retail. Indeed 
this came to be the staple article of sale, and for many years the 
event was generally spoken of as " Ap'trick Onion Fair." 

Going down the street on the right hand there is a small 
picturesque Stuart building, standing north and south, with a flight 
of stone steps leading up to the doorway, which is often ridiculously 
spoken of as the Chapel of the monks of Bolton, though obviously 
erected more than a century after the dissolution of the monastery. 
But this is only one among many other instances of false dates put 
upon buildings in the dale. The cottage adjoining has a partly 



3 6 9 

vvalled-up doorway (now a window) with the date 1697 over it, and 
in one of the inner rooms is a fire-place inscribed R.T. 1696, with a 
disfigured device between the initials and date. 

In 1549 the manor, with appurtenances, was sold by Sir 
Arthur Darcy, Kt., for ^2,000 to Sir John Vorke, Kt., Lord Mayor 
of London (who died in 1568) the head of a family now represented 
by Thomas Edward Yorke, Esq., of Bewerley Hall, in the adjoining 
valley of tin- Nidd. The conveyance carried with it the privilege, 
supported by immemorial usage, of digging for minerals and holding 
courts. The extant court-rolls of the manor commence in 1620, but 
contain little of interest beyond the names of tenants and jurors who 
assembled at the annual holdings of the court in October. The 
annual perambulations of the boundary of the manor were evidently 
a much-looked for event, bringing out most of the male population 
of the neighbourhood who were able to mount the hills and traverse 
the rough country that lay on the line of march. According to the 
.old churchwardens' accounts, which have been carefully edited and 
printed by the rector of Burnsall, the Rev. YV. J. Stavert, M.A., it 
appears that two days were usually absorbed in these perambulations, 
the first day in traversing the bounds of Burnsall while the second 
was devoted to Appletrewick. One hundred and fifty years ago 
more than 2os. was generally spent by the parish officials in cheese 
and cakes and ale on each day of the gatherings. And lively and 
merry days they must have been, parson and churchwardens and 
school children all joined in celebrating the event. In 1709 however, 
the stipulated expenditure on these occasions was to be no more 
than 14*. 

It seems that in 1724 there were ninety inhabited houses in 
Burnsall-with-Thorp, Appletrewick, and Hartlington, and allowing 
five persons for each house, the population would then be about 450. 
In 1835 the township of Appletrewick alone had just that number, 
while Burnsall had 250, and Hartlington 120. Since then there has 
been a great decline, due to remoteness from railway traffic , the 
population of the whole parish being registered in 1891 as 429. 
Formerly there was a good business done in cotton-spinning and 
manufacturing, and in the fourteenth century there was a good deal 
of weaving, dyeing, and fulling done in the village, but in recent 
times the life of the place has been purely pastoral and agricultural, 
the sweet air and quiet thrifty habits of the inhabitants of this pleasant 
part of Wharfedale being greatly conducive to health and longevity. 

I should, however, state that a smithy has existed here almost 
from the era of the Norman conquest, and payments to the blacksmith 
of Appletrewick occur in the accounts of Bolton Abbey as far back as 
the reign of the first Edward. In 1378 John Young, jun., was the 
village blacksmith, and this family in recent times lived at the High 
Hall. Seventy years ago Wm. Gill and Thomas Hargrave were the 



37 

local smiths . Gill had a bit of land besides, and his son, John Gill, 
farmed the glebe lands under the rectors of Burnsall for many years 
and was also chief sheep-keeper on the extensive fells of Burnsall and 
Thorpe. He afterwards took Ryshworth Hall farm, Bingley, where 
he died in 1892. The blacksmith's father, Robert Gill, was the 
principal initiator of local Wesleyanism in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, and the first Wesleyan missionaries preached 
from the old horseing-steps which stood beside his house at Burnsall. 

The Burnsall parish accounts also shew that the Inmans, a very 
old family here, were smiths and wheelwrights in the parish 170 years 
ago. Some of the family for a long time lived in the old house at 
Gateup, one of whom, Thomas Inman, died there in 1603, and left a 
will proved in the Exchequer Court of York, 2oth July, 1603. John 
Moorhouse, of Skipton, a member of the same family mentioned on 
page 338, married in January, 1612-13, Mary Inman, and afterwards 
resided at Wood End, Barden. His son, Brian Moorhouse, was 
baptised at Burnsall, November i2th, 1613, and was probably the 
same Brian Moorhouse who purchased Gill Bottom, Norwood, in the 
parish of Fewston, from the Fairfaxes about 1650, which his 
descendants of the name continued to occupy for 230 years. 

There are two comfortable long-established hostelries at 
Appletrewick, the New Inn and Craven Arms, and near the latter 
stands the old village stocks, how old, who shall say? They tell, 
however, of some importance in bygone times, for an Act was 
passed in 1405 ordering " every town and village in the King's 
realm " to provide a pair of stocks, only such places to be exempted 
as came within the definition of a hamlet. Care has been taken 
here of this old-time relic and in 1894 it was restored and the whole 
set in concrete. The importance of Appletrewick in former ages 
is still evidenced by the presence of two or three substantial old 
mansions, doubtless built on the sites of still older ones. But no 
little interest attaches to a small, low building which up to three 
years ago stood in the main street on the site of the present neat 
chapel-of-ease to Burnsall. Here in this humble cottage, of which 
I am privileged to give a view by the courtesy of the rector of 
Burnsall, it is traditionally held that the famous Sir William Craven 
was born about 1548. He rose to wealth and eminence in the city 
of London, was Sheriff in 1600-1, became Lord Mayor in 1610-11 
and was ancestor of the Earls of Craven. He built Burnsall 
Grammar School in 1602. The site and cottages have for an 
indefinite period belonged to the family. The exterior aspects of 
the cottages are distinctly later than the time of Henry VIII., but 
it is evident they have undergone alteration. It is also noteworthy 
they have upper chambers, a circumstance of rare occurrence in the 
humbler country dwellings of Henry VIII. 's time. Some doubt 
must always exist as to the real home of his birth, which is 



just as likely to have been at the old Hall on the opposite side >t 
the road. 

The stories of the -Teat man's early poverty and of his entering 
London shoeless and penniless are no doubt exaggerated. Of 
course money was not plentiful among tenant farmers so soon after 
the dissolution of monasteries, but there is evidence at any rate to 
shew that the C ravens of Appletrewick even at that time w< 
well-off as any tenant family in Upper \Vharfedale. The subsidy- 
rolls for 1523 state that Henry Craven was taxed on goods, 2os., 
while twentx vears later there were three families of the name in 




REPUTED BIRTHPLACE OF SIR WM. CRAVEN, APPLETREWICK. 

Appletrewick all contributing substantially to the imperial taxes on 
the value of their moveable effects, such as cattle. They were in 
fact the principal taxpayers. But apart from their comfortable 
circumstances the fact will always create the liveliest interest that 
from the obscurity of this remote Wharfedale village sprang one who 
attained honors and wealth quite unrivalled in his day and generation. 
From a very valuable and exhaustive paper on the lineage of the 
family by the present rector of Burnsall,* I gather there were two 
families of Craven living at Appletrewick in the early part of the 

r>;-X-v. . In html, /'iiinidl, XIII. pp. 440-4X0,. and XIV. p. -'44-5. 



372 

iyth century. The head of one house was Thomas Craven, who 
was born in 1611, and in 1649 is described as of Elm Tree 
in Appletrewick. He had a son Anthony, described in 1660, as 
"gentleman" of Appletrewick, and in the year following was granted 
a baronetcy as Anthony Craven of Sparsholt, Co. Berks, and he was 
also knighted the same year. The above Thomas Craven in 1672 
paid hearth-money for his house at Appletrewick, a fact by itself 
sufficient to establish a certain status, as the levy was imposed only 
on those houses paying to church and poor. There is a probability 
that he was then living at the old hall now standing at the top of 
the village, and I will quote what Mr. Stavert says on the subject. 

The old house at Appletrewick was probably built in 1667, and there is what may 
once have been part of an old porch or gateway, inscribed with that date and the 
letters T.C. In the wall of a barn close by there is a stone upon which has been cut 
W.C. 1665. Tradition says that it is built upon the site of an older house called Elm 
Tree, and there is still standing- outside the gate a large specimen of this kind of tree, 
which may be of any age, to attest the fact. If the Thomas Craven, whose will has 
just been noticed, was the owner and builder of the house, it would seem that somehow 
he had succeeded to the property once in the possession of the other family, as will 
appear from the lists of names which have already been given. There is a coat-of- 
arms over the fireplace in one of the rooms which is the same as that now borne by the 
Craven family, but without motto, coronet, or supporters. The cottage in which the 
Alderman is said to have been born, stands just opposite the Hall, on the other side ot 
the road, but is rapidly falling into decay [1895]. 

Most likely there has been a hall on the site from the Norman 
settlement, if not before, though it is not mentioned until about the 
year 1280 when the estate was confirmed to John de Eston. It was 
then described as a "capital messuage," and erected during an era 
of great building activity, had probably some of the characteristics 
still existing about Grassington Old Hall. The present mansion, now 
a farm-house, is a sturdy specimen of a yeoman's residence of the 
middle of the iyth century. It possesses, however, features only to 
be found in superior homesteads of this time, including a large hall 
with minstrels' gallery, like the stately mansion of the Murgatroyds at 
East Riddlesden in the parish of Bingley, erected about the same 
time. The oak screen in the dining-hall is of excellent workmanship, 
and the design has been copied in the uppermost portion of the new 
screen in Burnsall Church, and cleverly executed with other work in 
the church by a parishioner, Mr. Richard Clark. The Hall is now 
the property of the Earl of Craven. 

Low Hall is another good house, which for several years has 
been tenanted by Mr. Chas. Rickards, of Bell Busk. It appears to 
have been built by a Thomas Preston during the Interregnum, and 
afterwards passed to the Cavendish family, who sold it to the 
Proctors of Kirkby Malham about forty years ago. Above the 
principal entrance it is recorded that the house was restored in 1868 
and there appear the initials w A. p. and K p. [Win. and Robert Proctor.] 
The old oak door has a rather handsome hinge, and the entrance 



373 

hall is oak-panelled to ;t height of thirty fert and possesses .1 iiiu- 
broad oak stairr.tM-. On an outbuilding I noticed the initials and 
date I. P. 1690. Another old house at the top of the village is 
inscribed T.N. 1688. After the Civil Wars money began to accumulate 
and much building was the consequence. Largely through the 
exertions of the present rector of Burnsall, ably supporu-d by 
parishioners and friends, the little chapel at Appletrewick was erected 
in 1897-8. It is a small but neat stone edifice dedicated to St. John 
the Baptist, the patron of the Merchant Taylors' Company, in which 
Sir Wm. Craven was conspicuously interested. The chapel was 
opened on May 3rd, 1898, by the Bishop of Ripon, in the presence 
of Evelyn, Countess of Craven, Miss Farquharson, of Invercauld, and 
many of the local clergy and gentry. The Bishop delivered an 
eloquent address on the "Cleansing of the Temple," and the event 
will long be remembered. 

It is impossible for me to mention the many native families and 
individuals who have won a respectable position in the conduct of 
local and even national affairs during the centuries that have gone by. 
The good old Grammar School at Burnsall, is responsible for much 
of the training that effected the after-distinction of many a native son 
and daughter of the soil. In the old parish accounts I find the death 
recorded of the Rev. Peter Alcock, rector, in 1773, and in this year 
there was married a certain Bridget Clark, of Appletrewick, to 
Christopher Benson, landlord of the old Crown Inn at Pateley Bridge, 
a noted posting-house, where he died in 1765, and shortly afterwards 
the property realised some ^"SOQO. Christopher Benson also 
established a large business with York as a factor and amassed 
considerable wealth. Their son Edward Benson lived in Kirkgate 
House close to Ripon Minster, and was father of Captain White 
Benson, who served in the Irish rebellion of 1798, and he was 
grandfather of the Rt. Hon. and Most Rev. Edward White Benson, 
D.D., the late popular Archbishop of Canterbury. Thus by descent 
from the marriage of this rustic maid of Appletrewick sprang the 
distinguished Primate of All England. Other important matrimonial 
alliances might also be adduced, and one such "royal descent" from 
a local yeoman's daughter I will mention in the notice of Percival 
Hall, or as it is locally called Parcivall Hall. 

I may just add, in conclusion, that the name Benson is said to 
be of Scandinavian origin and was originally Bjornson, "son of the 
bear," and has lately come to the front in Martinus Bjornsen, the 
Norse poet. Singularly the name Burnsall appears to have the same 
meaning, namely the hall or seat of Bjorn, the original Norse settler, 
as explained elsewhere. Appletrewick, I should further add, is most 
likely from the Teutonic apcl (apple) tieo (tree) and wick (village), 
though some may assert that in the prefix "Apple"' lurks a corruption 
of the original owner's name, as it was the custom to plant trees in 



374 

certain localities identified by the names of their owners, as Allerstree 
(Adelard's tree) Oswestry (Oswald's tree) and perhaps also Daventry 
and Coventry. According to Vigfusson the Norse epli equivalent to 
the Celtic afal, became apal in compound names, as in the Domesday 
interpretation of Appleby, the seat or town of some famous or large 
apple-tree. It is contended, however, by Dr. M. W. Taylor* that 
Appleby is Hicllpeby, or the town of Hialp, a personal name that is 
found in the Sagas, and is not unlikely to have been the name of the 
original Norse settler at Appleby. Locally the name is pronounced 
Veppleby, and the prefix is doubtless the same which occurs in such 
places as Whelp Castle, Whelphow, and Whelpstones Crag. In 
Domesday our VVharfedale village is spelled Apletreuuic, and I have 
preferred to write the modern name with a single "e" as 
approximating more nearly to the Saxon original. Locally it is always 
"Ap'trick." The apple is a true native of England, while such as 
raspberries, strawberries, and cherries were not grown in England till 
Henry VIII's time. The tree at Appletrewick was in all probability 
in a place appointed for the meetings of the village council, whence 
the Anglo-Saxon treo-w, a pledge, treaty or convention. But it is quite 
possible to have been originally a gallows-tree, as explained by Sir 
James Ramsay. 



Tin' <>ld Manorial Halls of Westmorland and ( 'tunbi-rlaiid, p. 124. 



CHAPTKK XXXI 



UP THE D.A1.K TO BURNSALT,. 

A lovely drive through the Forest of Barden Old Forest lodges- -Club Nook -Rustic- 
simplicity Drebley Prospect from Burnsall Fell Side \Yoodhcuise and the 
Blands Ancestral connections with Lord Nelson Old hou-.cs and families 
Hartlington Local properties of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem The 
.Metcalfe family Manorial records -Feudal obligations Some errors corrected 
Hartlington Hall, the residence of Lt.-Col. I )awsoii The old manor-house and 
chapel An old inn Ancient family of Dibb Skyreholme -Percival Hall and the 
Lowsons A notable marriage The Inman family The gorge of Trailers Gill 
Descent of Hell Hole Geological aspects. 




of the most charming eight mile drives in England 
is that from Bolton Abbey to Burnsall. A public 
conveyance meets the morning train at Bolton Abbey 
station, and taking the pleasant road close to the ruins 
of the old Priory, passes the historic Barden Tower 
(sec page 350) and thence "up dale" amid flowery meads and 
shepherded fells to "Bonnie Burnsall." The capable pedestrian 
should, however, proceeed through the famous Woods by the Strid 
to Barden Bridge, whence a foot-path conducts through fields over 
Gill Beck, which comes down from Thorpe Fell, with Sim Bottom (so 
called after an old local family) on its eastern verge, by Club Nook 
on to the highroad near Hole House and Drebley. By this route he 
passes through the heart of the ancient Forest of Barden, so 
celebrated in former days for its packs of wolves and wild boars. 

Some of the old Forest Lodges still exist, though the houses 
have been rebuilt. Quaint old thatches they were in bygone days, 
pretty much like that which stood at Club Nook a few years back, a 
single-decker" nearly eighty feet long, with its rooms ranged on 
each side of the main entrance and roof open to the thatch. Now 
the houses have "chambers" and the farm-folk having their annual 
inrush of " visitors", must perforce put aside every appearance of 
"antiquity" and be up-to-date in all the appurtenances of comfort 
and convenience. The farmer does not, like his grandsire, follow the 
old ways and methods. He does not weigh the wool in a cross-beam 
over the field-gate with two or three-stone boulders, nor his dame 
sell her butter by the guage of a pair of tongs, a cobble-stone or a 
flat-iron. In those blissful days when wisdom alone made man 
miserable and to be ignorant was to be happy, how we wish to task- 
their pleasures once again when we read such a tale of rural 
innocence as the following! A traveller in the upper dale, I am told 
once called at a farm-house desiring to purchase a pound of sweet, 



37 6 

home-made butter. The pound weight, however, could not be found. 
Suddenly the old dame bethought herself of a capital substitute, 
exclaiming as she went to the side of the house "Here, noo, we'll 
manage it. Here's a pair o' tangs my guidman brought hame 
yestreen and they weigh just two pun'. Stand by and I'll soon 
weigh your butter." A piece of the fresh-churned commodity was 
put into one scale and a single leg of the tongs in the other, while 
the second leg was allowed to hang out. More butter was added 
and more again until a just balance was obtained. "There" said 
the good woman smiling broadly, as the scale went down containing 
the wholesome ingredient, "I've given ye a good pun'," and the man 
soon marched off apparently, I presume, very well pleased with his 
"pound" of fresh farm-butter. If the farmers did not usually wax 
rich, as it is hardly to be expected they would by such methods of 
barter and sale, they at anyrate had plenty of plain, wholesome food, 
and were comfortable and contented. The spread of commerce and 
the "luxury" of living in large towns has made the farmer think 
himself very badly off. But what he loses in gaiety and excitement 
he certainly gains in health and contentment, and in that calm 
masculinity of mind and body which has always been a source of 
strength to the State in all its functions. 

Passing Hole House, the home of the Emmott family (who 
have some fine local specimens of furniture carved in old Forest oak), 
we pursue the turnpike with the high-up little hamlet of Drebley a 
little to our right. Here there have been houses and cultivated lands 
for probably a thousand years, as Domesday Book testifies. It is a 
small out-of-the-world place now, but it has a fame and history perhaps 
going back beyond the days when the Saxon Dringhel was its lord 
and king. Perhaps it was the scene of some long-forgotten contest 
for supremacy between Celt and Saxon, or Saxon and Dane, as its 
name, spelled in 1086 Drebelaie, seems to imply. Thus it may mean 
the ley or field of slaughter, from the A.-S. drcepe/i, to strike, to slay, 
p. drcep, the A.-S. labial 'b' frequently interchanging with 'p.' 
Peaceful enough the secluded little spot looks now, with its few 
homesteads garnered on the hill-side lapped in sunshine, and enjoying 
a prospect wide-reaching over classic vale and purple moorland. 
How delightful is the tramp in Spring-time along this upland road 
under the grand sweep of Burnsall Fell ! The sweet fragrance of the 
pines, which thickly clothe the massive breast of the fell like an 
Alpine forest, acts like a tonic to enervated frames, giving elasticity 
to the step, as the pure breezes play about you from unmeasured 
miles of the fair spreading landscape. How noble from this standpoint 
looks the i~>cky ruins of old Simon Seat, far away on the sky-line 
seeming black as jet against the flawless blue! Sometimes, too, while 
you pace the rugged fell-side, a perfect rainbow completely arches 
the fair valley with multi-colored radiance, while dancing sunlight 



377 

gilds the silent waters of old Wharfe to-day, as it has done in ages 
long gone by. And who that shall come after us shall say that this is 
not the best of God's giving for body and heart of man? Deep in 
the verdant valley speeds the sunlit river by crag and scar, and in 
the words of Mr. Bland, the local poet, 

By village grev 

And green trimmed \vuy, 
Hi-spangled o'er with man}- a (lower, 

\Vhere quaint and grand, 

Doth proudly stand, 
Bridge, school and church with battled tower, 

alluding as he does to picturesque, historic Burnsall. Unfortunately 
there is but too little of this fine moorland road, which is the nearest 
approach to Burnsall from Barden, and passes the ancient homestead 
at Wood End (see page 370) and the new and splendidly-situated 
/'(// Jfouse hotel just before the descent is commenced to the village. 

But the usual driving-route from Barden is through Appletrewick 
and Hartlington to Burnsall. It is a pleasant route under the "Kale," 
with the meadows in May and June gleaming with the silver and 
gold of daisy and buttercup, the hedges bright and fragrant with 
thorn-bloom, primroses, stitch wort, vetches, and a score other wildings. 
A little from the road stands Woodhouse, formerly a village and 
manor belonging to Marton Priory (see page 323) and for centuries 
the home of the Blands. Nothing has ever been said of Lord 
Nelson's connections with this place, though I have little doubt that 
through the family of Bland, the old manor house here will be proved 
to be one of the ancestral homes of England's greatest seaman. 
The Cambridge Blands from whom the famous Admiral descends on 
the mother's side came from Burnsall parish. George Bland of 
Burnsall had several sons, the eldest of whom was Ambrose, who 
was a sizar at Pembroke College, and some time vicar of Waresley, 
Hunts. In his will, proved in 1712, he mentions Burnsall and his 
brother Humphrey Bland, who was one of the feoffees of Burnsall 
Grammar School. The Rev. Edmund Nelson. M.A. vicar of Sporle, 
Norfolk, who was born in 1693, married Mary, daughter of John 
Bland, of Cambridge, gent., and she died in 1789, aged 91. Their 
son, the Rev. Edward Nelson, M.A. rector of Hilborough and of 
Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, was father of Horatio, Viscount Nelson, 
the distinguished Admiral, who as all the world knows, fell at the 
battle of Trafalgar in 1805.* There appear to have been Blands at 
Woodhouse before the Reformation as tenants of Marton Priory, and 

.SVv "Collections tor a History of the Ancient Family of Bland, by Nicholas 
Carlisle, Coats of Arms, Pedigrees, &c.," 1826. Catalogued by Henry Gray for 
10 IDS. This work, however, throws no light on the Burnsall family, but brings in 
the Blands of Westmorland, Lancashire, Cambridge, Notts, Norfolk, Queen's County 
and Virginia, America, &c. 



I find a family of Bland paying subsidy in the parish of Bentham, 
25th Edward I (1297). Robert Bland, who died in 1819, purchased 
the old house and barn with several tenements iVc., then called High 
Woodhouse, from one Chris. Malthouse, of Minskip, Co. York, and 
re-sold them some years after to the owner of Low Woodhouse, a 
Mr. Michael Gill, of Lead Hall, near Tadcaster. This Robert Bland 
married Mary Young of the High Hall, Appletrewick (see page 369) 
and had three sons and four daughters. The eldest son, Robert, 
married Mary Atkinson, of Castley (see page 125) and left a family 
of twelve children, of whom the hale and affable Mr. John Atkinson 
Bland, now in his yyth year, of the " Manor House," Burnsall, is the 
sole survivor. The second son of the elder Robert Bland was 
Stephen, who died in 1862, aged 78. He was for nearly 40 years 
curate of Burnsall, and was 49 years head master of the Grammar 
School, and for more than half a century vicar of Kirkby Malham. 
He died at Burnsall, and is buried in the churchyard there. 

The old house now standing is another interesting example of 
those sturdy residences of the seventeenth century yeomanry for 
which the West Riding of Yorkshire is particularly famous. The 
other old house was pulled down early in the nineteenth century, but 
the lintel of the doorway has been placed over the entrance to a 
farm-building, and has carved upon it "A.S. 1637," the initials being 
those of one, Anthony Spurritt, whose burial is recorded in the 
Burnsall register for December i2th, 1661, aged seventy-nine. The 
greater part of the old house provided material for the erection of 
Burnsall Wesleyan Chapel in 1840. A large old barn, originally a 
dwelling-house, has some plaster-work inside bearing the initials and 
date I.W. 1635. This was the dwelling of the man Walters 
(? Waters) of whom Dr. Whitaker relates a tradition of his having 
saved the life of a young lady from a band of ruffians, and received 
the property in reward for his gallantry. A descendant of the man, 
one William Waters, who died in the West Indies, bequeathed, I am 
told, the rent of the property to trustees for the benefit of mission-work 
among the negroes. Woodhouse has also some associations with 
the great Civil War, for Richard Barrowe, of Woodhouse, though he 
never took up arms, was like Lord Craven, a liberal contributor of 
money in support of the forces of the King. He was a pretty large 
landowner and had to compound with the Commonwealth for his 
estates. 

Another house of ancient foundation, which has been converted 
into a barn, bears on its door lintel the following playful inscription: 
"1512, Cabin Thatched + House Slated, 1755 + Next for Cattle 
(1881) was Translated." By what means the date of the "thatched 
cabin" has been obtained I have not ascertained, but it seems that 
the Mr. Gill, above alluded to, had the old cottage raised a story, 
with two plain bedroom windows inserted, leaving the original 



379 

mullions of the lower room untouched. He also put on a slate roof. 
In the alterations made in rSSi, a small cone-sheped brick oven was 
removed together with a wide-arched fire-place, the stones of which, 
all clean dressed, were afterwards used for flooring the shippen. It 
is however, very doubtful if there was to be seen a single chimney, 
outside Bolton Abbey and some few of the manor-houses, in 
Wharfedale before the days of Queen Elizabeth. Certainly not in 
cottages, nor were the mullions glazed. Old Holinshed writes 
complainingly, about 1576, of the innovations of glazed windows and 
chimney-places in the country-houses in his time. Formerly, he 
says, there was "used much lattis, and that made of wicker, or of 
line riftes of oak in checkerwise," a design followed in the diamond- 
pane glazing of later times. Then he cries down the good old 
ingle-neuk in this way. "Now have we many chimneys and yet our 
tenderlings complain of rheums, catarrhs, and poses; then we had 
nothing but reredosses and yet our heads did never ache, for as the 
smoke in those days was considered a sufficient hardening for the 
timber of the house, so it was reputed a far better medicine to keep 
the good man and his family from the quack." 

A little beyond Woodhouse the road runs through Hartlington, 
a tiny place now, but whose existence as an independent manor of 
no small importance may be traced far back into the dark ages of 
history. It is not improbable that the old Crusaders had an estate 
here long before the grants to the monasteries, as I find when the 
Order of Knights of St. John of Jerusalem was revived by Queen 
Mary in 1557, the Prior of the Order was commissioned to receive a 
rent of 6d. and service issuing of a tenement "within Burnesall," then 
or late in possession of Roger Metcalfe, esquire. This Roger Metcalfe 
was of the Bear Park, Wensleydale family, and died before 1542. 
Whitaker makes no mention of him, but in 1502 he and his wife 
Elizabeth, who survived him, sold lands in Hartlington to James, 
afterwards Sir James Metcalfe, of Xappa, and in respect of these a 
fine was levied between the parties in Easter Term, i~th Henry VII. 
In 1506, as appears from the Recovery Roll, 22iul Henry VII., Roger 
and Elizabeth Metcalfe sold to the same James Metcalfe 200 acres 
of land in Hartlington together with half the manor. In 1515 the 
same Roger and Elizabeth Metcalfe made a third and final sale to 
James Metcalfe of lands in Hartlington, and a recovery entered on 
the De Banco Roll for Hilary Term 7 Henry VIII, shews that James 
Metcalfe (and other his feoffees) claimed against Roger Metcalfe the 
manor of Hawkswick and 41 messuages, 2 mills, 2100 acres of land, 
2010 acres of meadow, 2010 acres of pasture, 220 acres of wood, and 
3000 acres of moor in Hawkswick, Hartlington, Arncliffe, Hanlith, 
Kirkby in Malhamdale, Skipton, Broughton in Craven, Leathley, 
Appletrewick, Burnsall, Thorpe, Angram House, Calgarth House and 
Gargrave, and half of a third part of the manor of Hartlington. 



The whole manor was shortly afterwards in possession of Sir James 
Metcalfe, who died in 1525. 

The great family here in early times was the De Hertlingtons, 
who were most likely descended from one of the pre-Norman owners, 
one of whom named Norman, continued to hold the manor after the 
Conquest. There were in 1066 two manors, one of three carucates or 
nearly 400 acres of land in annual cultivation and the other of one 
geld-carucate, held by Almunt and afterwards by Dolfin, the same 
who held Appletrewick. In 1279-80 an inquisition was held at York 
touching the possessions of William de Hertlington, then lately 
deceased, when the jurors found that he had died seized of one 
carucate and six bovates of land in Hartlington and Appletrewick, of 
the tenure of Skipton (now in the King's hands) for i6d. to be paid 
yearly to the King. He owed homage and suit of court at Skipton 
from three weeks to three weeks, and the whole land was worth by 
the year yos. He also held in Hartlington three carucates of Sir 
Robert de Neville (Norman's pre-Conquest estate) worth annually 6, 
for i2S. yearly rent, and in Hanlith three carucates and in Rilston 
one carucate, together worth annually ^9. The letting value of the 
land here then seems to have been about 4d. an acre, which the lord 
held by military tenure, rendering a small rent and service (the most 
honorable of all obligations) to his King and country. His Rilston 
estate was held of Sir Roger Tempest, to whom it may be noted were 
due ward and relief. That is to say under the feudal policy the 
superior lord claimed the profits of the estate should the heir be 
under age at the death of his ancestor. The wardship consisted in 
having the custody of the body and lands of such heir, the law 
assuming the heir-male unable to perform knight-service till 21, but 
the female was supposed capable at the age of 14 to marry, and then 
her husband might perform knight-service. But the lord had no 
wardship if at the death of the ancestor the heir-male was of the full 
age of 21, or the heir female of 14, yet if she was under 14, and the 
lord once had her in ward, he might keep her so till 16, by virtue of 
the Statute of Westminster, A.D 1274, the two additional years being 
given by the legislature for no other reason than to benefit the lord.* 

By the marriage of Elizabeth, co-heiress of William de 
Hertlington, with Thomas Metcalfe of Nappa Hall, Wensleydale, 
who was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and died in 1504, the 
Hartlington estate descended as above related to the Metcalfes. It 
may be well to correct some few inaccuracies and omissions in the 
able and elaborate pedigree of this family in Whitaker's Craven (3rd 
ed. page 514). The eldest son of the above Thomas Metcalfe was 
Ottiwell, who died in 1500, leaving a son James, who lived at 
Swinethwaite in Wensleydale, and whose will as stated, was dated 

* See Blackstone's Commentaries (1783) II. 67. 



1557- But there is no proof that Ottiwell had any other children 
than this James, who left/rw/- sons (i) Ottiwell. of Swinethwaite, who 
died in 1572, (2) George of Hood Grange, who died in 1571, (3) 
Oswald, married Margaret Lascelles, living 1571, (4) Christopher, of 
Tvlehou.se Grange, Old Byland, who was living in 1584. Ottiwell, the 
eldest son of James had a family of four children, namely George, 
who died in 1610. Dorothy, Cuthbert, and James, who were living in 
1580. as is proved by the privately-printed Mctcalfe Records, -A. scarce 
and valuable work on this notable old Yorkshire family. 

The manor subsequently became divided, one moiety descending 
to the Hebers of Marton, now owned by the Wilsons of Eshton, and 
the other moiety passed to the Daw-sons, now represented by Lieut. 
Col. R. H. Dawson, of the Royal Artillery, who is lineally descended 
from Sir William Craven, of Lenchwick, and his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax. Sir William was grandson of 
Henry Craven, brother to the famous Alderman of Appletrewick, 
who "filled the spacious times of great Elizabeth, with strains that 
echo still." Col. Dawson a few years ago erected at Hartlington a 
large and handsome mansion in the Elizabethan style of architecture, 
which occupies an elevated site commanding a wide and beautiful 
prospect. A few years ago an ancient kiln for parching corn (the 
atha of the Gaelic Celts) was discovered near the entrance to the 
mansion, an account of which will be found in the January part of 
the Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist for 1898. 

The old manor house mentioned in the Poll Tax of 1378, has 
long ago disappeared, and its site only can be recognized in a field 
called Hall Garth behind the present Bridge House, where are traces 
of an ancient piscary or fish-pond. Close by the ground rises and is 
known as Chapel Hill, where in all probability was a private oratory 
or chapel like that still standing at Downholme, near Richmond.* 
The Hertlingtons had their own chaplain down to the dissolution of 
their house, in the i5th century. Sir Richard Clerke, was chaplain 
to Henry Hertlington Esq., as appears by his will dated Sept. 1466, 
and though masses were ordered to be offered for the good of his 
soul within the public church at Burnsall, there is little doubt a 
chapel was attached to the old manor-hall. 

The Bridge House was rebuilt in 1882 by the late Mr. Richard 
Proctor, of Hetton. The previous old tenement was at one time an inn 
known as Spout Vat, standing as it did close to where the brawling 
Dibb empties itself over a limestone bed, into Wharfe, and where a 
gate was hung to prevent sheep straying from the unenclosed moor. 
The smithy at Hartlington is mentioned as far back as the days of 
Chevy Chase. Many an interesting story of the past life of this little 
Wharfedale hamlet might have been told had space permitted. The 

* See the author's Romantic Rii-hiwindsliin; pp. JiH, ^47, &c. 



3 8z 

surrounding country is now all enclosed, Acts for that purpose having 
been obtained in 1804 for Burnsall and ten years later for 
Appletrewick. Higher up the Dibb Beck or River Dibb, as it is 
called, were some very old houses, and one of these was no doubt 
the abode of a family who took their name from the situation beside 
this pleasant moorland stream. The Dibbs in bygone ages worked 
the lead mines on Appletrewick Moor, and in the Bolton Abbey 
Compotus for 1304 I find the sum of 3os. paid by the Prior and 
Convent to Thomas of Dibb, for a load of lead. These old mines 
were a source of much disputation between the several owners of the 
surrounding lands, and in the reign of Henry VII. I find an action 
entered in the Duchy Court against the Prior of Bolton concerning 
the lead mines within the Forest of Knaresbro', also another 
concerning the metes and bounds of the free chase of Nidderdale 
belonging to the Abbot of Fountains, and the lordship of 
Appletrewick belonging to the Prior of Bolton &c. Seventy years 
ago there used to be a worsted mill at Hartlington run by Mr. 
Jeremiah Ambler of Baildon. Above the present saw-mill beside 
the beck we get out on to Hartlington Rakes, which are old sheep- 
walks, so called from the Norse rekan, to drive, as sheep. 

Now let us retrace our steps to Appletrewick and take the 
pleasant road by Skyreholme to the romantic Trailers Gill, one of 
the outlying places of this picturesque region associated with the old 
Celtic traditions of trolls or fairies, which I have elsewhere explained. 
Skyreholme lies on a boundary of such antiquity that it may 
evoke comparison with the scriptural injunction " Disturb not thy 
neighbours' landmark." There is little doubt the name is as old as 
the Anglo-Saxon occupation and means the holme, or low-lying 
pasture, on the scyr, a shearing or division, from the A.-S. sciran, to 
shear, cut off or divide, whence prest-scyr priest's share, or parish. 
Skyrholme is on the boundary of the parish of Burnsall and has a 
small chapel-of-ease, called Christ Church, erected in 1837 at a cost 
of ^"220. Beyond this and the paper-mill here (with its large water- 
wheel, which is stated to be 120 feet in circumference) of Mr. Thomas 
Lumb there is nothing specially to interest one save the romantic 
aspects of the situation. 

One might say something about almost every old house in the 
neighbourhood, houses which up to the- run-away days of railways 
harboured the same families generation after generation, even century 
after century. The old dry-built shielings and thatched cottages of 
monastic times, however, gave way to the more comfortable and 
substantial dwellings of the iyth century, when the ancient feudal 
tenures were finally abolished and the tenants got a chance to 
purchase their own farms. Land about here which had been 
held from the King /// capite with all its attendant slaveries, was at 



383 

length freed by tin- grand statute of 12th Charles II,* a statute which 
acquisition to the civil property of this kingdom, 
rightly observe^ Sir \\'ni. Blackstone, than Magim Carta itself. It set 
the seal of emancipation upon every species of holding and gave the 
honest farmer a chance to save and thrive. It gave a stimulus to 
improved farming as well as to new building and to greater social 
and domestic comforts. The ball of progress had undoubtedly been 
set rolling by King James' abolition of military tenures, and the 
granting of leases and sales by the land speculators on the dissolution 
of monasteries, which did so much to disunite the people. In the 
reign of James I we find long and favorable leases granted to the 
tenants in Appletrewick, and that within the next fifty years man}' of 
them had built for themselves what would then be considered little 
palaces compared with the old turf " warrens " they had previously 
occupied. 

Locally the best mansion of this period is Percival Hall, which 
is a house with a history. As the initials and date C. P. 1671, 
appear over the doorway, it was very probably built at this time by 
a gentleman of landed means, named Christopher Lowson, of whom 
I possess some information. He wooed and wed a bonnie dalesman's 
daughter, Elizabeth Demaine eldest daughter of George Demaine, of 
Skyreholme. She was baptised at Burnsall, Aug. iyth 1634, and 
married at the same place on Valentine's Day 1660, at the very time 
when General Monk had declared for a free Parliament and the 
restoration of the Stuarts. She died in 1695, a widow, her husband 
having died on April 6th 1693. Their eldest daughter, Catherine 
Lowson, married at Burnsall in 1678, Robert, only surviving son of 
Michael Inman, of Harefield, Pateley Bridge. At this time 
Christopher Lowson gent., was residing at Percival Hall, having 
removed from Gowthwaite, in Xidderdale, and he appears to have 
owned considerable property. His son-in-law Robert Inman was a 
grandson of Robert Inman, of North Pasture House, an old monastic 
grange at Brimham, in Nidderdale, who was a great sufferer by 
the Civil War. Three of his sons perished while serving in the 
Parliamentary arm}-. In the depositions of the State trials in the 
time of the Commonwealth it is recorded that his house at Brimham 
was plundered by Royalist soldiers, who took away 16 cows and 
oxen, and he himself was thrown into prison at Ripon for refusing to 
take the oath of association with the Cavaliers. Robert and 
Catherine Inman had 14 children, 3 sons and n daughters, all 
portioned and married, but only one son Christopher, survived his 
father, who died Dec. 26th 1721, and the mother, Catherine, 

* Down to (his time the tenant* ot the neighbouring manor of SiNden owned 
themselves bound to give one day's mowing in the Castle field at Skipton or elsewhere 
on the lord's demesnes. 



daughter of Chr. Lowson, died June 5th, 1723. Christopher Inman 
was twice married, leaving an only son Michael, by his first wife, 
who was bom in 1716, and entered the sh